Vishesha, Viśeṣa, Visesa, viśeṣā: 45 definitions

Introduction:

Vishesha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Viśeṣa and viśeṣā can be transliterated into English as Visesa or Vishesha or visesa or vishesha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Vishesh.

In Hinduism

Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Viśeṣa (विशेष, “particularity”) is one of the seven accepted categories of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Source: Wikipedia: Vaisheshika

Viśeṣa (विशेष, “particularity”): By means of viśeṣa, we are able to perceive substances as different from one another (according to the Vaiśeṣika school). As the ultimate atoms are innumerable so are the viśeṣas.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)

1) Viśeṣa (विशेष, “special”) or Sāmānyaguṇa refers to a classification of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to the Dīpikā on Tarkasaṃgraha.—The twenty-four guṇas are divided into sāmānya-guṇas and viśeṣa-guṇas. Sāmānya-guṇas (general qualities) are those which abide in two or more substances. Viśeṣa-guṇas (special qualities) are those which abide in one dravya only and not in two or more substances. Annaṃbhaṭṭa defines viśeṣa-guṇa and sāmānya-guṇa in his Dīpikā on Tarkasaṃgraha. Praśastapāda also mentions about these in his Praśastapādabhāṣya on the Vaiśeṣikadarśanam.

2) Viśeṣa (विशेष, “particularity”) is the fifth category (padārtha) according to Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika philosophy.—According to the Kaṇāda, viśeṣa is the ultimate distinguishing factor of a nitya, dravya. All eternal substances are distinguished from one another and it is viśeṣa which distinguishes these eternal substances from one another. Kaṇāda also maintains that it depends upon intellect for its existence. Praśastapāda also defines viśeṣa as the ultimate differentiating factor of an eternal substance. “They are called viśeṣa, because they are the causes of the ultimate distinction of their substrates from one another. They are the final distinctive characters of eternal substances”.

Viśeṣa is defined by the later Vaiśeṣikas in different ways. Śivāditya defines it as that which remains in a single substance and which is devoid of universal. Viśvanātha defines viśeṣa as that difference which is ultimate (antya) and which belongs to the eternal substances.

Vaisheshika book cover
context information

Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Viśeṣa (विशेष, “dissimilarity”):—One of the six padārtha (or ‘basic categories’) which should be known to every Physician if he wants to understand the science of life.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Viśeṣa (विशेष):—While sāmānya denotes similarity and as such brings unity and causes increase, Viśeṣa is opposite to that e.g. meaning dissimilarity causing discrimination and decrease. The physician looking to aggravation and diminution of doṣas etc., should administer dravy for their increase and decrease according to sāmānya nad viśeṣa.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Viśeṣa (विशेष):—Speciality; Dissimilarity; opposite of samanya; denotes dissimilarity between two substances, properties or actions; one of the fundamental concepts in ayurvedic pharmacology that states that substances can potentially lead to a decrease or negative impact in the dissimilar substances or attributes in the living system, when engaged in an effective interaction.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Vishesha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Viśeṣa (विशेष) means “particularly”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.11.—Accordingly, as Himācala (i.e., Himālaya) said to his attendants and family-members: “From now onwards, none of you shall go to the ridge of mine, called Gaṅgāvataraṇa. This is my command. I am telling you the truth. If anyone of you goes there I shall punish that rogue particularly [i.e., viśeṣa]. This is the truth I am speaking. O sage, after thus checking all of his attendants, the mountain made other arrangements also. I now tell you all about the same”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Viśeṣa (विशेष).—Mahat and others; from them came the aṇḍa or universe; all water; from this came the fish (Puruṣa) with body. Hiraṇyagarbha with four faces.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 4. 75-8.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Viśeṣa (विशेष).—Specific nature causing a difference; difference; specific feature; cf. सामान्यग्रहणे विशेषानतिदेशः (sāmānyagrahaṇe viśeṣānatideśaḥ) (Paribhāṣā) cf. also यस्तु प्रयुङ्क्ते कुशलो विशेषे (yastu prayuṅkte kuśalo viśeṣe) etc. M. Bh. in Āhnika 1; cf. also क्रियावाचकमाख्यातमुपसर्गो विशेषकृत् (kriyāvācakamākhyātamupasargo viśeṣakṛt) Uvvaṭa on V.Pr.VIII.50.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Viśeṣa (विशेष).—The difference between diagonal and the side of a square, especially when expressed in terms of the side. Note: Viśeṣa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—Rudraṭa is the first Ālaṃkārika to admit viśeṣa as a separate alaṃkāra. Mammaṭa in his kāvyaprakāśa has treated this figure of speech (X/203) and its three fold varieties. Ruyyaka in his Ālaṃkāra-sarvasva has mentioned these three types following Mammaṭa.

