Pravritti, Pravṛtti: 12 definitions

Introduction

Pravritti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Pravṛtti can be transliterated into English as Pravrtti or Pravritti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति).—(l) application or presentation of a rule as opposed to निवृत्ति (nivṛtti); cf क्वचित्प्रवृत्तिः क्वचिदप्रवृत्तिः कचिद्विभाषा क्वचिद-न्येदेवः (kvacitpravṛttiḥ kvacidapravṛttiḥ kacidvibhāṣā kvacida-nyedevaḥ) (2) working; function; cf. नान्त-रेण साधन क्रियायाः प्रवृत्तिर्भवति (nānta-reṇa sādhana kriyāyāḥ pravṛttirbhavati) M. Bh. on P.II.3.7.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति) refers to “local usages”. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra verse 6.10, there are four ‘local usages’ defined:

  1. Āvanti,
  2. Dākṣinātyā,
  3. Oḍramāgadhī
  4. and Pāñcālī (Pañcālamadhyamā).

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra verse 13, “it is said that pravṛtti is so called because it gives us properly information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. Vṛtti means ‘information’”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous (P) next»] — Pravritti in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

1) Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति, “activity”) refers to one of the twelve prameya (“objects of valid knowledge) according to the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Prameya in turn represents the second of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”). Accordingly, “pravṛtti (activity) is vocal, mental and bodily action”.

2) Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति, “inclination”) and nivṛtti (disinclination) refers to two types of Prayatna (effort) according to Viśvanātha in his Bhāṣāpariccheda.—The cause of inclination is the desire to do (cikīrṣā) notion of feasibility through one’s effort (kṛtisādhya), knowledge of being productive of the desirable (iṣṭasādhanatvamati) and the perception of the material (upādānasya adhyakṣyam). Disinclination (pravṛtti) arises from aversion and the knowledge of producing something repugnant.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (P) next»] — Pravritti in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति, “action”) or Pravṛttirūpa refers to “one who is in the form of pravṛtti”, representing an epithet of Goddess Durgā, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.11. Accordingly as Brahmā said to Nārada:—“[...] O sage, seeing her [Durgā] who was Śiva’s Energy herself, directly in front of me, my lofty shoulders bent down with devotion and I eulogised her after due obeisance. [...] Obeisance, obeisence, to Thee, who art in the form of Pravṛtti (action) [viz., pravṛtti-rūpa] and Nivṛtti (abstinence) [viz., nivṛtti-rūpa]; who art in the form of creation and sustenance of the universe. Thou art the eternal Energy of the movable and the immovable beings capable of enchanting everyone”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous (P) next»] — Pravritti in Hinduism glossary
Source: Hindupedia: The Hindu Encyclopedia

There are two directions of movement or phases in life, pravṛtti and nivṛtti. Pravṛtti is accumulating and indulging. Nivṛtti is clearing debts and transcending.

In pravṛtti, yajña brings material possessions, righteousness and heavenly bliss. This helps man fulfill his aspirations as well as contribute to social living. Man gradually grows beyond desires and becomes more impersonal. This is how he enters the nivṛtti phase.

During nivṛtti, yajña is done without any desire, merely as a duty. This helps in clearing past karma, but this greatly helps the well-being of surroundings (loka kalyāṇa). This is the way the realized soul performs yajña. This is the niṣkāma karma explained in the Karma Yoga of Bhagavad Gīta. In nivṛtti, yajña brings eternal bliss. Brahmandavalli of the Taittirīya Upanishad expounds the gradation of happiness experienced by men, manes, Devatas, lord of Devatas, teacher of the Devatas, creator of Devatas and the creator of the universe in the ascending order, increasing hundred fold for each level.

At each level, the bliss is equated to that of a veda-wise person (Śrotriya) who overcame his desire (kāma hatasya). In pravṛtti one experiences the bliss of Devatas. In nivṛtti one grows beyond desires and experiences the bliss of Brahman. In nivṛtti, yajña brings liberation.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Pravritti in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति).—f (S) Establishment, prevalence, currency: also procession or commencement. Ex. of comp. karma-kāla-dēśa-dharma-ācāra-mata-śaka-sampradāya- pravṛtti. 2 Engagedness in; state of being employed about. 3 Activity, occupation, active or worldly life: as opp. to contemplative devotion. See ex. under nivṛtti. 4 Continuous flow, stream, current, esp. in figurative senses. 5 Tendency; direction or course towards (as of the affections, genius &c.); predilection, propensity, inclination.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pravṛttī (प्रवृत्ती).—f Prevalent custom. Activity. Tendency.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Pravritti in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति).—f.

1) Continued advance.

2) Rise, origin, source, flow (of words &c.); प्रवृत्तिरासीच्छब्दानां चरितार्था चतुष्टयी (pravṛttirāsīcchabdānāṃ caritārthā catuṣṭayī) Ku.2.17.

3) Appearance, manifestation; कुसुमप्रवृत्तिसमये (kusumapravṛttisamaye) Ś.4.9. (v. l.); R.11.43;14.39;15.4.

4) Advent, setting in, commencement; आकालिकीं वीक्ष्य मधुप्रवृत्तिम् (ākālikīṃ vīkṣya madhupravṛttim) Ku.3.34.

