Paramarsha, Parāmarśa: 27 definitions

Introduction:

Paramarsha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Parāmarśa can be transliterated into English as Paramarsa or Paramarsha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Paramarsh.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Paramarsha in Ayurveda glossary
Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Parāmarśa (परामर्श):—[parāmarśaḥ] A process of drawing inference based on analogy

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Paramarsha in Shaivism glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Parāmarśa (परामर्श) refers to “realizing” (i.e., ‘reflective awareness’), according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā III.2.12.—Accordingly, “But when, through realizing (parāmarśa) [that the divine] qualities such as all-pervasiveness and eternality apply to oneself, by having the experience of the [real] “I” whose nature is [unqualified] freedom—[an experience] pointed out by the guru’s instruction and other methods that I have explained—[and] having therefore emerged as it were from [identification with] the objective knowables of the Void etc., and [as a result] abiding [in one’s real nature], then that is the [transcendent] state [called] the Fourth. [...]”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Parāmarśa (परामर्श) refers to “(unstruck) active ideation” (i.e., verbalization that is not the result of contact with organs), according to the Netratantroddyota commentary on the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 22.14]—“Praṇava is the universal pulse or throb that is unstruck, active ideation (anāhata-parāmarśa-ātmasa) (verbalization that is not the result of contact with organs) which is like kalpa, the first acceptance of the cognition and action of all that is to be known and done for all living beings, because there could be no knowing and no doing without [praṇava]. [...]”.

Source: Cracow Indological Studies: Dissolving the Boundaries between Ritual, Cognition, and Theatrical Performance in Non-dual Śaivism

1) Parāmarśa (परामर्श) refers to the “inner thought-reflection” (that the supreme principle exists in its own nature), according to the Tantrasāra of Abhinavagupta, chapter 4 (p. 26).—Accordingly, “Prayer (japa) is the (cultivation) of the inner thought-reflection (parāmarśa) that the supreme principle exists in its own nature, without association with external and internal forms of cognizable objects. This thought-reflection is carried out with the purpose of generating the (pure) reflection consisting of both external and internal forms”.

2) Parāmarśa (परामर्श) refers to the “thought-reflection” (on one’s own true nature), according to Maheśvarānanda in his 13th century Mahārthamañjarī (v. 43).—Accordingly, Maheśvarānanda seems to support the idea that those who have come to an end with the models of self-realization offered by all other schools of Śaivism need the highest Krama teaching of cognitive ritual, which he understands as a thought-reflection (parāmarśa) on one’s own true nature. If the deity is equated with the pure light of consciousness, the act of worship must be a contemplation of that identity as the means of bringing about the definitive purification of the structure of the vikalpas, which upon losing its sense of separateness from the self become pervaded by the light of consciousness. For Maheśvarānanda, this contemplation (parāmarśa) is conveyed through the image of the Dancer/Actor. [...]

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaiva philosophy

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Parāmarśa (परामर्श) refers to “determinations”.—If we are using “cognition” to refer to the perceiver, they are objects of cognition; but they themselves can be referred to as “cognitions” if we understand “cognitions” to mean determinations (adhyavasāya, parāmarśa).

Note: Rāmakaṇtha asserts that parāmarśa, despite rising and passing away, does not indicate the non-eternality of the self, as it occurs not in the self but in the buddhi (and the ahaṅkāra): that vimarśa is synonymous with parāmarśa for Rāmakaṇṭha is suggested by Nareśvaraparīkṣāprakāśa ad 1:17, pp. 41,5–44,3. [...] Rāmakaṇtha uses adhyavasāya and parāmarśa (and niścaya) as synonyms, as suggested by Mataṅgavṛtti, Vidyāpāda ad 6:35b–d, p. 174,4–175,9;

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Paramarsha in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Parāmarśa (परामर्श) refers to “apprehending (the absence of thought)”, according to Kṣemarāja’s Pratyabhijñāhṛdaya.—Accordingly, while discussing easy methods of Yoga practice: “[...] By apprehending (parāmarśa) the absence of thought because there is no thinking at all, one becomes full of the perception of a knowing subject's own consciousness devoid of defects such as the body and so on, and one soon obtains immersion in the fourth [state] and that beyond the fourth [state], [an immersion] whose expansiveness is [always] opening out”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Paramarsha in Shaktism glossary
Source: academia.edu: The Touch of Śakti

Parāmarśa (परामर्श) is the act of awareness, of self-recognition.—Jayaratha uses the word parāmarśa for the recognition of the “I”(aham), the full recognition of one’s true nature (pūrṇāhantā), “in the form of the pure radiance of the Self” (Jayaratha, commentary on Tantrāloka 3.203-204).

