Nyaya, aka: Nyāya; 12 Definition(s)
Nyaya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
- 1) Matsya-purāṇa 3. 4; 53. 5; Vāyu-purāṇa 2. 33; 61. 78; 104. 85; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 6. 27; V. 1. 38.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 45. 34.
- 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 87; IV. 12. 17.
Nyāya (न्याय).—In the Matsya-Purāṇa it is pointed out that Nyāya-vidyā along with the Vedas, proceed from the mouth of Brahmā (Matsya-purāṇa, 3,4).Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (purana)
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Nyāya (न्याय, “ways”) refers to a “way of using weapons” (releasing missiles), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 11. Accordingly, “In these nyāyas arising out of various cārīs (‘dance-steps’), actors should walk about on the stage at the time of using weapons. The nyāyas (‘way’) are so calle* because fights on the stage are carried on with the aṅgahāras relating to the nyāyas and arising out of them.”
There are four different kinds of nyāya defined:
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Nyāya (न्याय).—Maxim, a familiar or patent instance quoted to explain similar cases; cf. the words अग्नौकरवाणि-न्याय (agnaukaravāṇi-nyāya) M. Bh. on P. II 2.24, अपवाद-न्याय (apavāda-nyāya) M. Bh. on P. I. 3.9, अविरवि-कन्याय (aviravi-kanyāya) M. Bh. on P. IV. 1. 88, 89, IV. 2.60, IV.3.131, V. 1.7, 28, VI 2. 11 ; कुम्भीधान्यन्याय (kumbhīdhānyanyāya) M.Bh. on P.I. 3.7, कूपखानकन्याय (kūpakhānakanyāya) M.Bh. I. 1. Āhnika 1, दण्डिन्याय (daṇḍinyāya) M.Bh. on P. VIII.2.83, नष्टाश्वदग्धरथन्याय (naṣṭāśvadagdharathanyāya) M. Bh. on P. I.1.50 प्रधानाप्रधानन्याय (pradhānāpradhānanyāya) M.Bh.on P.II.1.69,VI. 3. 82, प्रासादवासिन्याय (prāsādavāsinyāya) M. Bh. on P.I . 1.8, मांसकण्टकन्याय (māṃsakaṇṭakanyāya) M.Bh. on P.I.2.39, लट्वानुकर्षणन्याय (laṭvānukarṣaṇanyāya) M.Bh. on Siva Sūtra 2 Vārt. 5, शालिपलालन्याय (śālipalālanyāya) M.Bh on P. 1.2.39,सूत्रशाटकन्याय (sūtraśāṭakanyāya) M.Bh. on P. I.3. 12. The word came to be used in the general sense of Paribhāsās or rules of interpretation many of which were based upon popular maxims as stated in the word लोकन्यायसिद्ध (lokanyāyasiddha) by Nāgesa. Hemacandra has used the word न्याय (nyāya) for Paribhāsa-vacana. The word is also used in the sense of a general rule which has got some exceptions, cf. न्यायैर्मिश्रानपवादान् प्रतीयात् (nyāyairmiśrānapavādān pratīyāt) R. Pr. which lays down the direction that 'one should interpret the rule laying down an exception along with the general rule'.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)
Nyāya (न्याय) system is one of the six orthodox systems of Indian Philosophy. The oldest name of Nyāya is Ānvikṣikī (the science of inquiry) ascribed to Gotama or Gautama. In later times Ānvikṣikī has come to be denoted as Nyāya-śāstra (the science of true reasoning). The Nyāya system is atomistic, pluralistic and realistic. The meaning of the term Nyāya is right or justice.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Nirukta (Sanskrit etymology)
Nyāya (न्याय).—The meaning of the term Nyāya is right or justice. Etymologically this word means ‘that by which man is guided’ (nīyate aneneti nyāyaḥ). “Nyāyaśāstra is therefore the science of right judgement or true reasoning”.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (nirukta)
Nirukta (निरुक्त) or “etymology” refers to the linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language. This branch studies the interpretation of common and ancient words and explains them in their proper context. Nirukta is one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas.
