Samanya, Sāmānya, Sāmanya: 27 definitions
Samanya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika
Sāmānya (सामान्य, “generality”) is one of the seven accepted categories of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.Source: Wikipedia: Vaisheshika
Sāmānya (सामान्य, “generality”): Since there are plurality of substances, there will be relations among them (according to the Vaiśeṣika school). When a property is found common to many substances, it is called sāmānya.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)
Sāmānya (सामान्य, “general”) or Sāmānyaguṇa refers to a classification of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to the Dīpikā on Tarkasaṃgraha.—The twenty-four guṇas are divided into sāmānya-guṇas and viśeṣa-guṇas. Sāmānya-guṇas (general qualities) are those which abide in two or more substances. Viśeṣa-guṇas (special qualities) are those which abide in one dravya only and not in two or more substances. Annaṃbhaṭṭa defines viśeṣa-guṇa and sāmānya-guṇa in his Dīpikā on Tarkasaṃgraha. Praśastapāda also mentions about these in his Praśastapādabhāṣya on the Vaiśeṣikadarśanam.
Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Sāmānya (सामान्य, “similarity”):—One of the six padārtha (or ‘basic categories’) which should be known to every Physician if he wants to understand the science of life.Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Sāmānya (सामान्य) denotes similarity and as such brings unity and causes increase where viśeṣa is opposite to that e.g., meaning dissimilarity causing discrimination and decrease. The physician looking to aggravation and diminution of doṣas etc., should administer dravy for their increase and decrease according to sāmānya nad viśeṣa.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa
Sāmānyā (सामान्या) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Sāmānyā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”
The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Sāmānya (सामान्य).—A mother goddess.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 30.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Samkhya (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Prakrti and purusa in Samkhyakarika an analytical review
Sāmānya (सामान्य, “common objects”).—There is almost an agreement among the commentators regarding the nature of sāmānya. By the word sāmānya the commentators generally mean the object of non-subjective apprehension. Such an object can be apprehended by many persons simultaneously. Sāmānya means common, just objects like a pot, which can be apprehended simultaneously by many persons.
Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Sāmānya (सामान्य, “sameness”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—When something in question is spoken of as having become undistinguishable from something else on account of similar qualities, there is Sāmānya or Sameness.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Sāmānya (सामान्य) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—The figure of speech sāmānya has been treated by so many Ālaṃkārikas like Ruyyaka (A. S./169), Mammaṭa (K.P. X/P. 134), Jayadeva (V/34), Viśvanātha (S. D. X/116), Jagannātha (R. G. II/P. 696) Appayyadīkṣita (Kuv. P. 290).
Cirañjīva defines sāmānya as—“sāmānyaṃ yadi sādṛśyādbheda eva na lakṣyate”.—“When due to similarity or due to similar attributes the mutual distinction among things are not observed the figure of speech sāmānya takes place”. In fact on account of similar attributes, the identification of thing is known as the figure sāmānaya. Cirañjīva has also discussed the distinction of sāmānya from mīlita. In his opinion in mīlita one of the two objects is subdued on account of similar attribute in such a way that the subdued object is not at all realized; but in sāmānya the difference between two objects is not cognisable due to their similar attribute and in it both the objects are cognizable.
Example of the sāmānya-alaṃkāra (from Cirañjīva’s own work Kalpalatā):—
udyatpatāśakusumairmitaiḥ samantā—cchonīkṛtāsu sakalāsu diśāsu sadyaḥ |
nā’bodhi kāmukajanairabhisāriṇībhiḥ śoṇāyitāpi puruhūtadiśā niśānte ||
“At present all the quarters being reddened by innumerable bloomed palāsa flowers all around. The eastern direction even reddened was not ascertained at the end of night by the lustful persons and the women going to their place of assignation”.
