Vaisheshika, aka: Vaiśeṣika, Vaishesika, Vaiseshika; 6 Definition(s)

Introduction

Vaisheshika means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Vaiśeṣika can be transliterated into English as Vaisesika or Vaisheshika, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

[Vaisheshika in Vaisheshika glossaries]

Vaiśeṣika (वैशेषिक) system advocates Dualistic Realism. It is said that this system has been founded on a Ṛk ascribed to the Seer Dīrghatamas. The Ṛk narrates that two birds which are intimate friends, reside in the same tree. One of them eats the sweet fruits, while the other without eating just looks on. The dualistic philosophers are influenced by this Ṛk which implies the distinction between the individual self and the Supreme self.

The founder of Vaiśeṣika is Kaṇāda. The name of this system Vaiśeṣika is derived from the word Viśeṣa. Viśeṣa as a separate category is discussed broadly in this system.52 We do not find this category in any other system of Indian Philosophy. So, Kaṇāda’s philosophy has come to be known as Vaiśeṣika system. The Vaiśeṣika system gives stress on the plurality and distinctness of physical things and finite souls. The special feature of this system is the theory of atomism.

(Source): Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)
Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[Vaisheshika in Natyashastra glossaries]

Vaiśeṣika (वैशेषिक).—One excelling (viśeṣayet) in all the arts (kalā) is called a Vaiśeṣika (specialist) or one is also called Vaiśika because of his dealings with the courtezans (veśyopacāra).

(Source): archive.org: Natya Shastra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[Vaisheshika in Hinduism glossaries]
The Vaiśeṣika system, which deals with the analysis of nature, takes its name from viśeṣa “particularity”. Starting from the principle that the particulars of the world, especially the atoms and the souls, are eternal and the objects which we experience and which are made up of parts are non-eternal it develops an atomic theory in connexion with the substances of earth, water, light, and air (space). Although this system is earlier than the Nyāya, which discusses the problem of knowledge and analyzes the ways in which knowledge is acquired, it has assumed the main logical principles which were developed in the other system.
(Source): Digital Library of India: Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika

Vaiśeṣika (वैशेषिक) is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (Vedic systems) of India. Historically, it has been closely associated with the Hindu school of logic, Nyaya. Although the Vaisheshika system developed independently from the Nyaya, the two eventually merged because of their closely related metaphysical theories.

Vaisheshika espouses a form of atomism and postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms. Originally proposed by the sage Kaṇāda (or Kana-bhuk, literally, atom-eater) around the 2nd century BC.

According to the Vaisheshika school, all things which exist, which can be cognised, and which can be named are padārthas (literal meaning: the meaning of a word), the objects of experience. All objects of experience can be classified into six categories,

  • dravya (substance),
  • guṇa (quality),
  • karma (activity),
  • sāmānya (generality),
  • viśeṣa (particularity)
  • and samavāya (inherence).
(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[Vaisheshika in Marathi glossaries]

vaiśēṣika (वैशेषिक).—m S A follower of the school of philosophy called vaiśēṣika.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Vaisheshika in Sanskrit glossaries]

Vaiśeṣika (वैशेषिक).—a. (- f.)

1) Characteristic, special; विषये वर्तमानानां यं तं वैशेषिकैर्गुणैः (viṣaye vartamānānāṃ yaṃ taṃ vaiśeṣikairguṇaiḥ) (prāhurviṣayagoptāram) Mb.12.47.7; 7.5.15.

2) Belonging to the Vaiśeṣika doctrine.

-kaḥ A follower of the Vaiśeṣika doctrine.

-kam [viśeṣaṃ padārtha- bhedamadhikṛtya kṛto granthaḥ ṭhañ] One of the six principal Darśanas or systems of Hindu philosophy founded by Kaṇāda; it differs from the Nyāya philosophy of Gautama in that it recognizes only seven instead of sixteen categories or heads of predicables (the earlier writers e. g. Kaṇāda recognizing only six), and lays particular stress upon Viśeṣa.

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 140 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Vaisheshika-sutra
Vaiśeṣikasūtra (वैशेषिकसूत्र) consists of ten chapters. In the first chapter the five categorie...
Nyayavaisheshika
Nyāyavaiśeṣika (न्यायवैशेषिक).—After 10th century A.D., i.e. after the time of Udayana, these t...
Guna
Guṇa (गुण, “quality”).—The Sāṃkhya system uses the term guṇa in the sense of the constituent el...
Kala
Kāla (काल, “time”) refers to one of the nine substances (dravya) according to the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣi...
Paramanu
Paramānu (परमानु, “imperceptible atoms”).—The Buddhists also believe in the reality of atoms. T...
Pramana
Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to the “instrument” or “means of valid knowledge” and is the first of t...
Kanada
Kaṇāda (कणाद).—The founder of Vaiśeṣika is Kaṇāda. The name Kaṇāda has been variously interpret...
Rasa
Rasa (रस, “taste”) or Rasaguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) accordin...
Samanya
Sāmānya (सामान्य) or “generality of universal” is regarded as an objective reality and a separa...
Dharma
Dharma (धर्म, “merit”) and Adharma (demerit) refers to two of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities)...
Karma
Karma (कर्म, “action”) is the third category (padārtha), in the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika philosophy. Aft...
Padartha
Padārtha (पदार्थ, “categories”).—According to Kaṇāda, all object of knowledge or all real comes...
Rupa
Rūpa (रूप, “colour”) or Rūpaguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) accord...
Samkhya
Saṃkhyā (संख्या, “number”) or Saṃkhyāguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) ac...
Dravya
Dravya (द्रव्य, “substance”) is the first and foremost category among the seven categories (pad...

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