Nyaya, Nyāya: 22 definitions



Nyaya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Nyay.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Nyāya (न्याय).—A Śāstra; a servant of the Veda;1 learnt by Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma;2 by Asuras.3

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 3. 4; 53. 5; Vāyu-purāṇa 2. 33; 61. 78; 104. 85; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 6. 27; V. 1. 38.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 45. 34.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 87; IV. 12. 17.
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (purana)

Nyāya (न्याय).—In the Matsya-Purāṇa it is pointed out that Nyāya-vidyā along with the Vedas, proceed from the mouth of Brahmā (Matsya-purāṇa, 3,4).

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (mahabharata)

Nyāya (न्याय).—Many tenets of Nyāya are found in the Śānti-parva of the Mahābhārata (Sāntiparva, 21.22). However, there were many teachers who propounded Nyāya philosophy. It is said in the Ādiparva of the Mahābhārata that there were a number of sages in the hermitage of Kāśyapa who knew true meanings of demonstration, refutation and conclusion (Ādiparva, 70.42). These sages were the early teachers of the Nyāya-śāstra. But nothing is known about these early teachers.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Nyāya (न्याय, “ways”) refers to a “way of using weapons” (releasing missiles), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 11. Accordingly, “In these nyāyas arising out of various cārīs (‘dance-steps’), actors should walk about on the stage at the time of using weapons. The nyāyas (‘way’) are so calle* because fights on the stage are carried on with the aṅgahāras relating to the nyāyas and arising out of them.”

There are four different kinds of nyāya defined:

  1. bhārata,
  2. sāttvata,
  3. vārṣagaṇya,
  4. kaiśika.
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Nyāya (न्याय).—Maxim, a familiar or patent instance quoted to explain similar cases; cf. the words अग्नौकरवाणि-न्याय (agnaukaravāṇi-nyāya) M. Bh. on P. II 2.24, अपवाद-न्याय (apavāda-nyāya) M. Bh. on P. I. 3.9, अविरवि-कन्याय (aviravi-kanyāya) M. Bh. on P. IV. 1. 88, 89, IV. 2.60, IV.3.131, V. 1.7, 28, VI 2. 11 ; कुम्भीधान्यन्याय (kumbhīdhānyanyāya) M.Bh. on P.I. 3.7, कूपखानकन्याय (kūpakhānakanyāya) M.Bh. I. 1. Āhnika 1, दण्डिन्याय (daṇḍinyāya) M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.83, नष्टाश्वदग्धरथन्याय (naṣṭāśvadagdharathanyāya) M. Bh. on P. I.1.50 प्रधानाप्रधानन्याय (pradhānāpradhānanyāya) M.Bh.on P.II.1.69,VI. 3. 82, प्रासादवासिन्याय (prāsādavāsinyāya) M. Bh. on P.I . 1.8, मांसकण्टकन्याय (māṃsakaṇṭakanyāya) M.Bh. on P.I.2.39, लट्वानुकर्षणन्याय (laṭvānukarṣaṇanyāya) M.Bh. on Siva Sūtra 2 Vārt. 5, शालिपलालन्याय (śālipalālanyāya) M.Bh on P. 1.2.39,सूत्रशाटकन्याय (sūtraśāṭakanyāya) M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12. The word came to be used in the general sense of Paribhāsās or rules of interpretation many of which were based upon popular maxims as stated in the word लोकन्यायसिद्ध (lokanyāyasiddha) by Nāgesa. Hemacandra has used the word न्याय (nyāya) for Paribhāsa-vacana. The word is also used in the sense of a general rule which has got some exceptions, cf. न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् (nyāyairmiśrānapavādān pratīyāt) R. Pr. which lays down the direction that 'one should interpret the rule laying down an exception along with the general rule'.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Nyāya (न्याय) system is one of the six orthodox systems of Indian Philosophy. The oldest name of Nyāya is Ānvikṣikī (the science of inquiry) ascribed to Gotama or Gautama. In later times Ānvikṣikī has come to be denoted as Nyāya-śāstra (the science of true reasoning).  The Nyāya system is atomistic, pluralistic and realistic. The meaning of the term Nyāya is right or justice.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Nirukta (Sanskrit etymology)

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (nirukta)