5) Application or addiction to, tendency, inclination, predilection, propensity; न हि प्रजानामि तव प्रवृत्तिम् (na hi prajānāmi tava pravṛttim) Bg.11.31; सतां हि संदेहपदेषु वस्तुषु प्रमाणमन्तःकरणप्रवृत्तयः (satāṃ hi saṃdehapadeṣu vastuṣu pramāṇamantaḥkaraṇapravṛttayaḥ) Ś.1.22.

6) Conduct, behaviour; त्वां प्रत्यकस्मात् कलुषप्रवृत्तौ (tvāṃ pratyakasmāt kaluṣapravṛttau) R.14.73.

7) Employment, occupation, activity; विदितं वो यथा स्वार्था न मे काश्चित् प्रवृत्तयः (viditaṃ vo yathā svārthā na me kāścit pravṛttayaḥ) Ku.6.26.

8) Use, employment, currency (as of a word).

9) Continued effort, perseverance.

1) Signification, sense, acceptation (of a word).

11) Continuance, permanence, prevalence.

12) Active life, taking an active part in worldly affairs (opp. nivṛtti); प्रवृत्तिः कुत्र कर्तव्या जीवितव्यं कथं नु वा (pravṛttiḥ kutra kartavyā jīvitavyaṃ kathaṃ nu vā) H.

13) News, tidings, intelligence; ततः प्रवृत्तिः सीतायाः (tataḥ pravṛttiḥ sītāyāḥ) Mb.3.148.5; प्रवृत्तिसाराः खलु मादृशां गिरः (pravṛttisārāḥ khalu mādṛśāṃ giraḥ) Ki.1.25; जीमूतेन स्वकुशलमयी हारयिष्यन् प्रवृत्तिम् (jīmūtena svakuśalamayī hārayiṣyan pravṛttim) Me.4; V.4.2.

14) Applicability or validity of a rule.

15) Fate, destiny, luck.

16) Cognition, direct perception or apprehension.

17) Rutting juice, or ichor exuding from the temples of an elephant in rut.

18) Name of the city of उज्जयिनी (ujjayinī) q. v.

19) (In Arith.) The multiplier.

Derivable forms: pravṛttiḥ (प्रवृत्तिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति).—f.

(-ttiḥ) 1. Activity, occupation, active life, as opposed to contemplative devotion; or it is defined to consist of the wish to do, knowledge of the means of success and accomplishing the desired object. 2. Prosecution, perseverance. 3. Addiction to, predilection for. 4. Practice, conduct. 5. Tidings, intelligence. 6. Continuous flow, stream, current. 7. Employment, occupation. 8. Fate, Destiny. 9. Signification, sense. 10. Direct perception. 11. Progress, advance. 12. Rise, source, origin. 13. Appearance, manifestation. 14. The juice that exudes from the elephant’s temples, when in rut. 15. Oujein, or any holy place. 16. (In arithmetic,) The multiplier. E. pra before, vṛt to be or abide, aff. ktin .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति).—[pra-vṛt + ti], f. 1. Action, [Hitopadeśa] 17, 5 (engaging); occupation, doing, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 31; [Daśakumāracarita] 186, 13; activity, Bhāṣāp. 148. 2. Perseverance. 3. Practice, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 182, 10. 4. Tidings, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 57, 18; report, [distich] 102; utterance, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 21; [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 12, 60. 5. Continuous flow, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] d, 110. 6. The juice that exudes from an elephant’s temples when in rut.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति).—[feminine] coming forth, rising, appearance, origin; progress, advance, activity, endeavour, application or devotion to, occupation or dealing with ([locative] or —°); acting, proceeding; use, employment; continuance, validity of a rule ([grammar]); fate, destiny; news, tidings.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति):—[=pra-vṛtti] f. moving onwards, advance, progress, [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

2) [v.s. ...] coming forth, appearance, manifestation, [Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad; Kālidāsa; Rājataraṅgiṇī]

3) [v.s. ...] rise, source, origin, [Mahābhārata]

4) [v.s. ...] activity, exertion, efficacy, function, [Kapila; Sāṃkhyakārikā; Mahābhārata] etc. (in the Nyāya one of the 82 Prameyas, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 63])

5) [v.s. ...] active life (as opp. to ni-vṛtti [q.v.] and to contemplative devotion, and defined as consisting of the wish to act, knowledge of the means, and accomplishment of the object), [Horace H. Wilson]

6) [v.s. ...] giving or devoting one’s self to, prosecution of. course or tendency towards, inclination or predilection for ([locative case] or [compound]), [Rājataraṅgiṇī; Hitopadeśa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] application, use, employment, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] conduct, behaviour, practice, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] the applicability or validity of a rule, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Pāṇini [Scholiast or Commentator]]

10) [v.s. ...] currency, continuance, prevalence, [ib.]

11) [v.s. ...] fate, lot, destiny, [Rāmāyaṇa]

12) [v.s. ...] news, tidings, intelligence of ([genitive case] or [compound]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

13) [v.s. ...] cognition (with viṣaya-vatī, ‘a sensuous c°’), [Yoga-sūtra]

14) [v.s. ...] the exudation from the temples of a rutting elephant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. [Vikramorvaśī iv, 47])

15) [v.s. ...] Name of Avanti or Oujein or any holy place, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] (in [arithmetic]) the multiplier, [Horace H. Wilson] ([wrong reading] for pra-kṛti?)

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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