Pravritti, Pravṛtti: 25 definitions
Pravritti means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Pravṛtti can be transliterated into English as Pravrtti or Pravritti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Pravratti.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति) refers to “local usages”. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra verse 6.10, there are four ‘local usages’ defined:
- and Pāñcālī (Pañcālamadhyamā).
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra verse 13, “it is said that pravṛtti is so called because it gives us properly information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. Vṛtti means ‘information’”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति).—(l) application or presentation of a rule as opposed to निवृत्ति (nivṛtti); cf क्वचित्प्रवृत्तिः क्वचिदप्रवृत्तिः कचिद्विभाषा क्वचिद-न्येदेवः (kvacitpravṛttiḥ kvacidapravṛttiḥ kacidvibhāṣā kvacida-nyedevaḥ) (2) working; function; cf. नान्त-रेण साधन क्रियायाः प्रवृत्तिर्भवति (nānta-reṇa sādhana kriyāyāḥ pravṛttirbhavati) M. Bh. on P.II.3.7.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
1) Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति, “activity”) refers to one of the twelve prameya (“objects of valid knowledge) according to the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Prameya in turn represents the second of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”). Accordingly, “pravṛtti (activity) is vocal, mental and bodily action”.
2) Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति, “inclination”) and nivṛtti (disinclination) refers to two types of Prayatna (effort) according to Viśvanātha in his Bhāṣāpariccheda.—The cause of inclination is the desire to do (cikīrṣā) notion of feasibility through one’s effort (kṛtisādhya), knowledge of being productive of the desirable (iṣṭasādhanatvamati) and the perception of the material (upādānasya adhyakṣyam). Disinclination (pravṛtti) arises from aversion and the knowledge of producing something repugnant.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति, “action”) or Pravṛttirūpa refers to “one who is in the form of pravṛtti”, representing an epithet of Goddess Durgā, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.11. Accordingly as Brahmā said to Nārada:—“[...] O sage, seeing her [Durgā] who was Śiva’s Energy herself, directly in front of me, my lofty shoulders bent down with devotion and I eulogised her after due obeisance. [...] Obeisance, obeisence, to Thee, who art in the form of Pravṛtti (action) [viz., pravṛtti-rūpa] and Nivṛtti (abstinence) [viz., nivṛtti-rūpa]; who art in the form of creation and sustenance of the universe. Thou art the eternal Energy of the movable and the immovable beings capable of enchanting everyone”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति):—Action which initiated by Karma (the result of past action) and is the root cause of all miseries.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Prāvṛtti (प्रावृत्ति) refers to an “engagement”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The years of Jupiter (bṛhaspati) take their names from the several Nakṣatras in which he reappears after his conjunction with the Sun; and these names are identical with the names of the lunar months. [...] In the Vaiśākha month of Jupiter, princes with their subjects will be virtuous, fearless and happy; men will engage in sacrificial rites [i.e., yajñakriyā-prāvṛtti] and there will also be growth of crops”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)
Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति) refers to an “activity”, according to Utpaladeva’s Vivṛti on Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā 1.5.6.—Accordingly, “[...] Even in a conceptual cognition, fire is determined [as being] external [to consciousness only insofar as] it is manifested. It is for this reason that an activity (pravṛtti) [can occur] with respect to [something determined as being] external, and that an activity [can occur] with respect to [something determined as being] fire. [...]”
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Hindupedia: The Hindu Encyclopedia
There are two directions of movement or phases in life, pravṛtti and nivṛtti. Pravṛtti is accumulating and indulging. Nivṛtti is clearing debts and transcending.
In pravṛtti, yajña brings material possessions, righteousness and heavenly bliss. This helps man fulfill his aspirations as well as contribute to social living. Man gradually grows beyond desires and becomes more impersonal. This is how he enters the nivṛtti phase.
During nivṛtti, yajña is done without any desire, merely as a duty. This helps in clearing past karma, but this greatly helps the well-being of surroundings (loka kalyāṇa). This is the way the realized soul performs yajña. This is the niṣkāma karma explained in the Karma Yoga of Bhagavad Gīta. In nivṛtti, yajña brings eternal bliss. Brahmandavalli of the Taittirīya Upanishad expounds the gradation of happiness experienced by men, manes, Devatas, lord of Devatas, teacher of the Devatas, creator of Devatas and the creator of the universe in the ascending order, increasing hundred fold for each level.
