Samanya, aka: Sāmānya, Sāmanya; 17 Definition(s)


Samanya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

[Samanya in Vaisheshika glossaries]

Sāmānya (सामान्य, “generality”) is one of the seven accepted categories of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Sāmānya (सामान्य, “generality”): Since there are plurality of substances, there will be relations among them (according to the Vaiśeṣika school). When a property is found common to many substances, it is called sāmānya.

(Source): Wikipedia: Vaisheshika

Sāmānya (सामान्य, “general”) or Sāmānyaguṇa refers to a classification of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to the Dīpikā on Tarkasaṃgraha.—The twenty-four guṇas are divided into sāmānya-guṇas and viśeṣa-guṇas. Sāmānya-guṇas (general qualities) are those which abide in two or more substances. Viśeṣa-guṇas (special qualities) are those which abide in one dravya only and not in two or more substances. Annaṃbhaṭṭa defines viśeṣa-guṇa and sāmānya-guṇa in his Dīpikā on Tarkasaṃgraha. Praśastapāda also mentions about these in his Praśastapādabhāṣya on the Vaiśeṣikadarśanam.

(Source): Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)
Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[Samanya in Ayurveda glossaries]

Sāmānya (सामान्य, “similarity”):—One of the six padārtha (or ‘basic categories’) which should be known to every Physician if he wants to understand the science of life.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Sāmānya (सामान्य) denotes similarity and as such brings unity and causes increase where viśeṣa is opposite to that e.g., meaning dissimilarity causing discrimination and decrease. The physician looking to aggravation and diminution of doṣas etc., should administer dravy for their increase and decrease according to sāmānya nad viśeṣa.

(Source): Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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[Samanya in Purana glossaries]

Sāmānyā (सामान्या) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (eg., Sāmānyā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

(Source): Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Sāmānya (सामान्य).—A mother goddess.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 30.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Samkhya (school of philosophy)

[Samanya in Samkhya glossaries]

Sāmānya (सामान्य, “common objects”).—There is almost an agreement among the commentators regarding the nature of sāmānya. By the word sāmānya the commentators generally mean the object of non-subjective apprehension. Such an object can be apprehended by many persons simultaneously. Sāmānya means common, just objects like a pot, which can be apprehended simultaneously by many persons.

(Source): Shodhganga: Prakrti and purusa in Samkhyakarika an analytical review
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Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[Samanya in Natyashastra glossaries]

Sāmānya (सामान्य, “sameness”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—When something in question is spoken of as having become undistinguishable from something else on account of similar qualities, there is Sāmānya or Sameness.

(Source): Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Sāmānya (सामान्य) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—The figure of speech sāmānya has been treated by so many Ālaṃkārikas like Ruyyaka (A. S./169), Mammaṭa (K.P. X/P. 134), Jayadeva (V/34), Viśvanātha (S. D. X/116), Jagannātha (R. G. II/P. 696) Appayyadīkṣita (Kuv. P. 290).

Cirañjīva defines sāmānya as—“sāmānyaṃ yadi sādṛśyādbheda eva na lakṣyate”.—“When due to similarity or due to similar attributes the mutual distinction among things are not observed the figure of speech sāmānya takes place”. In fact on account of similar attributes, the identification of thing is known as the figure sāmānaya. Cirañjīva has also discussed the distinction of sāmānya from mīlita. In his opinion in mīlita one of the two objects is subdued on account of similar attribute in such a way that the subdued object is not at all realized; but in sāmānya the difference between two objects is not cognisable due to their similar attribute and in it both the objects are cognizable.

Example of the sāmānya-alaṃkāra (from Cirañjīva’s own work Kalpalatā):—

udyatpatāśakusumairmitaiḥ samantā—cchonīkṛtāsu sakalāsu diśāsu sadyaḥ |
nā’bodhi kāmukajanairabhisāriṇībhiḥ śoṇāyitāpi puruhūtadiśā niśānte ||

“At present all the quarters being reddened by innumerable bloomed palāsa flowers all around. The eastern direction even reddened was not ascertained at the end of night by the lustful persons and the women going to their place of assignation”.