Cirañjīva has defined viśeṣa as—“viśeṣaḥ khyātamādhāraṃ vinā’pyādheyavarṇane”.—“When a thing contained as deliniated as subsisting without its accepted container, it is the figure viśeṣa”. Cirañjīva’s definition is actually slightly modified form of the definition of Candrāloka (C.L. V/85) of Jayadeva and also the definition of Appayyadīkṣita’s Kuvalayānanda (Kuv. P. 227), which runs thus—“viśesaḥ khyātamādhāraṃ vināpyādheyavarṇanam”.

Example of the viśeṣa-alaṃkāra:—

astaṃ gate vijayasiṃhamahīmahendre mūnaṃ vibhānti bhuvaneṣu guṇāstadīyāḥ |
durīkṛte mṛgamade cirameva pātrā—dujjṛmbhate parimalo vimalaḥ sa ko’pi ||

“After the death of Vijaya Siṃha, the great ruler of earth his merits are shining verily in the world. Even after the removal of musk from a container forever some kind of pure fragrance continues to spread out”.

Notes: In this verse it has been said that Vijaya Siṃha the famous ruler of the earth has left the mortal abode but his merits are shining as before in this world. This may be compared to the fact that even after the removal of a musk from a container a sweet fragrance of the musk still spread out. Here the king Vijaya Siṃha is accepted as the container and his merits are contained. In the absence of the king Vijaya Siṃha i.e. the container the merits i.e. the contained is described to exist. So this is an example of viśeṣa.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vishesha in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Viśeṣa (विशेष, “particularity”) is the fifth category (padārtha) according to Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika philosophy. Viśeṣa as an independent category is recognized by the Vaiśeṣikas and for this reason, it is said, the name of this philosophy is Vaiśeṣika. The philosophies like the Sāṃkhya, the Yoga, the Mīmāṃsā and the Vedānta do not accept viśeṣa as a separate category. Vātsyāyana enumerates viśeṣa as a separate category among the six categories, viz., dravya, guṇa, karma, sāmānya, viśeṣa and samavāya. Viśeṣa (particularity) is the opposite of sāmānya (generality). Viśeṣa is the differentiator of the eternal substances, while sāmānya is the cause of the notion of inclusion. Sāmānya is inclusive while viśeṣa is exclusive.

According to the Vaiśeṣikas, viśeṣas do not require any other differentiating factor for distinguishing them from one another. If another viśeṣa is admitted to be the differentiator of the viśeṣa, then that will lead to infinite regress. Hence, the Vaiśeṣikas hold that the viśeṣas are self-distinguishing (svato-vyāvartaka). They distinguish their substrates from one another and at the same time they also distinguish themselves from each other. This self-distinguishingness is the nature of the viśeṣas and as such the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣikas do not accept viśeṣatva-jāti, because that will contradict the very nature of viśeṣa.

Annaṃbhaṭṭa mentions that viśeṣa subsists in the nityadravya (eternal substance) and it is innumerable. He also mentions in the Dīpikā that viśeṣa inheres in the atoms etc. The atoms of earth, water, fire and air are eternal substances. Moreover, ether, time, space, self and mind are also eternal substances. Viśeṣa distinguishes these nityadravyas from each other.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to a “specific ācamana”, according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—After applying Tilaka (clay markings), one should perform ācamana. Vaiṣṇava ācamana is of two kinds: ordinary (sādhāraṇa) and specific (viśeṣa). before performing any devotional activity, ordinary ācamana will suffice. However, at the time of bathing the deity or at the time of pūjā, viśeṣa-ācamana is to be performed. [...] In a situation where one is unable to perform viśeṣa-ācamana, ordinary ācamana will suffice.

