Atma, aka: Ātma, Ātmā; 7 Definition(s)

Introduction

Atma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Ātma (आत्म) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Ātmanṛsiṃha or Ātmanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

Purana

1) Ātma (आत्म).—Has no guṇas. Twelve characteristics of.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 18. 50; VII. 1. 7-9; 7. 19-20.

2) Ātmā (आत्मा).—That which is attained, which is taken away and that which is, and hence the ever present bhāva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 5. 34-5.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Ātma (आत्‍मा): The underlying metaphysical self, sometimes translated as spirit or soul.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Ātma (आत्म) or Ātmadhāraṇī refers to “the rentention of oneself” and represents the “four retentions” (dhāraṇī) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 52). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., ātma). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Ātma (आत्म).—How many categories of sentients/ soul / jīva / ātma are there? There are two main categories of soul, namely: empirical (saṃsārī) and pure or liberated (mukta). (see Tattvārthasūtra 2.10)

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

ātmā (आत्मा).—m (S) The vivifying principle; the animal soul or life. 2 The soul of the universe, brahma (anima mundi); or the immaterial and immortal spirit of man considered as identical with it. 3 The self, the abstract person or individual. 4 The nature or constitution; the natural temperament or disposition. 5 This word is further used to express--The intellect or understanding; the faculty of reason; wind or air; the body. Note. Countless compounds are formed with ātma after the assumption of क. See क.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ātmā (आत्मा).—m The soul; the self; the nature; the intellect.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Relevant definitions

Search found 102 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Atmapravada
Ātmapravāda (आत्मप्रवाद).—1) conversation about the Supreme Spirit. 2) Name of the seventh of t...
Atmadharani
Ātmadhāraṇī (आत्मधारणी) or simply Ātma refers to “the rentention of oneself” and represents the...
Atmapradesha
Ātmapradeśa (आत्मप्रदेश, “soul-points”).—What is meant by space-points of soul? The space occup...
Atmaviparyasa
Ātmaviparyāsa (आत्मविपर्यास) refers to the “mistake on the self” and represents one of the “fou...
Atmanrisimha
Ātmanṛsiṃha (आत्मनृसिंह) is short for Ātma, one of the aspects of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), accordi...
Atmanarasimha
Ātmanarasiṃha (आत्मनरसिंह) is short for Ātma, one of the aspects of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), accor...
Atmagupta
Ātmaguptā (आत्मगुप्ता) is another name for Avalguja (Psoralea corylifolia “Malaysian scurfpe...
Atmangula
Ātmāṅgula (आत्माङ्गुल).—A type of aṅgula (‘finger-measure’) used as a Jain unit of measurement;...
Atmayoga
Ātmayoga (आत्मयोग) or Ātmayogāgama refers to one of the upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of ...
Nivrittatma
Nivṛttātma (निवृत्तात्म):—Nivṛtta means indifference. The one who has renounced worldl...
Atman
Ātman (आत्मन्).—m. [at-maniṇ Uṇ 4.152 said to be from an to breathe also] 'आत्मा यत्नो धृतिर्बु...
Jiva
Jīva (जीव) refers to a “living being” according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 8.2.—Who is ...
Purusha
Puruṣa (पुरुष).—See under Prakṛti.
Samadhi
Samādhi (समाधि) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva ...
Loka
Loka (लोक).—Origin of Loka. There are several views in the Purāṇas regarding the origin of Loka...

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