Cunda, Cuṇḍā: 7 definitions

Introduction

Cunda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chunda.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Cunda - A worker in metals (kammaraputta) living in Pava. When the Buddha reached Pava on his way to Kusinara, he stayed in Cundas Mango grove. There Cunda visited him and invited him and the monks to a meal the next day. The meal consisted of sweet rice and cakes and sukaramaddava. At the meal the Buddha ordered that he alone should be served with sukaramaddava, and that what was left over should be buried in a hole. This was the Buddhas last meal, as very soon after it he developed dysentery (D.ii.126; Ud.viii.5). The Buddha, a little while before his death, gave special instructions to Ananda that he should visit Cunda and reassure him by telling him that no blame at all attached to him and that he should feel no remorse, but should, on the contrary, rejoice, in that he had been able to give to the Buddha a meal which, in merit, far exceeded any other (D.ii.135f).

The Suttanipata Commentary (SNA.i.159) mentions that, at this meal, Cunda provided golden vessels for the monks use; some made use of them, others did not. One monk stole a vessel and put it in his bag. Cunda noticed this but said nothing. Later, in the afternoon, he visited the Buddha and questioned him as to the different kinds of samanas there were in the world. The Buddha preached to him the Cunda Sutta.

The Commentary adds (p.166; also UdA.399) that Cunda reached no attainment, but merely had his doubts dispelled. The Digha Commentary, however, says (DA.ii.568) that he became a Sotapanna at the first sight of the Buddha and built for him a vihara at the Ambavana. This latter incident, probably, took place at an earlier visit of the Buddha, for we are told (D.iii.207) that while the Buddha was staying in Cundas Mango grove, he was invited by the Mallas to consecrate their new Mote hall, Ubbhataka. He accepted the invitation, preached in the hall till late at night, and then requested Sariputta to continue, which he did by preaching the Sangiti Sutta. This was soon after the death of Nigantha Nataputta (D.iii.210).

The Anguttara Nikaya (v.263ff) mentions another conversation between the Buddha and Cunda. Cunda tells the Buddha that he approves of the methods of purification (soceyyani) laid down by the brahmins of the west (Pacchabhumaka). The Buddha tells him of the teaching of the Ariyans regarding the threefold defilement and purification of the body, the fourfold defilement and purification of the speech, and the threefold defilement and purification of the mind. Cunda accepts the Buddhas explanations and declares himself his follower.

2. Cunda - The books appear to refer to two theras by the name of Cunda, the better known being Maha Cunda and the other Cula Cunda. But the legends connected with them are so confused that it is not possible to differentiate clearly one from the other.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Cunda (चुन्द) is the name of a disciple of the Buddha, as mentioned in an appendix of the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLI. Ānanda fulfilled his mission with the greatest devotion for the last twenty-five years of the Teacher’s life. Before Ānanda took charge, other disciples functioned temporarily. The commtary of the Theragāthā and that of the Udāna record seven of them and the old canonical sources confirm this. Viz., the novice Cunda (Saṃyutta, V, p. 161, l. 23).

Cunda (चुन्द) or Mahācunda is also mentioned as a disciple of the Buddha, according to the the Vinayamātṛkā of the Haimavatas.—The Vinayamātṛkā of the Haimavatas knows of eight disciples who, “fan in hand, fanned the Buddha”. These were [viz., Cunda].

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Cundā (चुन्दा) refers to one of the various emanations of Vairocana, as mentioned in the 5th-century Sādhanamālā (a collection of sādhana texts that contain detailed instructions for rituals).—Her Colour is white;her Symbol is the book on lotus; she has one face, and two, four, sixteen, eighteen or twenty-six arms.—According to the Niṣpannayogāvalī under the mañjuvajra-maṇḍala, Cundā is affiliated to the Dhyāni Buddha Vairocana, and thus Cundā is the spiritual daughter of Vairocana, and is required to be classed under the emanations of this very Dhyāni Buddha.

The name of the deity is spelt variously as Cundā, Cundrā, Candrā, Caṇḍā, and Cuṇḍrā. She is also called Cundavajrī. [...] From a reference in the Niṣpannayogāvalī it appears probable that the deity Cundā is the embodiment of the Buddhist Dhāriṇī work called the Cundādhāriṇī to which a reference is made by Śāntideva. The Niṣpannayogāvalī acknowledges altogether twelve Dhāriṇī deities and gives their descriptions. These Dhāriṇīs look alike when represented and they are usually two-armed, holding the Viśvavajra in the right hand and their special symbols in the left. [...] Cundā thus is the embodiment of the cundā-dhāriṇī or the cundā-mantra.