Source: The Annals of the Research Project Center for the Comparative Study of Logic: A Study of Rāmānuja’s Theology

Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to “specifiers” or “differentiators”, according to Koki Ishimoto in his paper, A Study of Rāmānuja’s Theology : Three Aspects of viśiṣṭatva of Brahman.—Rāmānuja (1017-1137) is known as a philosopher who tried to harmonize the Vedānta philosophy with Vaiṣṇava theology. In later times his theory came to be called viśiṣṭādvaitavāda ‘qualified monisim’, since, in his view, Brahman is supposed to be qualified by three real factors: specifiers or differentiators (viśeṣa), auspicious qualities (kalyāṇaguṇa), and a twofold body (śarīra, spiritual and physical).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: academia.edu: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (Dharmashastra)

Viśeṣa (विशेष) or Devatāviśeṣa refers to “special (deities)”.—Two centuries after Kumārila, Medhātithi (ninth century), in his commentary on the Manusmṛti, repeats Kumārila’s argument for the exclusion of traditions that are ‘external’ to the Veda: “In this way, all those [people who are] external [to the Veda], such as the worshippers of the Sun (bhojaka), the followers of the Pāñcarātra, the Jains, the Buddhists (followers of the no-self doctrine), the Pāśupatas and others, hold that the authors of their own doctrines are exceptional persons (puruṣātiśaya) and special deities (devatā-viśeṣa) who have had direct experience of the truth they teach. They do not claim that their religious practices derive from the Veda (vedamūla) [and] their teachings contain doctrines that directly contradict the Veda”.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: academia.edu: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (Shaivism)

Viśeṣa (विशेष) or Viśeṣaśāstra (Cf. Mantramārga) refers to a “special or esoteric teaching”.—While Śaiva Siddhānta adheres to a strictly dualist doctrine (dvaitavāda, bhedavāda) according to which Śiva is the efficient cause of the world and is distinct from souls and worlds, non-dualist schools hold that Śiva is ultimately non-different from the soul and that liberation is achieved not through ritual but through gnosis. Thus Abhinavagupta, like most other esoteric Śaivas, sees Śaiva Siddhānta as a general and exoteric revelation (sāmānyaśāstra) that his non-dualist theory and practice transcend as a special or esoteric teaching (viśeṣa-śāstra, rahasya-śāstra). The theoreticians of Śaiva Siddhānta, on the other hand, disagree with this non-dualist metaphysics and claim that their dualist position is final.

Source: Sri Kamakoti Mandali: The Sects of śaivas

Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to one of the three kinds of Vīraśaiva, which itself refers to one of the four types of Śaivas based on ācāra, according to the Kriyāpāda of Candrajñāna (Candrajñānāgama).—One free from rāga and dveṣa and always immersed in the contemplation of Śiva, is called a Vīraśaiva, after all vikalpas are lost. They are again of three kinds: sāmānya, viśeṣa, and nirābhāra.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to the “particulars” (e.g., ‘considering the particulars that are the visual organ and so on...’), according to the Utpaladeva’s Vivṛti on Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā 1.5.8-9.—Accordingly, “[...] [—Objection from the Sautrāntika:] But just as [you] have said that [in the case of the inference of the sense organs,] the generality ‘causality’ has already been experienced through the experience of [particular causes] such as a seed, without considering the particulars (viśeṣa-parihāra) that are the visual organ and so on, in the same way, [you must admit that] externality too has already been experienced as a generality from the experience of [various objects that are] external to the body, the house or the village, etc. [...]”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to “aspects (of Śakti)”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī (KSTS vol. 65, 330).—Accordingly, “[...] Thus, due to practicing [this insight], the qualities of His consciousness, which are aspects of Śakti (śakti-viśeṣa), fully penetrate [those various levels], causing the [various] powers to arise. But even without practice, in the [rare] case of an instantaneous immersion into That, one obtains the state of liberation-in-life through the process of the direct experience of [the Five Mystic States]: Bliss, Ascent, Trembling, Sleep, and ‘Whirling,’ which means Pervasion”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to a “particular” kind of something, according to the Jayadrathayāmala verse 1.45.104-105ab.—Accordingly, “O goddess, there are (countless) hundreds of particular waves [i.e., viśeṣa-ūrmi-śata] in the exhaled and inhaled breath. Having taken up the modality in the middle (between the two breaths) where that Śāmbhavī energy that is brilliant like (pure white) snow (is located)....”.

2) Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to the “special (realisation)”, according to the Kularatnoddyota verse 1.30-35ab.—Accordingly, “O fair lady, what you are asking about, namely, the most excellent of them all is that special (viśeṣa) (realisation) that is accomplished by the Command in the Kula tradition. It is the teaching that has come down (to earth and is based on) six authorities. It is characterized by the (presence of a true) teacher and god and has come down through the transmission of the tradition by the sequence of teachers and disciples”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Sannyasa Upanishad

Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to “attributes”, according to the the commentary on the Kuṇḍika-upaniṣad verse 28.—The worshippers of the pure, resplendent Brahman (śabala-brahma) enter the world of Brahma (brahmaloka), that is, the sphere of Hiraṇyagarbha, along the path of the Sun (sūryamārga, or uttarāyaṇa-mārga) by exiting from the crown of the head (brahma-randhra) through the suṣumṇā canal; and there they are engaged in their quest for the attributeless Brahman till the end of the kalpa (till pralaya, or great dissolution, takes place). Having lived there till such time, they ultimately merge with Brahman on the attenuation of their subtle desires and attractions (vāsanā-kṣaya). Thereafter they never return to the plane of relative existence. This is the gradual liberation (krama-mukti) attained by the knowers of Brahman with attributes (sa-viśeṣa brahmajñānī). On the other hand, the knowers of the attributeless, absolute Brahman (nir-viśeṣa brahmajñānī) will attain direct, instant liberation (sadyo-mukti), here and now (ihaiva).

context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vishesha in Yoga glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)

Viśeṣa (विशेष) (Cf. Saviśeṣa) refers to “detailed” (teachings), according to Śivānandasarasvatī’s Yogacintāmaṇi, a 17th-century text on Haṭhayoga by consisting of 3423 verses.—Accordingly, “Meditation along with the practices [ancillary to it] have been explained briefly by me according to scripture and my understanding. Listening to and contemplating [the teachings] which are seen in detail (saviśeṣa) and at length only in the Upaniṣads, have not been discussed for fear of prolixity. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to “specifically”, according to the Devyāmata (chapter 105).—Accordingly, [while describing the consequences of a doorway]—“[...] Specifically (viśeṣa) listed with their own deities are those doorways which are especially good. Listen with care. The third one, named Jaya, brings great power and wealth. [...]

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to “specific (ritual procedures of propitiation)”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “If the Ruler of the Earth desires [to attain] victory in all directions, he shall obtain it for each one of them by means of specific ritual procedures of propitiation (ārādhana-viśeṣa)”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to “difference”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 2).—Accordingly, “[Question: If one-ness and substance are the same, what is the fault?]—If a vase (ghata) is synonymous with one-ness, in the way that Indra is synonymous with Śakra, then wherever there is one-ness, there must be a vase, as everywhere where there is Indra, there must be Śakra. Henceforth all substances, cloth (paṭa), etc., will be vase and one-ness. Since the vase is one-ness, wherever there is one-ness, there must be vase, and not only vase, but also cloth, etc., because all of them being ‘single’ substance, they are not different (viśeṣa)”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

1) Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to “distinction”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly as The Lord said: “O Śāriputra, in the buddha-field of the Tathāgata Ekaratnavyūha, there is a Bodhisattva, the great being Gaganagañja who is resplendent by the splendor of merit (puṇya-tejas), [...] who is adorned with determination because of gaining distinction (viśeṣa-gāmitā), is without any doubt about all dharmas as adorned with practice, is without high and low as adorned with great equanimity [...]”.

2) Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to a “different state”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā.—Accordingly, as the Lord said to Brahmā Prabhāvyūha: “[...] (2) Further, ‘the root of good’ is pure intention since it is without deception or guile (māyāśāṭhya),1593 ‘merit’ is the practice (prayoga) for all merits, etc., and ‘knowledge’ is the highest intention of going to a different state (viśeṣa-gamana). [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Buddhist philosophy

Source: Google Books: The Treasury of Knowledge: Book six, parts one and two (philosophy)

Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to “(imaginations of) attribution or qualification” and represents one of the ten aspects of distracting false imagination (daśa-vikṣepa-vikalpa), according to Khewang Yeshe Gyatso, Exegetical Memorandum chapter 5 (Cf. Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkārakārikā, chapter 11). These [e.g., Viśeṣa] are related to the imaginary nature (parikalpita). These ten are enumerated as aspects of false imagination which may be imputed in all sorts of contexts, and it is on this basis that the process of reification actually comes to partake of the imaginary nature.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Viśeṣa (विशेष).—What is meant by viśeṣa or “specific” in the aphorism? Specific here implies the specificity of an object, e.g. specific commitment, specific commencement etc is added to each type of substrata (adhikaraṇa).