Notes: This is a beautiful description of the morning given by Cirañjīva. In the morning the lustful persons and women returning to their abode are unable to distinguish the eastern direction which has become red by the hue of the rising sun. They are unable to spot out the eastern direction due to the fact that all quarters have the same reddened hue by the bloomed kiṃśuka flowers. As the eastern direction is not distinguished from other quarters on account of the attribute of redness, the figure sāmānya takes place.

(Source): Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

[Samanya in Rasashastra glossaries]

Sāmānya (सामान्य) or Sāmānyamūṣā refers to an “ordinary crucible” and is a type of mūṣā (crucible) used for smelting metals.—Sāmānya crucibles were usually made of earth and iron-powder. Apart from these two substances horse-dung, powdered coal, burnt chaff of grains were also added. After mixing the well-ground substances and after adding some moistening agents like milk, a fine paste was made and crucibles of various shapes and sizes were constructed from it. Also see Rasaratnasamuccaya 5.171, 230 and Rasārṇava 14.151.

(Source): Indian Journal of History of Science, 31(4), 1996: Mūṣāvijñāna
Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[Samanya in Shaivism glossaries]

Sāmānya (सामान्य) or Sāmānyāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Parameśvarāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (eg., Sāmānya Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (eg., Parameśvara-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

(Source): Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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India history and geogprahy

[Samanya in India history glossaries]

Samanya refers to one of the five sub-divisions of the Nambutiris (the socio-spiritual aristocracy of Malabar) according to Subramani Aiyar. Tampurakkal.—The Samanyas form the Nambutiri proletariat, from whom the study of the Vedas is all that is expected. They take up the study of mantravada (mystic enchantment), puja (temple ritual), and reciting the sacred accounts of the Avatara and astrology.

(Source): Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[Samanya in Marathi glossaries]

sāmānya (सामान्य).—n (S) Generalness, commonness, generic or specific quality; comprehension of or relation to many species or individuals; the property or sense of Kind or Sort. Ex. āmbā, pimpaḷa, tāḍa, māḍa, ityādi sarva vṛkṣāṃvara vṛkṣatva mhaṇūna ēka sā0 rāhatēṃ. 2 A figure of rhetoric. The connection of different objects by common properties.

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sāmānya (सामान्य).—a (S) Common, general, generic, belonging to all or to many. 2 Middling, indifferent, ordinary, of the common sort.

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sāmānyā (सामान्या).—f S A common woman; a slave-girl, dancing-girl, temple-girl &c. viewed as common.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sāmānya (सामान्य).—n Commonness, a Common; middling.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Samanya in Sanskrit glossaries]

Sāmanya (सामन्य).—

1) A Brāhmaṇa versed in the Sāmaveda; ऋग्यजुषमधीयानान् सामन्यांश्च सुमर्चयन् (ṛgyajuṣamadhīyānān sāmanyāṃśca sumarcayan) Bk.4.9.

2) One skilful in chanting the verses of that Veda.

Derivable forms: sāmanyaḥ (सामन्यः).

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Sāmānya (सामान्य).—a. [samānasya bhāvaḥ ṣyañ]

1) Common, general; सामान्यमेषां प्रथमावरत्वम् (sāmānyameṣāṃ prathamāvaratvam) Ku.7.44; आहारनिद्राभयमैथुनं च सामान्यमेतत् पशुभिर्नराणाम् (āhāranidrābhayamaithunaṃ ca sāmānyametat paśubhirnarāṇām) Subhāṣ; R.14.67; Ku.2.26.

2) Alike, equal, same; सामान्यप्रतिपत्तिपूर्वकमियं दारेषु दृश्या त्वया (sāmānyapratipattipūrvakamiyaṃ dāreṣu dṛśyā tvayā) Ś.4.17.

