Amarakoshodghatana of Kshirasvamin (study)

by A. Yamuna Devi | 2012 | 77,297 words | ISBN-13: 9788193658048

This page relates ‘Kshirasvamin and other schools of Sanskrit grammar (Introduction)’ of the study on the Amarakoshodghatana of Kshirasvamin (in English) which represents a commentary on the Amarakosha of Amarasimha. These ancient texts belong the Kosha or “lexicography” category of Sanskrit literature which deals with the analysis and meaning of technical words from a variety of subjects, such as cosmology, anatomy, medicine, hygiene. The Amarakosa itself is one of the earliest of such text, dating from the 6th century A.D., while the Amarakoshodghatana is the earliest known commentary on that work.

Kṣīrasvāmin and other schools of Sanskrit grammar (Introduction)

A brief note on the systems of Sanskrit grammar developed by the 11th C. A.D. is presented here as one can observe that Kṣīrasvāmin cites Bhoja and Candra systems of grammar in some occasions.

(a) Aṣṭādhyāyī

Pāṇini’s Aṣṭādhyāyī is a work in eight chapters (adhyāyas) containing about 3981 sūtras. Kātyāyana wrote the Vārttikas, a brief commentary on the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini. Later Patañjali wrote an elaborate commentary on the Aṣṭādhyāyī and his work is called the Mahābhāṣya. The Kāśikāvṛtti popularly called Kāśikā, is yet another commentary on Aṣṭādhyāyī authored together by Vāmana and Jayāditya who lived in Kashmir in 7th C. A.D.

Kāśikāvivaraṇapañjikā of Jinendrabuddhi of 8th C. A.D. is another commentry of importance. Thus the Paninian school of grammar had grown with many followers. Pāṇini's system of grammar was felt to be terse and an attempt to simplify it gave rise to different schools of grammar.

(b) Kātantra school of grammar—

Of the post-Paninin schools of grammar the Kātantra grammar of Śarvavarman[1] is the earliest, probably about 300 A.D. and was patronised by King Śātavāhana. This system gained popularity in Bengal, Kashmir and Cylone. Durgasiṃha is the earliest commentator on this work.

(c) Cāndra system of grammar—

Cāndra system of grammar is known after its founder Candragomin of probably 5th C. A.D. This work in six chapters is popular as asajñaka vyākaraṇa–grammar without technical terms. Kṣīrasvāmin refers to this school of grammar in few instances.

(d) Jinendra vyākaraṇa—

Jinendra vyākaraṇa, believed to be authored by Devanandi of 5th C. A.D. It is a work in five chapters with 3700 aphorisms. It gained popularity among the Jains.

(e) Śākaṭāyana—

Śākaṭāyana school of grammar is ascribed to Pālyakīrti Śākaṭāyana. There have been two sanskrit grammarians known by the name Śākaṭāyana. One was an early predecessor of Yāska and Pāṇini. The other one, Pālyakīrti Śākaṭāyana belonged to the Yāpanīya sect of the Jainas; he is the author of the Śākaṭāyana vyākaraṇa which consists of 3236 aphorisms divided into four adhyāyas.

(f) Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa

Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa of Bhoja of 11th C. A.D. is another popular school of grammar. Bhoja recast all the available materials of grammar of his predecessors and wrote his grammatical treatise on the model of Aṣṭādhyāyī. Thus Bhoja was very popular and considered an authority on grammar. He has been cited quite often by Kṣīrasvāmin These are the different systems of grammar, that seems to have prevailed during the time of Kṣīrasvāmin Of these, apart from Paninian school which he follows throughout the work, Kṣīrasvāmin also cites from Bhoja's Sarasvatīkaṇṭhābharaṇa and the Cāndra school of grammar.

Footnotes and references:


Ed. Gurunātha Vidyānidhi, Calcutta, 1934.

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