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Viśeṣa (विशेष) refers to the “superiority” (of destruction by Yama), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “[com.—Next he speaks about the superiority of destruction by Yama (antakasaṃhāraviśeṣam)]—As the young so the old, as the rich so the poor, as the brave so the cowardly—Yama devours [all] equally. When Yama is an opponent of embodied souls, all elephants, horses, men, and soldiers and the powers of mantras and medicines become useless”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vishesha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

visesa : (m.) 1. distinction; difference; 2. attainment.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Visesa, (fr. vi+śiṣ, cp. Epic Sk. viśeṣa) 1. (mark of) distinction, characteristic, discrimination A. I, 267; S. IV, 210; J. II, 9; Miln. 29; VvA. 58, 131; PvA. 50, 60.—2. elegance, splendour, excellence J. V, 151; DhA. I, 399.—3. distinction, peculiar merit or advantage, eminence, excellence, extraordinary state D. I, 233 (so for vivesa all through?); A. III, 349 (opp. hāna); J. I, 435; VvA. 157 (puñña°); PvA. 71 (id.), 147 (sukha°).—4. difference, variety SnA 477, 504; VvA. 2; PvA. 37, 81, 135 (pl. = items). Abl. visesato, distinctively, altogether PvA. 1, 259.—5. specific idea (in meditation), attainment J. VI, 69: see & cp. Brethren 24, n. 1; 110.—Cp. paṭi°.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

viśēṣa (विशेष).—m (S) A distinguishing or characteristic attribute, property, or mark; a particularity or speciality: also individuality or specific quality. 2 A particular thing; an individual; an object distinguished by some attribute or adjunct. 3 An exception. 4 In arithmetic. Difference.

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viśēṣa (विशेष).—m S The sap of Boswellia serrata, Olibanum or frankincense.

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viśēṣa (विशेष).—a (S) Extraordinary, singular, eminent, remarkable for some particular or point. Used popularly in the sense of Much, more, greater, exceeding, surpassing. 2 (Used as ad for viśēṣēṃ- karūna) Particularly or especially.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

viśēṣa (विशेष).—m A distinguishing mark. A part- cular thing. An exception. Frank- incense. a Extraordinary.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viśeṣa (विशेष).—a.

1) Peculiar.

2) Copious, abundant; आसीद्विशेषा फलपुष्पवृष्टिः (āsīdviśeṣā phalapuṣpavṛṣṭiḥ) R.2.14.

-ṣaḥ 1 Discrimination, distinguishing between.

2) Distinction, difference; निर्विशेषो विशेषः (nirviśeṣo viśeṣaḥ) Bhartṛhari 3.5.

3) Characteristic difference, peculiar mark, special property, speciality, differentia; oft. in comp. and translated by 'special', 'peculiar' &c.; विशेषं नाधिगच्छामो गायतो राघवस्य च (viśeṣaṃ nādhigacchāmo gāyato rāghavasya ca) Rām. 7.94.14; प्रत्यादिष्टविशेषमण्डनविधिः (pratyādiṣṭaviśeṣamaṇḍanavidhiḥ) Ś.6.5.

4) A favourable turn or crisis in sickness, a change for the better; अस्ति मे विशेषः (asti me viśeṣaḥ) Ś.3 'I feel better'.

5) A limb, member; पुपोष लावण्यमयान् विशेषान् (pupoṣa lāvaṇyamayān viśeṣān) Kumārasambhava 1.25.

6) A species, sort, variety, kind, mode (usually at the end of comp.); पञ्चत्वाय विशेषाय कल्पते भुवनैः सह (pañcatvāya viśeṣāya kalpate bhuvanaiḥ saha) Bhāgavata 11.23.21; भूतविशेषः (bhūtaviśeṣaḥ) Uttararāmacarita 4; परिमलविशेषान् (parimalaviśeṣān) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1; कदलीविशेषाः (kadalīviśeṣāḥ) Kumārasambhava 1.36.

7) A different or various object, various particulars (pl.); प्रासादास्त्वां तुलयितुमलं यत्र तैस्तैर्विशेषैः (prāsādāstvāṃ tulayitumalaṃ yatra taistairviśeṣaiḥ) Meghadūta 66,59.