Notes: This is a beautiful description of the morning given by Cirañjīva. In the morning the lustful persons and women returning to their abode are unable to distinguish the eastern direction which has become red by the hue of the rising sun. They are unable to spot out the eastern direction due to the fact that all quarters have the same reddened hue by the bloomed kiṃśuka flowers. As the eastern direction is not distinguished from other quarters on account of the attribute of redness, the figure sāmānya takes place.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)
Sāmānya (सामान्य) or Sādhāraṇa refers to one of the three kinds of “heroines” (nāyikā) in a dramatic representation, according to the Abhinaya-sara-samputa, as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—In the depiction of any mood or sentiment, a dance performance or a dramatic representation takes the medium of the hero (nāyaka) and the heroine (nāyikā). The nāyikās (heroines) are generally classified into three types [viz., Sāmānya].
The heroine of [the sāmānya] category is a courtesan who belongs to everyone. She is well versed in arts and tries to secure her life financially by the support of the lover’s attachment.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Sāmānya (सामान्य).—lit. resemblance in any one or many respects. In the Nirukta the word is used in the sense of resemblance between the word to be derived, and any form of a root; the term refers there to grammatical resemblance and may therefore mean grammatical consideration in general; cf. अविद्यमाने सामान्ये-प्यक्षरवर्णसामान्य त् निर्ब्रूयात् (avidyamāne sāmānye-pyakṣaravarṇasāmānya t nirbrūyāt) Nir.II.1.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: Indian Journal of History of Science, 31(4), 1996: Mūṣāvijñāna
Sāmānya (सामान्य) or Sāmānyamūṣā refers to an “ordinary crucible” and is a type of mūṣā (crucible) used for smelting metals.—Sāmānya crucibles were usually made of earth and iron-powder. Apart from these two substances horse-dung, powdered coal, burnt chaff of grains were also added. After mixing the well-ground substances and after adding some moistening agents like milk, a fine paste was made and crucibles of various shapes and sizes were constructed from it. Also see Rasaratnasamuccaya 5.171, 230 and Rasārṇava 14.151.
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Sāmānya (सामान्य) or Sāmānyāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Parameśvarāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Sāmānya Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Parameśvara-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Sāmānya (सामान्य) or “generality of universal” is regarded as an objective reality and a separate category (padārtha) by the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣikas. The category of sāmānya is conceived by them to explain the notion of commonness in different objects of a class. It is the basis of the idea of common characters among many individuals. Individuals are different in respect of quality, action etc. In the early period of the Vaiśeṣika school, it was conceived that whatever produced the idea of commonness should be regarded as universal. The etymology of the word sāmānya also establishes this idea. Etymologically sāmānya means the notion of sameness (samanānāṃ bhāvaḥ). But later on, it was realised that all attributes which produce the notion of commonness could not be regarded as universal. Hence, the Vaiśeṣikas hold that sāmānya is that characteristics which is eternal and which exist in all the individuals of a class.
Kaṇāda simply says that sāmānya as also viśeṣa depend upon the intellect for their existence. He does not assign any objective reality to sāmānya as also to viśeṣa. Praśastapāda describes sāmānya as the cause of the notion of common character in many things. Śrīdhara defines sāmānya as the cause which generates the knowledge of common character existing in many things which are quite different from one another. Udayana defines sāmānya with the help of its etymology and says sāmānya is the natural and not accidental characteristic of many individuals which gives the idea of commonness. In the view of Vātsyāyana, sāmānya is that which produces similar cognition in respect of different loc[?] and because of which individual objects are not differentiated from one another. It is the cause of assimilation of objects. Vātsyāyana, also maintains some difference between sāmānya and jāti which is not noticed in the Vaiśeṣika works. In his view jāti is that particular sāmānya which establishes non difference of same objects among themselves and difference from other objects. The same idea is expressed by Uddyotakara.