At each level, the bliss is equated to that of a veda-wise person (Śrotriya) who overcame his desire (kāma hatasya). In pravṛtti one experiences the bliss of Devatas. In nivṛtti one grows beyond desires and experiences the bliss of Brahman. In nivṛtti, yajña brings liberation.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति) refers to the “functioning (of the mind)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 4).—Accordingly, “[Question: Why is the Buddha called Samyaksaṃbuddha?]—[Answer]: [...] Furthermore, he knows that all the Dharmas are truly unchangeable (abhedya), without increase or decrease. Why are they unchangeable? When the functioning of the mind (citta-pravṛtti) is stopped (sthita) and destroyed (niruddha), when the path of speech (abhilāpamārga) is cut, he understands that Dharmas are motionless (acala), like nirvāṇa itself. This is why he is called Samyaksaṃbuddha”.Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā
Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति) refers to “activity” (as opposed to Apravṛtti—‘without activity’), according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “How then, son of good family, does the Bodhisattva become skilled in knowing suchness (tathatā) without any differentiation as sealed with the seal of the Tathāgata? With regard to what we called ‘being sealed with the seal of the Tathāgata’, suchness without any differentiation is the seal, and it is without distinction, activity (apravṛtti), attachment, agitating, or being agitated, and thus it cannot be shaken by the world with its gods, humans, or anti-gods. Why? [...]”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Buddhist philosophySource: Google Books: The Treasury of Knowledge: Book six, parts one and two (philosophy)
Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति) or Pravṛttiviṣaya (Sanskrit; in Tibetan: ’jug yul) refers to “engaged objects”, representing one of the three types of “objects” (viṣaya) (i.e., ‘that which is to be comprehended or known’).—Accordingly, “That which is to be understood through valid cognition is ‘the knowable’. The terms ‘object’ (viṣaya; yul), ‘knowable’ (jñeya; shes bya), and ‘appraisable’ (prameya; gzhal bya) are all essentially equivalent, but it is the defining characteristic of the ‘object’ that it is to be comprehended or known, [...]. When objects (viṣaya) are analyzed in terms of their different functionalities as objects (yul du byed tshul), they fall into three distinct categories, namely, [i.e., applied or engaged objects (pravṛtti-viṣaya—’jug yul),] [...]Source: Wisdom Experience: Mind (An excerpt from Science and Philosophy)
Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति) or Pravṛttiviṣaya refers to the “engaged object (of one’s action)”.—The notion that conceptual cognitions are necessarily mistaken—even when they are epistemically reliable—reflects an overall suspicion of conceptuality that characterizes Indian Buddhism from its earliest days, but the technical account in part 1 draws especially on Dharmakīrti and other Buddhist epistemologists. For these theorists, conceptual cognitions are always mistaken in two ways. First, the object that appears phenomenally in my awareness, known as the conceptual “image” (pratibimba) of the object, is taken to be identical to the functional thing that I seek to act upon as the engaged object (pravṛtti-viṣaya) of my action. In other words, the phenomenally presented object “fire” in my conceptual cognition does not have the causal properties of an actual fire—the thought of a fire cannot burn wood. Yet our cognitive system creates a fusion (ekīkaraṇa) of this phenomenal appearance with the engaged object to which the conceptual image of “fire” refers.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति).—f (S) Establishment, prevalence, currency: also procession or commencement. Ex. of comp. karma-kāla-dēśa-dharma-ācāra-mata-śaka-sampradāya- pravṛtti. 2 Engagedness in; state of being employed about. 3 Activity, occupation, active or worldly life: as opp. to contemplative devotion. See ex. under nivṛtti. 4 Continuous flow, stream, current, esp. in figurative senses. 5 Tendency; direction or course towards (as of the affections, genius &c.); predilection, propensity, inclination.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
pravṛttī (प्रवृत्ती).—f Prevalent custom. Activity. Tendency.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Continued advance.
2) Rise, origin, source, flow (of words &c.); प्रवृत्तिरासीच्छब्दानां चरितार्था चतुष्टयी (pravṛttirāsīcchabdānāṃ caritārthā catuṣṭayī) Kumārasambhava 2.17.
3) Appearance, manifestation; कुसुमप्रवृत्तिसमये (kusumapravṛttisamaye) Ś.4.9. (v. l.); R.11.43;14.39;15.4.
4) Advent, setting in, commencement; आकालिकीं वीक्ष्य मधुप्रवृत्तिम् (ākālikīṃ vīkṣya madhupravṛttim) Kumārasambhava 3.34.
5) Application or addiction to, tendency, inclination, predilection, propensity; न हि प्रजानामि तव प्रवृत्तिम् (na hi prajānāmi tava pravṛttim) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 11.31; सतां हि संदेहपदेषु वस्तुषु प्रमाणमन्तःकरणप्रवृत्तयः (satāṃ hi saṃdehapadeṣu vastuṣu pramāṇamantaḥkaraṇapravṛttayaḥ) Ś.1.22.
6) Conduct, behaviour; त्वां प्रत्यकस्मात् कलुषप्रवृत्तौ (tvāṃ pratyakasmāt kaluṣapravṛttau) R.14.73.