8) Excellence, superiority, distinction; usually at the end of comp. and translated by 'excellent', 'distinguished', 'pre-eminent', 'choice', &c.; अनुभावविशेषात्तु (anubhāvaviśeṣāttu) R.1.37; वपुर्विशेषेषु (vapurviśeṣeṣu) Kumārasambhava 5.31; R.2.7;6.5; Kirātārjunīya 9.58; so आकृति- विशेषाः (ākṛti- viśeṣāḥ) 'excellent forms', अतिथिविशेषः (atithiviśeṣaḥ) 'a distinguished guest' &c.

9) A peculiar attribute, the eternal distinguishing nature of each of the nine dravyas; अयमस्माद् व्यावृत्त इति व्यावृत्तिबुद्धिमात्रहेतुर्विशेषः (ayamasmād vyāvṛtta iti vyāvṛttibuddhimātraheturviśeṣaḥ) Tarka K. (these viśeṣas are said to inhere in the atoms of the Earth, Water, Light, and Air and the five eternal substances, Ether, Time, Space, Soul and Mind.); पञ्च चैव विशेषा वै तथा पञ्चेन्द्रियाणि च (pañca caiva viśeṣā vai tathā pañcendriyāṇi ca) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.36.29; Bhāgavata 2.5.29.

1) (a) Individuality, particularity. (b) A particular instance; उक्तिरर्थान्तरन्यासः स्यात् सामान्यविशेषयोः (uktirarthāntaranyāsaḥ syāt sāmānyaviśeṣayoḥ)

11) A category, predicament.

12) A mark on the forehead with sandal, saffron &c.

13) A word which limits or qualifies the sense of another; see विशेषण (viśeṣaṇa).

14) Name of the mundane egg.

15) (In Rhet.) A figure of speech, said to be of three kinds; it is thus defined by Mammaṭa :- विना प्रसिद्धमाधारमाधेयस्य व्यवस्थितिः । एकात्मा युगपद्वृत्तिरेकस्यानेक- गोचरा । अन्यत् प्रकुर्वतः कार्यमशक्यान्यस्य वस्तुनः । तथैव करणं चेति विशेषस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः (vinā prasiddhamādhāramādheyasya vyavasthitiḥ | ekātmā yugapadvṛttirekasyāneka- gocarā | anyat prakurvataḥ kāryamaśakyānyasya vastunaḥ | tathaiva karaṇaṃ ceti viśeṣastrividhaḥ smṛtaḥ) || K. P.1.

16) (In geom.) The hypotenuse.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viśeṣa (विशेष).—m.

(-ṣaḥ) 1. Sort, kind, manner. 2. Difference, individual or specific identity and consequent distinction from every other individual or species. 3. (In logic,) The peculiar attribute, (predicabile proprium,) the cause of preception or conclusion. 4. Excellence, superiority. 5. A limb, a member. 6. A mark on the forehead with Sandal. 7. A figure of rhetoric, distinguished as of three kinds all implying variety of means or effect. 8. A change for the better, a favourable turn, (as in sickness.) 9. Name of the mundane egg. 10. Individuality, considered as one of the seven Padarthas in Vaiśeshika Phil. 11. A word which limits the meaning of another word. E. vi discriminative prefix, śiṣ to attribute or distinguish by attributes, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viśeṣa (विशेष).—i. e. vi-śiṣ + a, m. 1. Difference, [Pañcatantra] 219, 14; at the end of comp. words, Different, e. g. gati-, m. Different ways, [Pañcatantra] 247, 11. puruṣa-, This or that man, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 124. 2. Special property, [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 25, M.M. 3. A change for the better, [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] 46, 9. 4. Sort, kind, manner, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 65; [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 149; [Pañcatantra] 114, 25; a different object, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 58. 5. Excellence, superiority; viśeṣeṇa, Particularly, [Pañcatantra] 142, 15; 162, 9; at the end of comp. words, Excellent; e. g. bhakṣa-, m. Excellent food, [Pañcatantra] 113, 9; 117, 2, cf. my transl. n. 767; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 142. 6. A limb. 7. A mark on the forehead with sandal. 8. Speciality, characteristic marks, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 13, 4 (tapasvin-, of an ascetic). 9. Abl. viśeṣāt, Especially, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 100; even more, just for that, [Pañcatantra] 109, 19.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viśeṣa (विशेष).—[masculine] ([neuter]) distinction, difference, special property, peculiarity; kind, species, individual; eminence, superiority; something extraordinary of, chief, first rate (°— or —°) — Instr., [ablative], & °— in a high degree, especially, particularly.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Viśeṣa (विशेष) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—[nyāya] Pheh. 12.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Viśeṣa (विशेष):—[=vi-śeṣa] [from vi-śiṣ] a m. (once in [Pañcatantra] n.; ifc. f(ā). ) distinction, difference between (two [genitive case], two [locative case], or [genitive case] and [instrumental case]), [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] characteristic difference, peculiar mark, special property, speciality, peculiarity, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] a kind, species, individual (e.g. vṛkṣa-v, a species of tree, in [compound] often also = special, peculiar, particular, different, e.g. chando-v, ‘a particular metre’, viśeṣa-maṇḍana, ‘a peculiar ornament’; argha-viśeṣāḥ, ‘different prices’), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) various objects, [Meghadūta]