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Parāmarśa (परामर्श) refers to “pondering” (in various ways), according to the Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta 2.5 (“Prema: Love of God”).—Accordingly, as Nārada said: “[...] I worship the pastimes He [Kṛṣṇa] performed in the early mornings when He entered the Vṛndāvana forest with His calves and friends—most relishable pastimes, such as entering the mouth of a great serpent after pondering (parāmarśa) in various ways. My mind is utterly enchanted by the Lord’s pastime of taking lunch on the grassy shore of a lake and then going off to search for the calves, His hand adorned with a lump of rice mixed with yogurt. [...]”.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Paramarsha in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of nyayavaisesika categories with special reference to tarkasamgraha

Parāmarśa (परामर्श) is defined by Annaṃbhaṭṭa as “The knowledge of pakṣadharmatā which is characterized by the invariable concomitance”.—In inference, there are three terms, viz., pakṣa, sādhya and hetu. The pakṣa is the subject in connection with which something is sought to be established which is suspected but not definitely known to be present in it. [...] Pakṣadharmatā is the knowledge that the middle exists in the minor. When this knowledge is characterized by vyāpti or invariable concomitance, then that is called parāmarśa or liṅgaparāmarśa.

Nyaya book cover
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Paramarsha in Vedanta glossary
Source: archive.org: A History of Indian Philosophy (vedanta)

Parāmarśa (परामर्श) refers to “knowledge of the existence of reason”, according to the Philosophy of the Rāmānuja School of Thought.—Inference according to the Rāmānuja school is very much the same as inference according to the Naiyāyikas. Inference is the direct result of parāmarśa, or knowledge of the existence of reason (associated with the knowledge of its unblemished and full concomitance with the probandum) in the object denoted by the minor term. Inference is a process by which, from a universal proposition which includes within it all the particular cases, we can make an affirmation regarding a particular case.

Vedanta book cover
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Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Paramarsha in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Parāmarśa (परामर्श) refers to “blind attachment” [?], according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[Digression on a case brought against the Buddha; B. The defense].—[3. Display of His Tongue and His Cryptorchidia].—[...]  Out of great compassion and in order to save beings, the Buddha showed himself three times in the space of a flash of lightning, and the beings who saw him knew that the Buddha has great compassion and that he really has no blind attachment (parāmarśa) or prejudice (abhiniveśa) towards the moral precepts (śīla). It is for these reasons that the Buddha showed these two marks: it was neither out of play nor out of a sense of modesty”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Paramarsha in Buddhism glossary
Source: Google Books: Divine Stories

Parāmarśa (परामर्श, “clinging”) refers to one of the “Nine bonds to Existence” (navasaṃyojana).—The term saṃyojana is usually translated as “fetter,” but these nine [e.g., clinging (parāmarśa)] do not correspond to the standard list of fetters (e.g, ten fetters, five lower fetters, three fetters).

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paramarsha in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parāmarśa (परामर्श).—m (S) Kindly inquiring into and relieving the wants and pains of the poor, sick, and afflicted: also inquiring into the health and welfare of friends: also attending to guests at a feast &c. v ghē, kara. 2 In logic. Perception of an instance of the application of a law; apprehension of a principle or truth upon experience; drawing a general conclusion upon observation of a particular operation or effect. 3 Touching or affecting; taking in.

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parāmarṣa (परामर्ष).—m Corruptions of the preceding word, but used only in the first sense.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

parāmarśa (परामर्श).—m Kindly inquiry. In logic. Perception of an instance of the application of a law.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paramarsha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parāmarśa (परामर्श).—1 Seizing, pulling; as in केशपरामर्शः (keśaparāmarśaḥ).

2) Bending or drawing (as a bow).

2) Violence, attack, assault; याज्ञसेन्याः परामर्शः (yājñasenyāḥ parāmarśaḥ) Mb.

4) Disturbance, hindrance; तपःपरामर्शविवृद्धमन्योः (tapaḥparāmarśavivṛddhamanyoḥ) Kumārasambhava 3.71.