Nyāya (न्याय).—The meaning of the term Nyāya is right or justice. Etymologically this word means ‘that by which man is guided’ (nīyate aneneti nyāyaḥ). “Nyāyaśāstra is therefore the science of right judgement or true reasoning”.

context information

Nirukta (निरुक्त) or “etymology” refers to the linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language. This branch studies the interpretation of common and ancient words and explains them in their proper context. Nirukta is one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (dharma)

Nyāya (न्याय).— It is stated in the Yājñavalkyasmṛti that Nyāya is included in the fourteen principal branches of learning.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Nyāya (न्याय) refers to:—Logic, reasoning; the philosophy dealing with a logical analysis of reality, also known as nyāya-darśana. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Nyāya is the name for one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. The Nyaya school of philosophical speculation is based on texts known as the Nyaya Sutras, which were written by Aksapada Gautama from around the 2nd century BCE.

The Nyaya metaphysics recognizes sixteen padarthas or categories and includes all six (or seven) categories of the Vaisheshika in the second one of them, called prameya. These sixteen categories are

  1. pramāṇa (valid means of knowledge),
  2. prameya (objects of valid knowledge),
  3. saṃśaya (doubt),
  4. prayojana (aim),
  5. dṛṣṭānta (example),
  6. siddhānta (conclusion),
  7. avayava (members of syllogism),
  8. tarka (hypothetical reasoning),
  9. nirṇaya (settlement),
  10. vāda (discussion),
  11. jalpa (wrangling),
  12. vitaṇḍā (cavilling),
  13. hetvābhāsa (fallacy),
  14. chala (quibbling),
  15. jāti (sophisticated refutation)
  16. and nigrahasthāna (point of defeat).

Etymology: Nyāya (Sanskrit ny-āyá, literally "recursion", used in the sense of "syllogism, inference");

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Nyāya.—cf. niyāyam (SII 2), an appointment or pledge. (SITI), body or association of persons having the same duties or interests. Cf. gardabha-cāṇḍāla-nyāyena (LP), ‘like a donkey or a Caṇḍāla’. Cf. khaṇḍa-badarīphala-nyāyena (LP), ‘like sugar and the badarī fruit’. Cf. śāka-phalaka-nyāyena (LP), ‘like vegetables and fruits’. Cf. vṛddhi-phala-bhoga-nyāya (LP), principle of enjoying the interest of a deposit; also cf. gṛhasya bhāḍakaṃ na hi; drammāṇāṃ vyājaṃ na hi; eṣa vṛddhi-phala-bhoga-nyāyaḥ. Note: nyāya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nyāya (न्याय).—m (S) Fitness, rightness, propriety; whence, commonly, justice or equity. 2 The Nyaya doctrine, logical philosophy. 3 A maxim, a rule, a law, a general principle, an axiom; and thus, commonly, an adage or a proverb. nyāya sāṅgaṇēṃ To make complaint and seek redress; to call for justice. Ex. mhaṇē tukayānēṃ sādhilā dāvā || nyāya sāṅgāvā kavaṇāsīṃ ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nyāya (न्याय).—m Fitness, propriety; justice or equity. The Nyaya doctrine. A maxim, a rule, a law. nyāya sāṅgaṇēṃ To make a complaint and seek redress.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nyaya (न्यय).—Loss, destruction; decay.

Derivable forms: nyayaḥ (न्ययः).

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Nyāya (न्याय).—[niyanti anena; ni-i ghañ]

1) Method, manner, way, rule, system, plan; अधार्मिकं त्रिभिर्न्यायैर्निगृह्णीयात् प्रयत्नतः (adhārmikaṃ tribhirnyāyairnigṛhṇīyāt prayatnataḥ) Ms.8.31; अनुक्ते हि न्याये न प्रतीमोऽर्थान्तरम् (anukte hi nyāye na pratīmo'rthāntaram) ŚB. on MS.6. 2.5; तस्मान्नावस्थितो न्यायः प्रत्युद्ध्रियेत (tasmānnāvasthito nyāyaḥ pratyuddhriyeta) ŚB. on MS.6.2.1. ननु लिङ्गमसाधकं, न्याय उच्यतां यस्यैतद् द्योतकमिति (nanu liṅgamasādhakaṃ, nyāya ucyatāṃ yasyaitad dyotakamiti) ŚB. on MS.6. 2.3.

