Nyayasutra, Nyaya-sutra, Nyāyasūtra: 7 definitions


Nyayasutra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Nyayasutra in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Nyāyasūtra (न्यायसूत्र).—The first systematic work of the Nyāya system is the Nyāyasūtra of Gautama or Akṣapāda. A large number of works were written after Nyāyasūtra for the development of this system. The accurate date of the Nyāyasūtra is difficult to ascertain. According to D.N. Shastri, the date of Nyāyasūtra may be put in the middle or at the close of the second century A.D. This is the primary text of the Prācina Nyāya school.

This Nyāyasūtra is divided into five chapters, each of which is again divided in to two sections called āhnikas. There are a large number of Sutras. The main subjects dealt in the Nyāyasūtra are: (1) Pramāṇa (the means of knowledge); (2) Prameya (the object of knowledge), (3) Vāda (discussion), (4) Avayava (members of a syllogism) and (5) Anyamata-parīkṣā (the examination of the doctrines of other systems of philosophy).

Nyaya book cover
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Nyayasutra in Hinduism glossary
Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

The Nyāya Sūtras are an ancient Indian text on of philosophy composed by Akṣapāda Gautama (also Gotama; c. 2nd century CE). The sutras contain five chapters, each with two sections. The core of the text dates to roughly 150 CE, although there are significant later interpolations.

In the Nyāya Sutras Gautama developed and extended the Vaiśeṣika epistemological and metaphysical system through 528 aphorisms. According to the Nyaya Sutras, there are four means of attaining valid knowledge: perception, inference, comparison, and verbal testimony. The sutra ultimates implicitly develop a theory of causation. Cause and effect should be homogeneous in nature, and yet the effect is a new beginning and was not already contained in the cause.

Later commentaries expanded, expounded, and critically discussed Gautama's work,

  • the first being by Vātsyāyana (c.450–500 CE),
  • followed by the Nyāyavārttika of Uddyotakāra (c. 6th–7th century),
  • Vācaspati Miśra's Tātparyatīkā (9th century),
  • Udayana's Tātparyapariśuddhi (10th century),
  • and Jayanta's Nyāyamañjarī (10th century).

The Nyaya is sometimes called Tarka-Vidyā or the Science of Debate, Vāda-Vidyā or the Science of Discussion. Tarka is the special feature of the Nyāya.

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Nyayasutra in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nyāyasūtra (न्यायसूत्र).—the aphorisms of Nyāya philosophy by Gautama. [Note: A few of the common Nyāyas or popular maxims that were given under this word by Prin. Apte are taken in the Appendix along with many others.]

Derivable forms: nyāyasūtram (न्यायसूत्रम्).

Nyāyasūtra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms nyāya and sūtra (सूत्र).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Nyāyasūtra (न्यायसूत्र) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—mīm. by Jaimini. See Mīmāṃsāsūtra.

2) Nyāyasūtra (न्यायसूत्र):—by Gautama. Io. 161. Oxf. 239^a. Hall. p. 20. Khn. 62. K. 152. Ben. 207. Kāṭm. 4 (and—[commentary]). NW. 356. Oudh. Ix, 14. Np. I, 34. Bhr. 748. Oppert. 7940. Ii, 1058. 4694. 6114. 8881. 9943. Rice. 104. Bühler 555.
—[commentary] L. 1210. Pheh. 13. Rādh. 13. 14 (laghvī vṛtti).
—[commentary] Nyāyabhāṣya by Vātsyāyana Pakṣilasvāmin. Io. 1821. Hall. p. 20. Khn. 62. Kh. Vi. B. 4, 30. Ben. 185. Rādh. 14. NW. 340. Np. I, 38. Vi, 38. Burnell. 113^a. Bh. 34. Poona. 267. 268. Oppert. 8234. Ii, 1158. Bühler 558.
—[sub-commentary] by Rāmacandra Bhaṭṭa. Oppert. Ii, 9653.
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyavārttika by Pāśupatācārya ŚrīmadUddyotakara Bhāradvāja. Kh. Vi. Ben. 188. [Oudh 1876-1877], 14. Burnell. 113^a. Oppert. Ii, 9603. A fragment of it Nyāyatrisūtrī- vārttika. L. 1504. See Nyāyakusumāñjali edited by Cowell, Preface Vi
—Ix. Quoted by Citsukha. C
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyavārttikatātparyaṭīkā by Vācaspatimiśra. Io. 1075. Paris. (B 158 a). Hall. p. 21. L. 1543. K. 152. Kh. Vi. Ben. 99. 169. 173. 188. 207. NW. 340. Np. I, 50. Burnell. 113^a. Quoted by the author Oxf. 237^b, by Citsukha. Cc
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyavārttikatātparyapariśuddhi or Nyāyanibandha by Udayanācārya. Hall. p. 20. L. 2358. Khn. 64. K. 120. Kh. Vi. 19. NW. 356. Np. I, 32. Burnell. 113^b. Oppert. Ii, 9604. [Oudh 1876-1877], 14 (Trisūtrītātparyapariśuddhi). P. 13 (dto). Ccc
—[sub-commentary]: Nyāyanibandhaprakāśa by Vardhamāna. Io. 488. Hall. p. 21. L. 1889. Ben. 182. 183. 188. 193.
—[commentary] Vardhamānendu by Padmanābhamiśra. Hall. p. 21. Rādh. 14. NW. 354. Lahore. 16. P. 14. Peters. 1, 119.
—[commentary] Nyāyapariśiṣṭa by Udayanācārya. Hall. p. 21. Ben. 188.
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyapariśiṣṭaprakāśa by Annambhaṭṭa. NW. 336. 380. Np. I, 30.
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyapariśiṣtaprakāśa by Vardhamāna. Hall. p. 22. Ben. 188.
—[commentary] by Candranārāyaṇa. NW. 368.
—[commentary] by Mukundadāsa. [Oudh 1876-1877], 12.
—[commentary] by Rāmabhadra. Bhr. 743.
—[commentary] Ānvīkṣikī or Nyāyatattvaparīkṣā by Vaṃśadhara. L. 1877. K. 152
—[commentary] by Viśvanātha Pañcānana. Oxf. 239^a. Hall. p. 22. K. 152. Ben. 207. 218. 220. 226. Rādh. 14. Oudh. Ix, 14. Xvi, 112. Np. I, 36. V, 164.

