Gandha, Gandhā: 30 definitions
Gandha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Gandha (गन्ध) refers to “fragrance” (viz., of a flower), as mentioned in a list of five synonyms, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Gandha] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Gandhā (गन्धा) is another name (synonym) for Śaṭī, which is a Sanskrit name for the plant Hedychium spicatum (spiked ginger lily). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 6.226-227), which is an Āyurvedic medicinal thesaurus.Source: Tieteelliset verkkolehdet: A note on Sanskrit Gandha
There are nine kinds of scent (gandha), according to the Mahābhārata (12.177.28; Bhṛgu’s discourse):
- Agreeable (iṣṭa),
- Disagreeable (aniṣṭa),
- Sweet (madhu),
- Pungent (kaṭu),
- Stale (nirhārin),
- Compound (saṃhata),
- Soft (snigdha),
- Astringent (rūkṣa)
- and tender (viśada).
All these nine kinds of scent are founded upon the earth-element (pārthiva or pṛthivī).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra
Gandhā (त्वची, “Smell”):—Mentioned as a mātṛ in relation with Calanī, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra. She is however, not usually part of the eight Mātṛs born from the body of Calanī. These eight sub-manifestations (mātṛ) symbolize a relation to the wind. They are presided over by the Bhairava Asitāṅga. Calanī is the fifth of the Eight Mahāmātṛs, residing within the Mātṛcakra (third of the five cakras) and represents wind.Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Gandha (गन्ध) refers to the city of Vāyu, situated on the north-western lower slope of mount Meru, according to Parākhyatantra 5.66. Meru is the name of a golden mountained situated in the middle of nine landmasses (navakhaṇḍa): Bhārata, Hari, Kimpuruṣa, Ramyaka, Ramaṇa, Kuru, Bhadrāśva, Ketumāla and Ilāvṛta. Together these khaṇḍas make up the continent known as Jambūdvīpa.
Gandha is also known by the name Gandhavatī or Gandhavahā and is mentioned in various other sources, eg., the Svacchanda-tantra 10.132-136, Kiraṇa-āgama 8.51-54, Mṛgendra-āgama vidyāpāda 13.47-54, Sarvajñānottara-tantra adhvaprakaraṇa 34-36 and Mataṅga-āgama vidyāpāda 23.60-63
The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas
Gandha (गन्ध) or Vilepana refers to “fragrant sandal paste” and represents one of the various upacāras (offerings), in pūjā (ritual worship), as defined in the Śaivāgamas.—Pūjā consists of offering hospitality, in the form of water to wash the feet, to drink, water for ablutions, offering a bath, new clothes, fragrant unguents, fragrant flowers and ornaments, food and so on. Each step in the pūjā process is called “saṃskāra” and each offering is called “upacāra” [viz., Gandha].
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Gandha (गन्ध, “scents”) refers to “offering of scents” and represents one of the sixteen upacāra, or “sixteen types of homage and services”, as described while explaining the mode of worshipping the phallic form (liṅga) of Śiva in the Śivapurāṇa 1.11. Accordingly, “[...] the devotee shall worship the mobile emblem with the sixteen types of homage and services (upacāra) as prescribed. It accords the region of Śiva gradually. The sixteen types of service are [for example, offering of scents (gandha)] [...] Or he shall perform all the sixteen rites in the phallic emblem of human, saintly or godly origin, or in one naturally risen up (svayambhū) or in one of very extraordinary nature installed duly”.
Gandha or Gandhasamarpaṇa (the offering of scents) is also mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.20, while explaining the mode of worshipping an earthen phallic image (pārthiva-liṅga) according to the Vedic rites:—“[...] the intelligent devotee shall offer scents (gandha) devoutly with the mantra ‘Namaḥ Śvabhyaḥ’ etc. He shall offer akṣatas (raw rice grains) with the mantra ‘Namastakṣabhyaḥ’ etc.”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Gandha (गन्ध).—A son of Upamadga (see gandhamodavaha). (Cal. Edn.).*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 14. 9.
1b) Said to be essence milked from cow-earth by the Gandharvas.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 7. 14: 10. 24: 16. 26.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika
Gandha (गन्ध, “smell”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.
Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Gandha (गन्ध, “smell”) refers to an aspect of the representation of objects and senses, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Accordingly, “by slightly narrowing down the eyes and expanding the nostrils and in the same breath, the wise one is to represent the agreeable taste (rasa) and the smell (gandha)”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Gandha (गन्ध, “smell”) or Gandhaguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—Gandha (Smell) is the third guṇa and it is a special guṇa. Praśastapāda gives the definition–“gandho ghrāṇagrāhyaḥ”. That means it is perceived by the organ of smell. According to Viśvanātha also the gandha is perceived by the organ of smell. Annaṃbhaṭṭa also states the similar definition in his Tarkasaṃgraha: “ghrāṇagrāhyo guṇogandhaḥ”. In this definition the word mātra is avoided, because it has no necessity, this organ apprehends only the quality of smell and nothing else. The word guṇa is added in this definition to exclude the generic attribute, gandhatva.