2) Fitness, propriety, decorum; न्यायाधारा हि साधवः (nyāyādhārā hi sādhavaḥ) Ki.11.3.

3) Law, justice, virtue, equity, righteousness, honesty; यान्ति न्यायप्रवृत्तस्य तिर्यञ्चोऽपि सहायताम् (yānti nyāyapravṛttasya tiryañco'pi sahāyatām) A. R.1.4.

4) A law-suit, legal proceeding.

5) Judicial sentence, judgment.

6) Policy, good government.

7) Likeness, analogy.

8) A popular maxim, an apposite illustration, illustration, as दण्डापूपन्याय, काकतालीयन्याय, घुणाक्षरन्याय (daṇḍāpūpanyāya, kākatālīyanyāya, ghuṇākṣaranyāya) &c.; see Appendix.

9) A Vedic accent; न्यायैस्त्रिभिरुदीर्णम् (nyāyaistribhirudīrṇam) Ku.2.12. (Malli. takes nyāya to mean svara; but it is quite open, in our opinion, to take nyāya in the sense of 'a system' or 'way'; 'which are manifested in three systems, i. e. ṛk, yajus and sāman'); न्यायगर्भद्विजाः (nyāyagarbhadvijāḥ) Bh.3. 55.

1) (In gram.) A universal rule.

11) A system of Hindu philosophy founded by the sage Gautama.

12) The science of logic, logical philosophy.

13) A complete argument or syllogism (consisting of five members; i. e. pratijñā, hetu, udāharaṇa, upanaya and nigamana).

14) An epithet of Viṣṇu. (nyāyena ind. in the way of, after the manner or analogy of; badhirānmandakarṇaḥ śreyāniti nyāyena &c.).

Derivable forms: nyāyaḥ (न्यायः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nyaya (न्यय).—m.

(-yaḥ) Loss, expense, waste, destruction. E. ni before i to go, aff. ac.

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Nyāya (न्याय).—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Propriety, fitness. 2. The Nyaya doctrine, logic, logical philosophy. 3. Apposite illustration. 4. A complete argument or syllogism. 5. Policy, good government. 6. Method, way, manner, plan, rule. 7. Virtue, honesty. 8. Justice, law. 9. A law-suit. 12. Judgment. 13. A universal rule, (In gram.) 14. Likeness analogy. 15. A vedic accent. E. ni certainly, iṇa to go, aff. bhāvakaraṇādau ghañ.

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Nyāya (न्याय) or Nyāyya.—mfn.

(-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) Right, proper, fit. E. nyāya, and yat aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nyāya (न्याय).—i. e. ni-i + a, m. 1. Rule. 2. Method, manner, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 310; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 193, 13. 3. Suitable manner, propriety, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 140. 4. A lawful act, 189, 15. 5. A lawsuit, [Pañcatantra] 97, 2. 6. Judgment, iii. [distich] 89. 7. A syllogism, [Prabodhacandrodaya, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 111, 8. 8. The Nyāya doctrine, consisting principally in logic.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nyāya (न्याय).—[masculine] norm, standard (lit. that to which a thing goes back); rule, axiom, method; manner, way, [especially] the right way, fitness, propriety; law-suit, judicial sentence, judgment; logical argument, syllogism, [Name] of a phil. system. — Instr. & [ablative] in the right way, regularly, duly (also °—); in the way or after the manner of (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nyaya (न्यय):—[=ny-aya] m. ([from] 4. ) going off, destruction, loss, waste, [Pāṇini 3-3, 37 [Scholiast or Commentator]; cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) Nyāya (न्याय):—[=ny-āya] m. ([from] 4. ) that into which a thing goes back id est. an original type, standard, method, rule, ([especially]) a general or universal rule, model, axiom, system, plan, manner, right or fit manner or way, fitness, propriety, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (nyāyena ind. and yāt ind. either ‘in the right manner, regularly, duly’, or ifc. ‘after the manner of, by way of’)

3) [v.s. ...] a lawsuit, legal proceeding, judicial sentence, judgement, [Mṛcchakaṭikā; Pañcatantra]