3) Nyāyasūtra (न्यायसूत्र):—by Gautama. Io. 161. 2786. Peters. 4, 16.
—[commentary] Nyāyabhāṣya by Vātsyāyana. Io. 1821. 3040. Peters. 4, 16. Stein 150.
—[commentary] Io. 999 (?).
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyadīpaka by Miśaruka. L. 4065.
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyavārttika by Uddyotakara. Xxi, 132. C
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyavārttikatātparyaṭīkā by Vācaspatimiśra. Io. 488 (Nyāyatrisūtrītātparyaṭīkā). 1075 (end of the fourth, and the fifth adhyāya). Rgb. 786 (inc.). Stein 149 (1, 1. 2). Cc
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyavārttikatāparyapariśuddhi or Nyāyanibandha by Udayanācārya. Io. 488 ([fragmentary]). 1075 ([fragmentary]). Oudh. Xxi, 132. Ccc
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyanibandhaprakāśa by Vardhamāna. Stein 149. *). The Vardhamānendu belongs to the Kiraṇavalīprakāśa.
—[commentary] by Viśvanātha Pañcānana. Io. 232. 1436. 2786. Stein 150.

4) Nyāyasūtra (न्यायसूत्र):—by Gautama. Ulwar 611.
—[commentary] Nyāyabhāṣya by Vātsyāyana. Ulwar 612.
—[commentary] Nyāyavārttikatātparyaṭīkā by Vācaspatimiśra.
—[commentary] on this called Nyāyanibandha by Udayanācārya. Ulwar 614. Extr. 150.
—[commentary] by Viśvanātha Pañcānana. Ulwar 613.

5) Nyāyasūtra (न्यायसूत्र):—by Gautama. Peters. 6, 199. Cs C. [anonymous] 3, 555 (inc.). C. Nyāyabhāṣya by Vātsyāyana. Cs 3, 413. 414 (both inc.).
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyavārttika by Uddyotakara. As p. 59. Cs 3, 367. C
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyavārttikatātparyaṭīkā by Vācaspatimiśra. As p. 59. Cs 3, 377. Cc
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyavārttikatātparyapariśuddhi by Udayanācārya. Cs 3, 348 (inc.). 349. Ccc
—[sub-commentary] Nyāyanibandhaprakāśa by Vardhamāna. As p. 97 (Adhyāya 1 and 3). Nyāyapariśiṣṭa by Udayana. As p. 97. C. Nyāyapariśiṣṭaprakāśa by Vardhamāna ibid. C. by Viśvanātha Pañcānana. Cs 3, 391 (inc.). 396. C. Nyāyasūtravṛtti by Dakṣacaraṇa. Cs 3, 390. After all this author may prove to be a bubble, as the short extract given agrees with the Nyāyasūtroddhāra of Vācaspatimiśra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nyāyasūtra (न्यायसूत्र):—[=ny-āya-sūtra] [from ny-āya] n. the aphorisms of the Nyāya philosophy by Gautama

[Sanskrit to German]

Nyayasutra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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