Praśastapāda divides sāmānya into two types, viz., para (superior) and apara (inferior). This division is accepted by the later exponents of the school. Udayana states that para covers a wider area, while apara covers a narrower area. Following Praśastapāda, Viśvanātha, Śivāditya, Keśava Miśra, Annaṃbhaṭṭa and others divide sāmānya into two kinds, superior and inferior. The example of para-sāmānya is sattā or being. It is superior because it covers a wider area than all other universals. It subsists in all the three padārthas, viz., dravya, guṇa and karma. It is a generality only. Dravyatva, gunatva, karmatva etc. which subsist in dravya, guṇa and karma respectively are apara-sāmānyas.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
India history and geogprahySource: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1
Samanya refers to one of the five sub-divisions of the Nambutiris (the socio-spiritual aristocracy of Malabar) according to Subramani Aiyar. Tampurakkal.—The Samanyas form the Nambutiri proletariat, from whom the study of the Vedas is all that is expected. They take up the study of mantravada (mystic enchantment), puja (temple ritual), and reciting the sacred accounts of the Avatara and astrology.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Sāmānya.—cf. traividya-sāmānya (EI 23), cāturvedya-sāmānya; ‘belonging to’; Valabhī-cāturvidya-sāmānya, ‘one of the Catur- vedins of Valabhī’; used also in the sense of vāstavya, ‘resident of…’ (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, pp. 172, 176). Note: sāmānya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
sāmānya (सामान्य).—n (S) Generalness, commonness, generic or specific quality; comprehension of or relation to many species or individuals; the property or sense of Kind or Sort. Ex. āmbā, pimpaḷa, tāḍa, māḍa, ityādi sarva vṛkṣāṃvara vṛkṣatva mhaṇūna ēka sā0 rāhatēṃ. 2 A figure of rhetoric. The connection of different objects by common properties.
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sāmānya (सामान्य).—a (S) Common, general, generic, belonging to all or to many. 2 Middling, indifferent, ordinary, of the common sort.
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sāmānyā (सामान्या).—f S A common woman; a slave-girl, dancing-girl, temple-girl &c. viewed as common.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
sāmānya (सामान्य).—n Commonness, a Common; middling.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) A Brāhmaṇa versed in the Sāmaveda; ऋग्यजुषमधीयानान् सामन्यांश्च सुमर्चयन् (ṛgyajuṣamadhīyānān sāmanyāṃśca sumarcayan) Bk.4.9.
2) One skilful in chanting the verses of that Veda.
Derivable forms: sāmanyaḥ (सामन्यः).
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Sāmānya (सामान्य).—a. [samānasya bhāvaḥ ṣyañ]
1) Common, general; सामान्यमेषां प्रथमावरत्वम् (sāmānyameṣāṃ prathamāvaratvam) Ku.7.44; आहारनिद्राभयमैथुनं च सामान्यमेतत् पशुभिर्नराणाम् (āhāranidrābhayamaithunaṃ ca sāmānyametat paśubhirnarāṇām) Subhāṣ; R.14.67; Ku.2.26.
2) Alike, equal, same; सामान्यप्रतिपत्तिपूर्वकमियं दारेषु दृश्या त्वया (sāmānyapratipattipūrvakamiyaṃ dāreṣu dṛśyā tvayā) Ś.4.17.
3) Ordinary, of an average or middle degree; सामान्यास्तु परार्थमुद्यमभृतः स्वार्थाविरोधेन ये (sāmānyāstu parārthamudyamabhṛtaḥ svārthāvirodhena ye) Bh.2.74.
4) Vulgar, commonplace, insignificant.
5) Entire, whole.
-nyam 1 Community, generality, universality.
2) Common or generic property, general characteristic; नित्यमेकमनेकसमवेतं सामान्यम् (nityamekamanekasamavetaṃ sāmānyam) Tarka K.
3) Totality, entireness.
4) Kind, sort.
6) Equanimity, equability.
7) Public affairs.
8) A general proposition; उक्तिरर्थान्तरन्यासः स्यात् सामान्यविशेषयोः (uktirarthāntaranyāsaḥ syāt sāmānyaviśeṣayoḥ) Chandr.5.12.
9) (In Rhet.) A figure of speech thus defined by Mammaṭa:प्रस्तुतस्य यदन्येन गुणसाम्यविवक्षया । ऐकात्म्यं बध्यते योगात्तत् सामान्यमिति स्मृतम् (prastutasya yadanyena guṇasāmyavivakṣayā | aikātmyaṃ badhyate yogāttat sāmānyamiti smṛtam) || K. P.1.
1) A general statement or expression; न सामान्यं विशेषानभिवदति (na sāmānyaṃ viśeṣānabhivadati) ŚB. on MS.1.8.16.