7) Employment, occupation, activity; विदितं वो यथा स्वार्था न मे काश्चित् प्रवृत्तयः (viditaṃ vo yathā svārthā na me kāścit pravṛttayaḥ) Kumārasambhava 6.26.
8) Use, employment, currency (as of a word).
9) Continued effort, perseverance.
1) Signification, sense, acceptation (of a word).
11) Continuance, permanence, prevalence.
12) Active life, taking an active part in worldly affairs (opp. nivṛtti); प्रवृत्तिः कुत्र कर्तव्या जीवितव्यं कथं नु वा (pravṛttiḥ kutra kartavyā jīvitavyaṃ kathaṃ nu vā) H.
13) News, tidings, intelligence; ततः प्रवृत्तिः सीतायाः (tataḥ pravṛttiḥ sītāyāḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.148.5; प्रवृत्तिसाराः खलु मादृशां गिरः (pravṛttisārāḥ khalu mādṛśāṃ giraḥ) Kirātārjunīya 1.25; जीमूतेन स्वकुशलमयी हारयिष्यन् प्रवृत्तिम् (jīmūtena svakuśalamayī hārayiṣyan pravṛttim) Meghadūta 4; V.4.2.
14) Applicability or validity of a rule.
15) Fate, destiny, luck.
16) Cognition, direct perception or apprehension.
17) Rutting juice, or ichor exuding from the temples of an elephant in rut.
18) Name of the city of उज्जयिनी (ujjayinī) q. v.
19) (In Arith.) The multiplier.
Derivable forms: pravṛttiḥ (प्रवृत्तिः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ttiḥ) 1. Activity, occupation, active life, as opposed to contemplative devotion; or it is defined to consist of the wish to do, knowledge of the means of success and accomplishing the desired object. 2. Prosecution, perseverance. 3. Addiction to, predilection for. 4. Practice, conduct. 5. Tidings, intelligence. 6. Continuous flow, stream, current. 7. Employment, occupation. 8. Fate, Destiny. 9. Signification, sense. 10. Direct perception. 11. Progress, advance. 12. Rise, source, origin. 13. Appearance, manifestation. 14. The juice that exudes from the elephant’s temples, when in rut. 15. Oujein, or any holy place. 16. (In arithmetic,) The multiplier. E. pra before, vṛt to be or abide, aff. ktin .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति).—[pra-vṛt + ti], f. 1. Action, [Hitopadeśa] 17, 5 (engaging); occupation, doing, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 31; [Daśakumāracarita] 186, 13; activity, Bhāṣāp. 148. 2. Perseverance. 3. Practice, [Daśakumāracarita] in
Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति).—[feminine] coming forth, rising, appearance, origin; progress, advance, activity, endeavour, application or devotion to, occupation or dealing with ([locative] or —°); acting, proceeding; use, employment; continuance, validity of a rule ([grammar]); fate, destiny; news, tidings.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति):—[=pra-vṛtti] f. moving onwards, advance, progress, [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata; Suśruta]
2) [v.s. ...] coming forth, appearance, manifestation, [Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad; Kālidāsa; Rājataraṅgiṇī]
3) [v.s. ...] rise, source, origin, [Mahābhārata]
4) [v.s. ...] activity, exertion, efficacy, function, [Kapila; Sāṃkhyakārikā; Mahābhārata] etc. (in the Nyāya one of the 82 Prameyas, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 63])
5) [v.s. ...] active life (as opp. to ni-vṛtti [q.v.] and to contemplative devotion, and defined as consisting of the wish to act, knowledge of the means, and accomplishment of the object), [Horace H. Wilson]
6) [v.s. ...] giving or devoting one’s self to, prosecution of. course or tendency towards, inclination or predilection for ([locative case] or [compound]), [Rājataraṅgiṇī; Hitopadeśa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]
7) [v.s. ...] application, use, employment, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
8) [v.s. ...] conduct, behaviour, practice, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
9) [v.s. ...] the applicability or validity of a rule, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Pāṇini [Scholiast or Commentator]]
10) [v.s. ...] currency, continuance, prevalence, [ib.]
11) [v.s. ...] fate, lot, destiny, [Rāmāyaṇa]
12) [v.s. ...] news, tidings, intelligence of ([genitive case] or [compound]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
13) [v.s. ...] cognition (with viṣaya-vatī, ‘a sensuous c°’), [Yoga-sūtra]
14) [v.s. ...] the exudation from the temples of a rutting elephant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. [Vikramorvaśī iv, 47])
15) [v.s. ...] Name of Avanti or Oujein or any holy place, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
16) [v.s. ...] (in [arithmetic]) the multiplier, [Horace H. Wilson] ([wrong reading] for pra-kṛti?)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति):—[pra-vṛtti] (ttiḥ) 2. f. Activity; practice; tidings; stream; inclination.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Pravṛtti (प्रवृत्ति) [Also spelled pravratti]:—(nf) mentality; trend, tendency; (mental) inclination/disposition; instinct; activity; ~[gata] pertaining to or on the basis of trends/tendencies; —[mārga] (the path of) active association with and interest in mundane affairs; ~[vāda] the philosophy of active association with mundane existence; hence ~[vādī] (a and nm).