5) [v.s. ...] distinction, peculiar merit, excellence, superiority (in [compound] often = excellent, superior, choice, distinguished e.g. ākṛti-v, ‘an excellent form’ ; cf. viśeṣa-pratipatti), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) a word which defines or limits the meaning of another word (cf. vi-śeṣaka and vi-śeṣaṇa)

7) [v.s. ...] (in [philosophy]) particularity, individuality, essential difference or individual essence (with the Vaiśeṣikas the 5th cate gory or Padārtha, belonging to the 9 eternal substances or Dravyas, viz. soul, time, place, ether, and the 5 atoms of earth, water, light, air, and mind, which are said to be so essentially different that one can never be the other), [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 66 etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] (in medicine) a favourable turn or crisis of a sickness, [Suśruta]

9) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) statement of difference or distinction, individualization, variation, [Kuvalayānanda] (cf. viśeṣokti)

10) [v.s. ...] a sectarian mark, any mark on the forehead (= tilaka), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] (in [geometry]) the hypotenuse, [Śulba-sūtra]

12) [v.s. ...] Name of the primary elements or Mahā-bhūtas (q.v.), [Maitrī-upaniṣad]

13) [v.s. ...] the earth as an element, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

14) [v.s. ...] the mundane egg, [ib.]

15) [v.s. ...] = virāj, [ib.]

16) [=vi-śeṣa] [from vi-śiṣ] mf(ā)n. extraordinary, abundant, [Raghuvaṃśa ii, 14] ([Bombay edition] viśeṣāt for viśeṣā)

17) [=vi-śeṣa] b etc. See p. 990, col. 2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viśeṣa (विशेष):—[vi-śeṣa] (ṣaḥ) 1. m. A characteristic; sort; difference; limb; sandal mark; figure of speech.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Viśeṣa (विशेष) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Visesa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vishesha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vishesha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Viśeṣa (विशेष) [Also spelled vishesh]:—(a) special, specific; particular; distinctive, characteristic; typical; much; ~[ka] qualifying, characteristic; ~[jña] an expert, a specialist; ~[jñatā] specialization; ~[tāeṃ] characteristics; -[nāma] an epithet; —[saṃskaraṇa] special edition.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Visesa (विसेस) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Viśeṣa.

2) Visesa (विसेस) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Viśeṣa.

3) Visesa (विसेस) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Viśleṣa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Viśēṣa (ವಿಶೇಷ):—

1) [adjective] of a kind different from others; distinctive, peculiar or unique; special.

2) [adjective] exceptional; extraordinary.

3) [adjective] highly regarded or valued.

4) [adjective] of or for a particular person, occasion, purpose, etc.; special.

5) [adjective] not general or regular; specific or limited.

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Viśēṣa (ವಿಶೇಷ):—

1) [noun] a special thing; as a special train, edition, sale offer or item, etc.

2) [noun] that which is peculiar or of particular characteristic.

3) [noun] the quality or condition of being peculiar.

4) [noun] (gram.) any of a class of words used to modify a noun or other substantive; an adjective.

5) [noun] (gram.) any of a class of words used generally to modify a verb, an adjective; an adverb.

6) [noun] (rhet.) a figure of speech, in which an obejct is described as imperfect but unique or special.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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