4) [v.s. ...] a logical or syllogistic argument or inference (consisting of a combination of enthymeme and syllogism, and so having, according to the Naiyāyikas 5 members, viz. pratijñā, hetu, udāharaṇa, upanaya, nigamana, or according to the Vedāntins 3 members)

5) [v.s. ...] a system of philosophy delivered by Gotama or Gautama (it is one of the six darśanas q.v., and is perhaps so called, because it ‘goes into’ all subjects physical and metaphysical according to the above syllogistic method treated of in one division of the system; its branch is called Vaiśeṣika)

6) [v.s. ...] likeness, analogy, a popular maxim or apposite illustration (cf. kākākṣi-, ghuṇākṣara-, daṇḍāpūpa. etc.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nyaya (न्यय):—(yaḥ) 1. m. Loss, expense.

2) Nyāya (न्याय):—(yaḥ) 1. m. Propriety; a system of philosophy like Aristotle's; a syllogism; policy; justice.

3) [(yyaḥ-yyā-yyaṃ) a.] Right, proper.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Nyaya (न्यय):—(von 3. i mit ni) m. Untergang (nāśa) [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 3, 3, 37,] [Scholiast] Abnahme, Verminderung (apacaya) [Śabdakalpadruma] (iti kecit).

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Nyāya (न्याय):—(von 3. i mit ni) m. [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 3, 3, 37. 122.] *Hier ist in den Scholien der Calc. und Bonner Ausg. ṇīñ zu streichen und statt nīyante zu lesen nīyate (von 3. i mit ni); vgl. [GOLD.] in [MĀN. 152.] Vom Schol. zu [Prabodhacandrodaja 111, Śloka 21] wird übrigens nyāya auch auf zurückgeführt, da das danebenstehende prāpyate doch wohl eine Erklärung davon, aber nicht von i mit ni ist; vgl. nīti = prāpaṇa [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 176.] [Medinīkoṣa t. 30.] Aber aus dem Umstande, dass [PĀNINI] nyāya an zwei Stellen behandelt, zu schliessen, dass nyāya an der zweiten Stelle in einer neuen Bedeutung aufzufassen sei, heisst zu weit gehen. [6, 2, 144.]