5) Calling to mind, recollection.

6) Consideration, reflection, thought.

7) Judgment.

8) (In logic) Deduction, ascertaining that the पक्ष (pakṣa) or subject possesses the हेतु (hetu); व्याप्तिविशिष्टपक्ष- धर्मताज्ञानं परामर्शः (vyāptiviśiṣṭapakṣa- dharmatājñānaṃ parāmarśaḥ) T. S; or व्याप्तस्य पक्षधर्मत्वधीः परामर्श उच्यते (vyāptasya pakṣadharmatvadhīḥ parāmarśa ucyate) Bhāṣā P.66.

9) Touching, striking gently.

1) Affection (by disease).

Derivable forms: parāmarśaḥ (परामर्शः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Parāmarśa (परामर्श).—m. (to next; = Pali parāmāsa), clinging to; see dṛṣṭi-p° and śīlavrata-p°.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parāmarśa (परामर्श).—m.

(-rśaḥ) 1. Discrimination, discriminating, distinguishing, judgment. 2. (In Logic,) Drawing conclusions from analogy or experience: knowledge of the existence of hetu in the Paksha. 3. Seizing, pulling. 4. Violence, assault, attack. 5. Hindrance. 6. Reflection, consideration, investigation. E. parā implying supre macy, &c. mṛś to deliberate, bhāve ghañ aff.

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Parāmarṣa (परामर्ष).—m.

(-rṣaḥ) Forbearance. E. parā, and mṛṣ to bear, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parāmarśa (परामर्श).—i. e. parā-mṛś + a, m. 1. Pulling, Mahābhārata 7, 1399. 2. Drawing (as a bow), [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 76, 17. 3. Injuring, 3, 7, 30. 4. Assailing, Mahābhārata 3, 15060. 5. Consideration, reflexion, Mahābhārata 7, 4188. 6. Knowledge of the minor premiss in its connection with the major, Bhāṣāp. 67.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parāmarśa (परामर्श).—[masculine] seizure, touch; attack, injury [locative], [genetive], or —°); relation, insinuation, recollection, reflection, consideration, thought.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Parāmarśa (परामर्श) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—[nyāya] Pheh. 12. 13.
—[commentary] by Jagadīśa. Oppert. Ii, 3705.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parāmarśa (परामर्श):—[=parā-marśa] [from parā-mṛś] m. seizing, pulling (keśa-, by the hair), [Mahābhārata]

2) [v.s. ...] bending or drawing (of a bow), [Rāmāyaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] violation, injury, assault, attack, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Kādambarī]

4) [v.s. ...] affection (by disease etc.), [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] remembrance, recollection, [Vedāntasāra]

6) [v.s. ...] referring or pointing t°, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] reflection, consideration, judgement, [Mahābhārata; Bhāṣāpariccheda]

8) [v.s. ...] (in logic) inference, conclusion, drawing conclusions from analogy or experience, knowledge of the minor premiss in its connection with the major

9) [v.s. ...] Name of [work]

10) Pāramarṣa (पारमर्ष):—[=pārama-rṣa] [from pārama] (p+ṛṣi) mfn. coming from a great Ṛṣi, [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parāmarśa (परामर्श):—[parā-marśa] (rśaḥ) 1. m. Discrimination, judgment; advice.

2) Parāmarṣa (परामर्ष):—[parā-marṣa] (rṣaḥ) 1. m. Forbearance.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parāmarśa (परामर्श) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Parāmarisa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Paramarsha in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paramarsha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parāmarśa (परामर्श) [Also spelled paramarsh]:—(nm) counsel; advice; consultation; ~[dātā] an adviser, a counsel; ~[dātrī samiti] an advisory committee; [parāmarśīya] advisory, consultative; •[mata] advisory opinion; —[karanā] to lay/put heads together; —[denā] to advise.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paramarsha in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Parāmarśa (ಪರಾಮರ್ಶ):—

1) [noun] = ಪರಾಮರ್ಶೆ [paramarshe].

2) [noun] the act of pulling, attracting towards.

3) [noun] a hostile attack.

4) [noun] the total of what one remembers and the act, power of remembering.

5) [noun] a taking care of another as a child, aged, sick person, etc.

6) [noun] (log.) knowledge of a thing got in the form of conclusion reached by reasoning.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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