Gandha is twofold: fragrant and non-fragrant and it resides in earth only. Gandha becomes eternal when it is found in eternal things and it becomes non-eternal when it is found in non-eternal things. This quality is a mūrtaguṇa and it resides in one substance, so it is ekadravyavṛtti. Moreover it is apprehended by one external sense only, so, it is ekendriyagrāhya.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Gandha - The name of a family of elephants; each elephant has the strength of one million men. VibhA.397; AA.ii.822; UdA.403, etc.
2. Gandha - A setthi of Benares. On realising that his ancestors had died leaving immense wealth, which they had failed to enjoy, he started to spend large sums of money on luxuries, and one full moon day he decorated the city and invited the people to watch him taking a meal. Among the assembled multitude was a villager, who felt that he would die unless he could obtain a morsel of Gandhas rice. When this was told to Gandha he suggested that the man should work for him for three years, taking in payment a bowl of his rice. The villager agreed and henceforth became known as Bhattabhatika. At the end of the three years Gandha kept his promise and gave orders that Bhattabhatika should enjoy all his masters own splendours for one day, and asked all the members of his household, except his wife Cintamani, to wait on him. When Bhattabhatika sat down to eat, a Pacceka Buddha appeared before him; Bhattabhatika gave his food to the Pacceka Buddha who, in sight of all those that had gathered to watch Bhattabhatikas splendour, went through the air to Gandhamadana. When Gandha heard of what bad happened, he gave one half of all his possessions to Bhattabhatika in return for a share of the merit he had gained. DhA.iii.87ff.Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
Smell;Source: Pali Kanon: Introducing Buddhist Abhidhamma
lit: 'smell'; Property of matter (rupa).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Gandha (गन्ध, “smell”) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “why condemn smells (gandha)? Some claim that being attached to smells is a slight fault; but attachment to smells opens the door to the fetters (saṃyojana). Even if one has maintained discipline (śīla) for a hundred years, one moment is enough to violate it”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
1) Gandha (गन्ध, “smell”) or gandhāyatana refers to one of the “twelve sense spheres” (āyatana) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 24). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., gandha). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
Gandha also refers to one of the “six spheres” (ṣaḍviṣaya) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 33).
Gandha also refers to the “five qualities” (pāñcabhautika) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 40).
2) Gandha (गन्ध, “smell”) or Caturgandha refers to the “four smells” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 37):
- sugandha (pleasant smell),
- durgandha (unpleasant smell),
- samagandho (neutral smell),
- viṣamagandha (mixed smell).
Goddess of Perfume (Skt. Gandhā; Tib. Drichabma; Wyl. dri chab ma) the consort of Mañjushri.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living
Gandha (गन्ध, “odour”) refers to the object of ghrāṇa (smelling), which represents one of the “five sense-organs” (pañcendriya), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.19. Cognition which results by smelling the object of knowledge is called smell/odour (gandha). How many types of odour /smell are there? There are two types of smell namely fragrant and foul. What is the form of smell sense organ? It is in form of a sesamum flower.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
Gandha (गन्ध, “smell”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.23.—“The forms of matter (pudgala) are characterized by touch (sparśa), taste (rasa), smell (gandha) and colour (varṇa)”. What is the meaning of smell (gandha)? what is smelt or just smelling is smell. How many types of smell are there? There are two types of smell namely pleasant and unpleasant.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
Gandha (गन्ध, “odour”) refers to “odour karma” and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by odour body-making (gandha) karma? The karmas rise of which gives the smell attribute to the body are called odour body-making karma.
How many types of odour (rasa) body-making karmas are there? These are of two types, namely:
- sweet-smelling; fragrant (sugandha),
- evil-smelling; malodorous (durgandha).