-nyam ind. jointly, in common; तैः सार्धं चिन्तयेन्नित्यं सामान्यं संधिविग्रहम् (taiḥ sārdhaṃ cintayennityaṃ sāmānyaṃ saṃdhivigraham) Ms.7.56.
-nyā A harlot, prostitute.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Samanyā (समन्या).—false Sanskrit for Pali samaññā = samājñā, name: mss. at Mahāvastu i.351.14; Senart em. samājñā. This form, or a relative, may also have been intended by the mss. reading samanyite at Mahāvastu i.247.10 (verse), for which Senart em. samājñā (unmetrical(ly)). Cf. samajñā, and § 2.15.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-nyaḥ) A Brahman conversant with the Sama Veda. E. sāman, and yat aff.
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(-nyaḥ-nyā-nyaṃ) Common, general, generic, universal. n.
(-nyaṃ) 1. Kind, sort, specific or generic property or character. 2. Common property, generality, community. 3. Public affairs or business. 4. Totality, entireness. 5. A figure of rhetoric, the connection of different objects by common properties. 6. A general proposition. f.
(-nyā) A female who is common to all men, a harlot. E. samāna common, (to many individuals,) ṣyañ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sāmānya (सामान्य).—i. e. samāna + ya, I. adj. 1. Common, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 157, M. M.; [Nala] 13, 17; in common, [Pañcatantra] 264, 2; base, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 197; sāmānyatara, Very insignificant, not dexterous, [Pañcatantra] 133, 1. 2. Equal, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 92. 3. Generic. 4. General, universal, whole. Ii. n. 1. Totality. 2. Public affairs, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 56. 3. Equanimity, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 95, M.M. 4. Common property, [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 25, M.M. 5. Kind, genus, or species, Bhāṣāp. 1; 7, 63. 6. Identity, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in
Samanya (समन्य).—[adjective] fit for a festival, festive.
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Samānyā (समान्या).—[adverb] commonly, equally.
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Sāmānya (सामान्य).—[adjective] like, similar, common to or with ([instrumental] ±saha or —°); ordinary, vulgar; general, universal. [neuter] equality, congruence, right proportion, normal condition, totality, universality. °—, [instrumental], & [ablative] in general, generally, sāmānyam [adverb] in common, together; in the manner of, like (—°).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Samanya (समन्य):—[from samana] a mfn. fit for an assembly or for a festival (as a garment), [Ṛg-veda]
2) b See p. 1154, col. 2
3) Samānyā (समान्या):—[from samāna] ind. equally, jointly, together, [Ṛg-veda; Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā]
4) Sāmanya (सामन्य):—[from sāman] 1. sāmanya mfn. (for 2. See [column]2) friendly, favourable (in a-s q.v.)
5) [from sāman] 2. sāmanya mfn. (for 1. See [column]1) skilful in chanting or singing, [Ṛg-veda; Bhaṭṭi-kāvya]
6) Sāmānya (सामान्य):—[from sāmāna] mf(ā)n. equal, alike, similar, [Mahābhārata; Śakuntalā]
7) [v.s. ...] shared by others, joint, common to ([instrumental case] with and without saha, or [compound]), [Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata; Suśruta] etc.
8) [v.s. ...] whole, entire, universal, general, generic, not specific (opp. to vaiśeṣika), [Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
9) [v.s. ...] common, common-place, vulgar, ordinary, insignificant, low, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
10) [v.s. ...] n. equality, similarity, identity, [Mahābhārata; Suśruta] etc.
11) [v.s. ...] equilibrium, normal state or condition, [Nīlakaṇṭha]
12) [v.s. ...] universality, totality, generality, general or fundamental notion, common or generic property ([in the beginning of a compound] [instrumental case], or [ablative], ‘in general’, as opp. to viśeṣa-tas, ‘in particular’), [Kaṇāda’s Vaiśeṣika-sūtra; Jaimini; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]
13) [v.s. ...] public affairs or business, [Horace H. Wilson]
14) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) the connection of different objects by common properties, [Kāvyaprakāśa; Kuvalayānanda]
15) Sāmānyā (सामान्या):—[from sāmānya > sāmāna] f. a common female, prostitute, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)