1) (worauf Etwas zurückgeht) Regel, Norm; Analogie; Art und Weise; die rechte gehörige Art und Weise, Gebühr; = abhreṣa [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 3, 3, 37.] [Amarakoṣa 2, 8, 1, 24.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 742.] = dharma [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 23, 141.] gavāme.ainaṃ nyā.amapi.īya.gā vedayati in speciem vaccarum assimulatum [Taittirīyasaṃhitā 2, 2, 8, 2.] vṛṣākapestannyāyameti [Aitareyabrāhmaṇa 6, 32.] tamu nyāyamanvavāyan [3, 45.] nāpāgāḥ śaudrānnyāyāt [7, 17.] tathaiṣāṃ hoturnyāyādanitaṃ bhavati [Śāṅkhāyana’s Brāhmaṇa 29, 3.] eṣa saṃkhyānyāyaḥ die gewöhnliche Art [Śāṅkhāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 6, 1, 26.] sattra, ahīna [LĀṬY. 2, 2, 4. 5. 6, 6, 11.] nyāyavihita durch die Regel vorgeschrieben [7, 13.] teṣāmukto nyāyaḥ [7, 13, 8.] nyāyopeta rite admissus [Śāṅkhāyana’s Gṛhyasūtrāṇi 4, 8.] nyāyairmiśrānapavādānpratīyāt Regeln und Ausnahmen [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 1, 13.] nyāyaṃ yāntyuttare trayaḥ folgen der Regel [10, 14.] sūtra [Scholiast] zu [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 22, 7, 16.] prāṅnyāyāni devakarmāṇi dakṣiṇānyāyāni pitryāṇi bei den devak. gilt die Richtung nach Ost als Regel [Śāṅkhāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 1, 1, 13. fgg.] uccairnyāyaścagrvedaḥ 28. sahita [Prātiśākhya zur Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 5, 8.] anyāyasamāsa [5, 39.] samāsānyāyabhāj [Scholiast] zu [?5, 45. Das zu Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 6, 3, 68. 7, 2, 63. 8, 3, 37. 112. 4, 22] vorkommende nyāya bezeichnet eine allgemeine Regel, ein Axiom, das bei der Erklärung der speciellen Regeln im Auge zu halten ist; vgl. auch [GOLD. MĀN. 108. fgg. 118.] tribhirnyāyaiḥ auf drei Arten [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 8, 310.] [Kumārasaṃbhava 2, 12.] adhikaraṇaṃ tvekanyāyopapādanam Einartiges [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 255.] vīcītaraṃganyāyena [Bhāṣāpariccheda 164.] prapānakarasanyāyāt [Sāhityadarpana 27, 17.] eṣa krīḍati kūpayantraghaṭikānyāyaprasakto vidhiḥ [Mṛcchakaṭikā 178, 7.] [Vedānta lecture No. 19. 69.] aprayatnenaiva līlānyāyena ohne alle Anstrengung, gleichsam im Spiele [] in [Frid 112.] naiṣa nyāyo veśakulasya yaddāturapadeśaḥ [Daśakumāracarita] in [Benfey’ Chrestomathie aus Sanskritwerken 193, 13.] ghuṇākṣaranyāyena buddheḥ sāmrājyaṃ bhavati [Pañcatantra 42, 14.] kumbhīpākanyāyamāpannāḥ mṛtāśca [195, 9.] na ca śakṣyāṃmi rājasūnurityamuṣminnyāyamācaritum [Daśakumāracarita 143, 3.] jaḍavādvedmi na nyāyam [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 26.] [Daśakumāracarita] in [Benfey’ Chrestomathie aus Sanskritwerken 185, 20.] nyāyavartin der sich nach Gebühr beträgt [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 5, 140.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 3, 22.] svarāṣṭre nyāyavṛttaḥ [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 32.] [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 75, 47.] nyāyārjita, anyāyāpahṛta auf rechtmässige, —, auf unrechtmässige Weise [Daśakumāracarita] in [Benfey’ Chrestomathie aus Sanskritwerken 189, 15. 16.] nyāyāgatasya dravyasya [Mahābhārata 5, 1029.] nirvapaṇa unter den Beiww. von Śiva [13, 1239.] nyāyena auf gehörige Weise, wie es sich gebührt [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 1, 334. 2, 306.] nyāyatas dass. [1, 354.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 30. 8, 201.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 18, 19. 3, 4, 6.] nyāyato nyāyataḥ [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 6, 1, 66.] yathānyāyam dass. [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 1, 1. 3, 135. 190. 5, 35. 7, 2.] [Mahābhārata 2, 133. 3, 2468. 4, 504.] [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 51, 34. 56, 32.] —

2) Rechtshandel, = akṣa [Halāyudha 2, 274.] vīraka paścādiha bhavato nyāyaṃ drakṣyāmaḥ [Mṛcchakaṭikā 148, 18.] aho na samyagdṛṣṭo yaṃ nyāyaḥ [Pañcatantra 97, 2.] —

3) Schlichtung eines Rechtshandels, Entscheidung, Urtheilsspruch: nyāyena dūrīkṛtaḥ zurückgewiesen, abgewiesen [Mṛcchakaṭikā 137, 13. 18.] nyāyānveṣaṇatatparau [Pañcatantra III, 89.] rājapuruṣairnyāyaḥ kṛtaḥ . vadhyo yaṃ puruṣaḥ [Vetālapañcaviṃśati] in [Lassen’s Anthologie 27, 3. fg.] —

4) logischer Beweis, - Schluss, Syllogismus [Prabodhacandrodaja 111, 8.] [Scholiast] zu [Kapila 1. 70. 118. 157.] hetubhirnyāyasaṃvaddhaiḥ [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 56, 31.] smṛtyorvirodhe nyāyastu balavānvyavahārataḥ [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 21.] sūkṣmārthanyāyayukta (purāṇa) [Mahābhārata 1, 18.] śrutinyāyavirodhāt [Kapila 1, 36.] parārthanyāyavādeṣu [Geschichte des Vidūṣaka 65.] vādin [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 51, 34.] [ŚUK.] in [Lassen’s Anthologie 40, 8.] [Dhūrtasamāgama 89, 1.] ein Syllogismus besteht bei den Naiyāyika aus 5 Theilen [Colebrooke I. 292.] bei den Vedāntin aus 3 Theilen 330. nyāyavidyā ( [Kāśikīvṛtti] bei [GOLD. MĀN. 153]), śikṣā ( [Mahābhārata 1, 67]) oder schlechtweg nyāya die Logik, das Nyāya-System des Gautama [Colebrooke I, 261. fgg.] [Madhusūdanasarasvatī’s Prasthānabheda] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 13, 11.] nyāya (d. i. nyāye) ānvīkṣikī pañcādhyāyī gautamena praṇītā [?18, 6 v. u. Muṇḍakopaniṣad in Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 301. Nalopākhyāna ĀTMOP. ebend. 2, 56. CARAṆAVYŪHA ebend. 3, 260. fg. Viṣṇupurāṇa 284.] sūtra [Bibliothecae sanskritae 416.] —