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] an onward movement; a going on from one point to the next; progression; course of movement.
2) [noun] a starting or commencing; a beginning.
3) [noun] the interest or intent involvement in worldly life (as diff. from spiritual life).
4) [noun] the act, fact of using or the state or fact of being used.
5) [noun] the act of one who deals; transaction or transactions; dealings.
6) [noun] inborn character; innate disposition; inherent tendencies of a person.
7) [noun] a report of or information about an event (esp. recent one); news; tidings.
8) [noun] looseness of bowel movement.
9) [noun] a flowing or flow; flux.
10) [noun] adaptation of costumes, local dialects in language, etc. by stage actors.
11) [noun] (Nyāya phil.) the religious merits and demerits, considered as one of the eight pramēyas (that of which a correct notion should be formed).
12) [noun] (log.) the act or thing done; an action.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+1): Pravritti-mulaka, Pravrittibheda, Pravrittijna, Pravrittijnana, Pravrittika, Pravrittikala, Pravrittilekha, Pravrittimant, Pravrittimarga, Pravrittimat, Pravrittimukha, Pravrittinimitta, Pravrittinivrittimant, Pravrittinivrittimat, Pravrittiparanmukha, Pravrittipratyaya, Pravrittipurusha, Pravrittirupa, Pravrittivacana, Pravrittivijnana.
Ends with (+19): Acala-pravritti, Alasapravritti, Anupravritti, Aparapravritti, Apravritti, Asatpravritti, Ashubhapravritti, Atipravritti, Avyajapravritti, Chitpravritti, Citpravritti, Cittapravritti, Daivipravritti, Dharmapravritti, Dushpravritti, Ekapravritti, Janapravritti, Jnanapravritti, Kalapravritti, Kshirapravritti.
Full-text (+268): Pravrittijna, Pravrittivijnana, Pautti, Nivritti, Pravrittipratyaya, Citpravritti, Snehapravritti, Pravrittijnana, Pravrittimat, Pravrittiparanmukha, Pravrittinivrittimat, Odramagadhi, Pravrittivacana, Paridi, Pancalamadhyama, Pravrittinimitta, Mekala, Sahya, Kalapanjara, Malaya.
Search found 88 books and stories containing Pravritti, Pravṛtti, Pravrtti, Pravṛttī, Pra-vritti, Pra-vṛtti, Pra-vrtti, Prāvṛtti; (plurals include: Pravrittis, Pravṛttis, Pravrttis, Pravṛttīs, vrittis, vṛttis, vrttis, Prāvṛttis). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study) (by Debabrata Barai)
Part 3 - Synthesis of Rīti, Vṛtti and Pravṛitti < [Chapter 3 - Contribution of Rājaśekhara to Sanskrit Poetics]
Part 2.5 - Genesis of Rīti, Vṛtti and Pravṛtti < [Chapter 5 - Analyasis and Interpretations of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā]
Part 20 - Study Conducted on Rājaśekhara’s Kāvyamīmāṃsā < [Chapter 1 - Introduction]
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita (by Narayana Gosvami)
Verse 16.7 < [Chapter 16 - Daivāsura-sampada-yoga]
Verse 18.30 < [Chapter 18 - Mokṣa-yoga (the Yoga of Liberation)]
Verse 14.12 < [Chapter 14 - Guṇa-traya-vibhāga-yoga]
Gati in Theory and Practice (by Dr. Sujatha Mohan)
Gati in Vṛttis and Pravṛttis < [Chapter 3 - Application of gati in Dṛśya-kāvyas]
Literary and dramatic elements in Nāṭyaśāstra < [Chapter 1 - Nāṭya]
Chapterisation—Thesis structure < [Introduction]
Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana (by Gaurapada Dāsa)
Text 7.30 < [Chapter 7 - Literary Faults]
Text 2.9 < [Chapter 2 - The Natures of Words (śabda)]
Text 4.89 < [Chapter 4 - First-rate Poetry]
Vaisheshika-sutra with Commentary (by Nandalal Sinha)
Sūtra 6.2.14 (Desire and aversion produce dharma and adharma through inclination) < [Chapter 2 - Of the Production of Dharma and A-dharma]
Sūtra 6.1.10 (Preference, should be given to worthy recipients afterwards) < [Chapter 1 - Of Vedic Duties]
Sūtra 6.1.11 (Equals or inferiors, if pure, should be accepted as guests or recipients) < [Chapter 1 - Of Vedic Duties]
Mimamsa interpretation of Vedic Injunctions (Vidhi) (by Shreebas Debnath)