Dharmashastra (religious law)
Nyāya (न्याय).— It is stated in the Yājñavalkyasmṛti that Nyāya is included in the fourteen principal branches of learning.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (dharma)
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Itihasa (narrative history)
Nyāya (न्याय).—Many tenets of Nyāya are found in the Śānti-parva of the Mahābhārata (Sāntiparva, 21.22). However, there were many teachers who propounded Nyāya philosophy. It is said in the Ādiparva of the Mahābhārata that there were a number of sages in the hermitage of Kāśyapa who knew true meanings of demonstration, refutation and conclusion (Ādiparva, 70.42). These sages were the early teachers of the Nyāya-śāstra. But nothing is known about these early teachers.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (mahabharata)
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
General definition (in Hinduism)
Nyāya is the name for one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. The Nyaya school of philosophical speculation is based on texts known as the Nyaya Sutras, which were written by Aksapada Gautama from around the 2nd century BCE.
The Nyaya metaphysics recognizes sixteen padarthas or categories and includes all six (or seven) categories of the Vaisheshika in the second one of them, called prameya. These sixteen categories are
- pramāṇa (valid means of knowledge),
- prameya (objects of valid knowledge),
- saṃśaya (doubt),
- prayojana (aim),
- dṛṣṭānta (example),
- siddhānta (conclusion),
- avayava (members of syllogism),
- tarka (hypothetical reasoning),
- nirṇaya (settlement),
- vāda (discussion),
- jalpa (wrangling),
- vitaṇḍā (cavilling),
- hetvābhāsa (fallacy),
- chala (quibbling),
- jāti (sophisticated refutation)
- and nigrahasthāna (point of defeat).
Etymology: Nyāya (Sanskrit ny-āyá, literally "recursion", used in the sense of "syllogism, inference");
Languages of India and abroad
nyāya (न्याय).—m (S) Fitness, rightness, propriety; whence, commonly, justice or equity. 2 The Nyaya doctrine, logical philosophy. 3 A maxim, a rule, a law, a general principle, an axiom; and thus, commonly, an adage or a proverb. nyāya sāṅgaṇēṃ To make complaint and seek redress; to call for justice. Ex. mhaṇē tukayānēṃ sādhilā dāvā || nyāya sāṅgāvā kavaṇāsīṃ ||.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
nyāya (न्याय).—m Fitness, propriety; justice or equity. The Nyaya doctrine. A maxim, a rule, a law. nyāya sāṅgaṇēṃ To make a complaint and seek redress.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Nyaya (न्यय).—Loss, destruction; decay.
Derivable forms: nyayaḥ (न्ययः).
--- OR ---
Nyāya (न्याय).—[niyanti anena; ni-i ghañ]
1) Method, manner, way, rule, system, plan; अधार्मिकं त्रिभिर्न्यायैर्निगृह्णीयात् प्रयत्नतः (adhārmikaṃ tribhirnyāyairnigṛhṇīyāt prayatnataḥ) Ms.8.31; अनुक्ते हि न्याये न प्रतीमोऽर्थान्तरम् (anukte hi nyāye na pratīmo'rthāntaram) ŚB. on MS.6. 2.5; तस्मान्नावस्थितो न्यायः प्रत्युद्ध्रियेत (tasmānnāvasthito nyāyaḥ pratyuddhriyeta) ŚB. on MS.6.2.1. ननु लिङ्गमसाधकं, न्याय उच्यतां यस्यैतद् द्योतकमिति (nanu liṅgamasādhakaṃ, nyāya ucyatāṃ yasyaitad dyotakamiti) ŚB. on MS.6. 2.3.
2) Fitness, propriety, decorum; न्यायाधारा हि साधवः (nyāyādhārā hi sādhavaḥ) Ki.11.3.
3) Law, justice, virtue, equity, righteousness, honesty; यान्ति न्यायप्रवृत्तस्य तिर्यञ्चोऽपि सहायताम् (yānti nyāyapravṛttasya tiryañco'pi sahāyatām) A. R.1.4.
4) A law-suit, legal proceeding.
5) Judicial sentence, judgment.
6) Policy, good government.
7) Likeness, analogy.
8) A popular maxim, an apposite illustration, illustration, as दण्डापूपन्याय, काकतालीयन्याय, घुणाक्षरन्याय (daṇḍāpūpanyāya, kākatālīyanyāya, ghuṇākṣaranyāya) &c.; see Appendix.