3) Ordinary, of an average or middle degree; सामान्यास्तु परार्थमुद्यमभृतः स्वार्थाविरोधेन ये (sāmānyāstu parārthamudyamabhṛtaḥ svārthāvirodhena ye) Bh.2.74.

4) Vulgar, commonplace, insignificant.

5) Entire, whole.

-nyam 1 Community, generality, universality.

2) Common or generic property, general characteristic; नित्यमेकमनेकसमवेतं सामान्यम् (nityamekamanekasamavetaṃ sāmānyam) Tarka K.

3) Totality, entireness.

4) Kind, sort.

5) Identity.

6) Equanimity, equability.

7) Public affairs.

8) A general proposition; उक्तिरर्थान्तरन्यासः स्यात् सामान्यविशेषयोः (uktirarthāntaranyāsaḥ syāt sāmānyaviśeṣayoḥ) Chandr.5.12.

9) (In Rhet.) A figure of speech thus defined by Mammaṭa:प्रस्तुतस्य यदन्येन गुणसाम्यविवक्षया । ऐकात्म्यं बध्यते योगात्तत् सामान्यमिति स्मृतम् (prastutasya yadanyena guṇasāmyavivakṣayā | aikātmyaṃ badhyate yogāttat sāmānyamiti smṛtam) || K. P.1.

1) A general statement or expression; न सामान्यं विशेषानभिवदति (na sāmānyaṃ viśeṣānabhivadati) ŚB. on MS.1.8.16.

-nyam ind. jointly, in common; तैः सार्धं चिन्तयेन्नित्यं सामान्यं संधिविग्रहम् (taiḥ sārdhaṃ cintayennityaṃ sāmānyaṃ saṃdhivigraham) Ms.7.56.

-nyā A harlot, prostitute.

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 56 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Sāmānyamūṣā (सामान्यमूषा) or simply Sāmānya refers to an “ordinary crucible” and is a type of m...
Sāmānyapakṣa (सामान्यपक्ष).—the mean. Derivable forms: sāmānyapakṣaḥ (सामान्यपक्षः).Sāmānyapakṣ...
Sāmānyaguṇa (सामान्यगुण) or simply Sāmānya refers to “general qualities” and represents a class...
Sāmānyalakṣaṇa (सामान्यलक्षण).—a generic definition; इति द्रव्यसामान्यलक्षणानि (iti dravyasāmān...
Sāmānyaśāsana (सामान्यशासन).—an edict applicable to all. Derivable forms: sāmānyaśāsanam (सामान...
Sāmānyābhinaya (सामान्याभिनय).—The ‘harmonious representation’ (sāmānyābhinaya) is that in whic...
Sāmānyapadārtha (सामान्यपदार्थ).—the category called सामान्य (sāmānya) or generality. Derivable...
Alokasāmānya (अलोकसामान्य).—a. extraordinary, uncommon; °गुणस्तनूजः (guṇastanūjaḥ) Māl.1.1.Alok...
Sāmānyavanitā (सामान्यवनिता).—a common woman, prostitute. Sāmānyavanitā is a Sanskrit compound ...
Sarvasāmānya (सर्वसामान्य).—a. common to all. Sarvasāmānya is a Sanskrit compound consisting o...
Sāmānyajñāna (सामान्यज्ञान).—knowledge or perception of generic properties. Derivable forms: sā...
Ananyasāmānya (अनन्यसामान्य).—a. not common to any one else, uncommon, exclusively devoted, app...
Sāmānyapratipattipūrvakam (सामान्यप्रतिपत्तिपूर्वकम्).—ind. with equal respect; Ś.4. 16. Sāmāny...
Sāmānyaśāstra (सामान्यशास्त्र).—a general rule.Derivable forms: sāmānyaśāstram (सामान्यशास्त्रम...
Sāmānyaviśeṣa (सामान्यविशेष) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned ...

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