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
gandha : (m.) odour; smell; scent.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Gandha, (Vedic gandha, from ghrā ghrāti to smell, ghrāna smell, & see P. ghāna. Possibly conn. w. Lat. fragro= E. fragrant) smell, viz.-1. odour, smell, scent in Gen. J.III, 189; Dh.54—56=Miln.333; Dhs.605 under ghānâyatanāni); āma° smell of raw flesh A.I, 280; D.II, 242; Sn.241 sq; maccha° the scent of fish J.III, 52; muttakarīsa° the smell of fæces and urine A.III, 158; catujāti° four kinds of scent J.I, 265; PvA.127; dibba-g°puppha a flower of heavenly odour J.I, 289.—2. odour, smell in particular: enumerated as mūla°, sāra°, puppha°, etc., S.III, 156=V.44=A.V, 22; Dhs.625 (under ghandāyatanāni, sphere of odours). Specified as māla°, sāra°, puppha° under tīṇi gandhajātāni A.I, 225;— puppha° Dh.54=A.I, 226.—3. smell as olfactory sensation, belonging to the sphere (āyatanāni) of sense-impressions and sensory objects & enum. in set of the 12 ajjhatta-bāhirāni āyatanāni (see under rūpa) with ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā “sensing smell by means of the olfactory organ” D.III, 102; 244=250= 269=Nd2 on rūpa; M.III, 55, 267; S.IV, 71; Vin.I, 35; Defined at Vism.447. Also as gandhā ghānaviññeyya under kāmaguṇā M.II, 42; D.III, 234, etc. In series of 10 attributes of physical quality (-rūpa, etc.) as characteristic of devas D.III, 146; Pv.II, 958; as sāra°, pheggu°, taca°, etc. (nine qualities in all) in definition of Gandhabba-kāyikā devā S.III, 250 sq.—In the same sense & similar connections: vaṇṇa-g°-ras’ûpeto Dh.49; J.II, 106; gandhānaṃ khamo & akkhamo (of king’s elephant) A.III, 158 sq.; itthi°, purisa° A.I, 1, 2; III, 68; in combination w. other four senses Sn.387, 759, 974. ‹-› 4. perfume, prepared odorific substance used as a toilet requisite, either in form of an unguent or a powder. Abstinence from the use of kallæsthetics is stated in the Sīlas (D.I, 8) as characteristic of certain Wanderers and Brahmins. Here gandha is mentioned together with mālā (flowers, garlands): D.I, 5=Kh II; D.I, 7 (°kathā); Vin.II, 123; Sn.401; J.I, 50, 291; PvA.62. The use of scented ointment (-vilepana & ālepa, see cpds.) is allowed to the Buddhist bhikkhus (Vin.I, 206); and the giving of this, together with other commodities, is included in the second part of the deyyadhamma (the list of meritorious gifts to the Saṅgha), under Nos. 5—14 (anna-pāna-vattha-yānamālā-gandhā-vilepana-seyy-âvasatha-padīpeyya): S.III, 252; Nd2 523=It.65. Out of this enumeration: g°-m°-v°-Pv.II, 316; chatta-g°-m°-upāhanā Pv.II, 49; II, 936; m°-g°-v° kappūra-kaṭukapphalāni J.II, 416. ‹-› The application of scented ointment (gandhena or gandhehi vilimpati) is customary after a bath, e.g. PvA.50 (on Pv.I, 106); J.I, 254, 265; III, 277. Var. kinds of perfumes or scented substances are given as g°dhūpa-cuṇṇa-kappūra (incense, powder, camphor) J.I, 290; vāsa-cuṇṇa-dhūpanādi g° KhA 37. See also cpds.—5. occurs as v. l. for gantha (book).
duggandha a disagreeable smell Dhs.625; °ṃ vāyati to emit a nasty odour PvA.14; as adj. having a bad smell, putrid Sn.205; PvA.15 (=pūtigandha), f.—ā: duggandhā pūti vāyasi “you emit a bad odour”) Pv.I, 61 (=aniṭṭha°). —sugandha an agreeable smell Dhs.625; as adj. of pleasant smell J.III, 277; Sdhp. 246.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
gandha (गंध).—m (S) Smell or odor, good or bad. 2 A fragrance or a fragrant substance. 3 m n A pigment for the forehead or body (of sandal wood, turmeric, aloe-wood, saffron &c.) gandha nasaṇēṃ g. of s. (Not to be even in smell.) To be null or non-existent. tāmbaḍā gandha lāvaṇēṃ To trick one's self out; to dress for a party.
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gandhā (गंधा).—a ( P) Foul, fetid, stinking. Little known except in gandhānālā m Sewer or drain; and in gandhēṃ pāṇī n Dirty water.
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gāndha (गांध).—f A blind tumor or bump;--as from a bite. 2 A gadfly or other fly of which the bite occasions a bump.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
gandha (गंध).—m Smell. Fragrance. m n A pigment for the forehead. gandha nasaṇē (Not to be even in smell.) To be null or non-existent.