9) A Vedic accent; न्यायैस्त्रिभिरुदीर्णम् (nyāyaistribhirudīrṇam) Ku.2.12. (Malli. takes nyāya to mean svara; but it is quite open, in our opinion, to take nyāya in the sense of 'a system' or 'way'; 'which are manifested in three systems, i. e. ṛk, yajus and sāman'); न्यायगर्भद्विजाः (nyāyagarbhadvijāḥ) Bh.3. 55.
1) (In gram.) A universal rule.
11) A system of Hindu philosophy founded by the sage Gautama.
12) The science of logic, logical philosophy.
13) A complete argument or syllogism (consisting of five members; i. e. pratijñā, hetu, udāharaṇa, upanaya and nigamana).
14) An epithet of Viṣṇu. (nyāyena ind. in the way of, after the manner or analogy of; badhirānmandakarṇaḥ śreyāniti nyāyena &c.).
Derivable forms: nyāyaḥ (न्यायः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 453 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Nyāyasūtra (न्यायसूत्र).—The first systematic work of the Nyāya system is the Nyāyasūtra of Gau...
Nyāyakaṇḍalī (न्यायकण्डली).—Another important commentary on Praśastapāda’s Bhāṣya is Nyāyakaṇḍa...
Nyāyacandrikā (न्यायचन्द्रिका), author unkown, is a commentary on the Bhāṣāpariccheda by Viśvan...
Navyanyāya (नव्यन्याय, “neo-logic”) later on the Nyāya works started to give stress on pure log...
Nyāyavaiśeṣika (न्यायवैशेषिक).—After 10th century A.D., i.e. after the time of Udayana, these t...
The Nyāyavārttika (6th century CE) by Udyotakara is a Sanskrit treatise of the Nyāya school ...
The Nyāyabhāṣya by Vātsāyana is a classic Sanskrit commentary on the Nyāyasūtras by Akṣapāda...
upharāṭā nyāya (उफराटा न्याय).—m Topsy turvy justice, i. e. injustice, legal iniquity. Pr. upha...
The Nyāyatātparyapariśuddhi (984 CE) by Udayana is a major commentary on the Nyāyavārttikatā...
The Nyāyavārttikatātparyaṭīkā (9th century CE) by Vācaspati Miśra is an explanatory treatise...
Nyāyaśāstra (न्यायशास्त्र).—1) the philosophical system of the Nyāya school. 2) the science of ...
kākatālīya-nyāya (काकतालीय-न्याय).—Mere accident.
Chatrinyāya (छत्रिन्याय).—'the manner of applying the term छत्रिन् (chatrin) to a king', permit...
Nyāyanirvapaṇa (न्यायनिर्वपण).—a. bestowing justly. Nyāyanirvapaṇa is a Sanskrit compound consi...
Nyāyācāra (न्यायाचार).—a. virtuous. Nyāyācāra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms ny...
Search found 48 books and stories containing Nyaya or Nyāya. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 8 - The main doctrine of the Nyaya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy < [Chapter VIII - The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy]
Part 6 - Caraka, Nyāya sūtras and Vaiśeṣika sūtras < [Chapter VIII - The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy]
Part 2 - Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika sūtras < [Chapter VIII - The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Philosophy]
Preceptors of Advaita (by T. M. P. Mahadevan)
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)
Part 1 - The Present Work < [Introduction, part 1]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 4 - Teachers and Pupils in Vedānta < [Chapter XI - The Śaṅkara School of Vedānta (continued)]
Part 13 - Logical Speculations and Terms relating to Academic Dispute < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
Part 14 - Did Logic Originate in the Discussions of Āyurveda Physicians < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 4 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 1 - Introduction < [Chapter XXVI - Madhva’s Interpretation of the Brahma-sūtras]
Part 5 - Epistemological Process in Inference < [Chapter XXVIII - Madhva Logic]
Part 1 - Perception (pratyakṣa) < [Chapter XXVIII - Madhva Logic]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 3 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 7 - Veṅkaṭanātha’s treatment of pramāṇa < [Chapter XX - Philosophy of the Rāmānuja School of Thought]
Part 10 - Perception in the light of elucidation by the later members of the Rāmānuja School < [Chapter XX - Philosophy of the Rāmānuja School of Thought]
Part 4 - Rāmānuja Literature < [Chapter XVIII - An Historical and Literary Survey of the Viśiṣṭādvaita School of Thought]