5) nyāyam enklitisch nach einem verb. fin. als Ausdruck des Tadels oder der Wiederholung gaṇa gotrādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 8. 1, 27. 57.] — Vgl. a, pratinyāyam, dhātunyāyamañjūṣā .

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Nyāya (न्याय):—

1) nyāyopārjita auf rechtmässige Weise erworben [SARVADARŚANAS. 118, 20.] anyāyavitta auf unrechtmässige Weise erworbener Reichthum [PRASAṄGĀBH.4,a.] Grundsatz, Maxime, Axiom, feste Regel [SARVADARŚANAS. 9, 13. 17. 25, 5. 20. 45, 18. 156, 4.] iti nyāyāpātaḥ hier gilt der Spruch... [27, 12.] —

2) nyāyārthamūcatuḥ [Kathāsaritsāgara 45, 104. 62, 52. fg.], wo nyāyam st. nyāyyam zu lesen ist. —

3) yo nyāyamanyathā brūte wer einen falschen Urtheilsspruch fällt [Spr. 2181.] —

4) [Z. 5. fg.] parārtha [Geschichte des Vidūṣaka 65] [?(Kathāsaritsāgara 18, 133)] wohl fehlerhaft für padārtha; [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 51, 34] und [ŚUK.] in [Lassen’s Anthologie 40, 8] gehören zu 1). Ein in einer förmlichen Disputation vorgetragener Syllogismus besteht aus fünf Gliedern, indem zu den drei eigentlichen Gliedern noch die förmliche Ankündigung der Thesis und der Conclusion hinzugefügt wird; vgl. [SARVADARŚANAS. 113, 19. fg.] jaimininyāyavārdhi [Lassen’s Anthologie (II) 88, 18.] — Vgl. mahā .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Nyaya (न्यय):—m.

1) Untergang.

2) Abnahme.

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Nyāya (न्याय):—, niāya (218) m.

1) Norm , Regel , Grundsatz , Maxime , Axiom , feste Regel , Methode [257,31.] —

2) Art und Weise. nyāyena , nyāyāt und nyāya nach der Weise von.

3) die rechte , gehörige Art Weise , Gebühr. nyāyena , nyāyatas und nyāya auf rechtmässige — , auf gehörige Weise , wie es sich gebührt.

4) Rechtshandel.

5) Schlichtung eines Rechtshandels , Entscheidung , Urtheilsspruch.

6) logischer Beweis , — Schluss , Syllogismus.

7) die Logik , das Nyāya-System des Gotama. —

8) nyāyam nach einem Verbum fin. als Ausdruck des Tadels oder der Wiederholung.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Nyāya (न्याय) [Also spelled nyay]:—(nm) justice; fairness; a popular maxim or apposite illustration (as [ghuṇākṣara nyāya]); logic; ~[kartā] a judge, one who sits in judgment; ~[niṣṭha]; just, fair, equitable- ~[niṣṭhatā] justness, fairness, equitability; —[patha] just/fair/equitablecourse; ~[para] just, fair, equitable; ~[paratā] justness, fairness, equitability; ~[parāyaṇa] just, fair, equitable; ~[parāyaṇatā] justness, fairness, equitability; ~[pālikā] see [nyāyāṃga; ~pīṭha] bench; ~[priya] just, fair, equitable; hence ~[priyatā] (nf); ~[vādī] an attorney; just/fair/equitable in utterance; ~[śāstra] jurisprudence; ~[śāstrī] jurisprudent; ~[śīla] see ~[para; ~saṃgata] just, fair, equitable; —[sabhā] a court of law; bench.

context information


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