The Dhyāna (meditation instructions) of Cundā described in the Sādhanamālā as follows:—

“She is of the colour of the autumn moon, and is four-armed. She shows the varada-mudrā in the right hand and holds the book on a lotus in the left. The two other hands hold the bowl. She is decked in all ornaments”.

[The Sādhanamālā also makes Cundā a companion deity of Aṣṭabhujā Kurukullā in Sādhana No. 174, p. 352. In the Īśāna corner of the Kurukullā Maṇḍala on a lotus petal sits Cundā while the other petals are occupied by Prasannatārā in the east, Niṣpannatārā in the south, Jayatārā in the west, Karṇatārā in the north, Aparājitā in the Agni corner, Pradīpatārā in the Nairṛta corner and Gaurītārā in the Vāyu corner.

All the deities including Cundā look alike and are described as follows: “All these deities are red in colour. They wear a crown with the figures of the five Dhyāni Buddhas, and sit in the Vajraparyaṅka attitude, With the two right hands they show the varada-mudrā and the arrow drawn to the ears. They carry in their two left hands the blue lotus and the bow”.]

Cundā is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī as follows:—

1) “Cundā is white in colour. In the two right hands she carries the mudgara (club) and the kunta (knife) and in the two left the padma (lotus) and the daṇḍa (staff)”.

2) Cundā is once again mentioned in the dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala. In this Maṇḍala her form is described in the following words: “Cundā is white in colour. She carries in her two hands the rosary to which a Kamaṇḍalu is suspended”.

3) A third form of Cundā is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī in the mañjuvajra-maṇḍala:—“Cundā is moon-white in colour. She has twenty-six arms. With the two principal hands she exhibits the chief mudrā. In the remaining right hands she shows the 1. abhaya-mudrā, 2. sword, 3. garland of jewels, 4. citron, 5. arrow, 6. axe, 7. club, 8. hammer, 9. goad, 10. thunderbolt, 11. tripatākā and 12. rosary. In the remaining left hands she shows the 1. flag marked with cintāmaṇi jewel, 2. lotus, 3. Kamaṇḍalu, 4. noose, 5. bow, 6. javelin, 7. discus, 8. sword, 9. tarjaṇī (raised index finger), 10. bowl, 11. bhiṇḍipāla and 12. the prajñāpāramitā Scripture”.

With regard to the antiquity of Cundā in the Buddhist pantheon, it may be said that the very first mention of her name Candrā which is considered to be the same as Cundā, appears in the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa, the composition of which is usually placed cir. 200 A. D. As Cundavajrī, she finds mention in one of the earliest Tantric works, the Guhyasamāja which was written most probably in the time of Asaṅga, cir.300 A. D, Cundā is also mentioned in the Śikṣāsamuccaya of Śāntideva in the 7th century. Cundā images are found in illuminated Prajñāpāramitā MSS of the 11th century and several Sādhanas are dedicated to her in the Sādhanamālā, the earliest MS of which bears a date which is equivalent to A. D. 1165. Earlier, she is mentioned in the Niṣpannayogāvalī of Abhayākara Gupta (C 1130. A. D.).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Cunda, an artist who works in ivory J.VI, 261 (Com: dantakāra); Miln.331. (Page 270)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Cuṇḍā (चुण्डा).—A small well or reservoir.

See also (synonyms): cuṇṭā, cuṇṭī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Cunda (चुन्द).—(1) (= Pali id.; also Mahā-c°), name of one or more disciples of the Buddha: Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 207.4; Lalitavistara 1.15 (so read for Cunanda); Mahāvyutpatti 1045; Divyāvadāna 153.5 (called a śrāmaṇeraka of Śāriputra); 160.6 (a śramaṇoddeśa; this title sama- ṇuddesa is given to 2 Cunda in Pali, Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names)); (karmāra- putra) MPS 26.14 etc.; even in Pali the (apparently) several Cundas are hard to distinguish, and still harder in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit]; (2) name of a yakṣa: Mahāvastu iii.327.18 (see next).

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Cundā (चुन्दा).—name of a goddess: Sādhanamālā 270.8 etc. (compare next).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cunda (चुन्द):—m. Name of a pupil of Śākyamuni, [Buddhist literature] (cf. mahā-)

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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