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gāndha (गांध).—f A blind tumour or bump–as from a bite. A gadfly or other fly of which the bites occasion a bump.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Smell, odour; गन्धमाघ्राय चोर्व्याः (gandhamāghrāya corvyāḥ) Me.21; अपघ्नन्तो दुरितं हव्यगन्धैः (apaghnanto duritaṃ havyagandhaiḥ) Ś.4.8; R.12.27. (gandha is changed to gandhi when as the last member of a Bah. comp. it is preceded by ud, pūti, su, surabhi, or when the compound implies comparison; sugandhi, surabhigandhi, kamalagandhi mukham; śāliniryāsagandhibhiḥ R.1.38; āhuti° 1.53; also when gandha is used in the sense of 'a little').
2) Smell considered as one of the 24 properties or guṇas of the Vaiśeṣikas; it is a property characteristic of पृथिवी (pṛthivī) or earth which is defined as गन्धवती पृथ्वी (gandhavatī pṛthvī) T. S.
3) The mere smell of anything, a little, a very small quantity; घृतगन्धि भोजनम् (ghṛtagandhi bhojanam) Sk.
4) A perfume, any fragrant substance; एषा मया सेविता गन्धयुक्तिः (eṣā mayā sevitā gandhayuktiḥ) Mk.8; Y.1. 231; Mu.1.4.
6) Pounded sandal wood.
7) Connection, relationship.
8) A neighbour.
9) Pride, arrogance; as in आत्तगन्ध (āttagandha) humbled or mortified.
1) An epithet of Śiva.
11) A sectarial mark on the forehead.
12) Similarity (sādṛśya); डुण्डुभानहिगन्धेन न त्वं हिंसितुमर्हसि (ḍuṇḍubhānahigandhena na tvaṃ hiṃsitumarhasi) Mb.1.1.3.
-ndham 1 Smell.
2) Black aloewood.
Derivable forms: gandhaḥ (गन्धः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Gandhā (गन्धा).—n. of a yoginī: Sādh 157.13 etc.; 324.6.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ndhaḥ) 1. Smell, odour. 2. A perfume, a fragrance or fragrant substance. 3. A diffusive fragrance. 4. Sulphur. 5. Connexion, relationship. 6. A neighbour. 7. A plant, (Morunga hyperanthera, &c.) 8. Pride, arrogance. 9. Small, diminutive, a little, a small quantity, &c. 10. Pounded Sandal. f.
(-ndhā) The bud of the Champaca flower, (Michelia Champaca.) n.
(-ndhaṃ) Aloe-wood. E. gandh to hurt, to move, &c. affix ac.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+249): Gandha Sutta, Gandhabadhu, Gandhabandhu, Gandhabba, Gandhabbadvara, Gandhabbahatthaka, Gandhabbakaya Samyutta, Gandhabbakayika, Gandhabbamanusa, Gandhabbaraja, Gandhabhadra, Gandhabhanda, Gandhabharana, Gandhabhava, Gandhabida, Gandhabiruja, Gandhacara, Gandhacelika, Gandhachara, Gandhachelika.
Ends with (+141): Adattagandha, Agudhagandha, Ajagandha, Ajitavatigandha, Ajogandha, Alpagandha, Amagandha, Appagandha, Asagandha, Ashmagandha, Ashrvagandha, Ashtagandha, Ashvagandha, Asugandha, Atigandha, Attagandha, Avigandha, Bahalagandha, Bahigandha, Bahugandha.
Full-text (+434): Gandhashman, Vahnigandha, Tiktagandha, Vishvagandha, Madagandha, Rishyagandha, Rikshagandha, Gandhashali, Gandhapalashika, Ajagandha, Gandhapalashi, Gandhanilaya, Gandhabandhu, Ashvagandha, Gandhakashtha, Gandhi, Vajigandha, Gandhadhya, Gandhapatra, Ishtagandha.
Search found 61 books and stories containing Gandha, Gandhā, Gāndha; (plurals include: Gandhas, Gandhās, Gāndhas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Indian Buddhist Iconography (by Benoytosh Bhattachacharyya)
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 1.2.164 < [Part 2 - Devotional Service in Practice (sādhana-bhakti)]
Verse 2.4.182 < [Part 4 - Transient Ecstatic Disturbances (vyābhicāri-bhāva)]
Verse 1.2.125 < [Part 2 - Devotional Service in Practice (sādhana-bhakti)]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Appendix 1 - The four great elements (mahābhūta) < [Chapter XLIX - The Four Conditions]
Section A.3 - Rejection of pleasant smells < [Part 2 - Means of acquiring meditation]
II. Metonymical meaning of kuśalamūla (‘roots of good’) < [Part 1 - Honoring all the Buddhas]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)