Vairocana: 17 definitions


Vairocana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vairochana.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Vairocana (वैरोचन) is the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Vairocana).

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Vairocana (वैरोचन) refers to one of the Dhyāni-Buddhas, according to Vajrayāna or Tantric Buddhism.—His Śakti, or female counterpart (spiritual consort) is named Locanā and their Bodhisattva offspring is named Samantabhadra.—His colour is white; his mudrā is dharmacakra; his vāhana is the dragon;and his symbol is the discus.—Vairocana is mentioned along with the other Dhyāni Buddhas inthe Guhysamāja which is dated circa 300 A.D. He is regarded as the oldest and the first Dhyāni Buddha by the Nepalese Buddhists and his place is in the sanctum of the Stūpa where he is the master of the whole temple and its contents. Naturally, therefore, he cannot be represented outside the Stūpa, but exception to this rule is frequently met with in the important stūpas of Nepal where he is assigned a place between Akṣobhya in the East and Ratnasambhava in the South.

1) Vairocana is described in the Pañcākāra section of the Advayavajrasaṃgraha thus:—“Vairocana originates from the white syllable Oṃ placed on the orb of the moon on the eastern petal of the lotus and is white in colour. His recognition symbol is the white Discus. He exhibits the Bodhyaṅgī-mudrā and represents the cosmic element of Rūpa (Form). He is of the nature of Moha (delusion) and is without bad companions, he is the embodiment of the Tathāgata family, and is established as an embodiment of Ādarśa (ideal) knowledge. He represents the Hemanta season, the sweet taste, the Ka (guttural) group of letters, and the mornings and evenings of the day”.

2 The four-faced of Vairocana is known as Vajradhātu and has the colour white and is eight-armed. He is described in the Akṣobhya-maṇḍala of the Niṣpannayogāvalī as follows:—“Vairocana is seated in Vajraparyaṅka and is white in colour. His four faces show white, yellow, red and green colours. He is eight-armed. With the two principal hands holding the Vajra he exhibits the Bodhyaṅgī or the Dharmacakra-mudrā. With the second pair of hands he shows the Dhyāna-mudrā. The two remaining right hands hold the rosary and the arrow, and with the two remaining left he carries the discus and the bow.”

Source: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (I)

Vairocana (वैरोचन) is the name of a deity associated with the Skandha (component) named Rūpa, according to the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra chapter 1.16-22.—Accordingly, this chapter proclaims the purity of the five components (skandha), five elements (bhūta) and five senses (āyatana) as divine beings [viz., Vairocana].

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

1) Vairocana (वैरोचन) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Cakravartinī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vajracakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vajracakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Vairocana] each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum and a knife; they are dark-bluish-black in color.

2) Vairocana (वैरोचन) is also the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Vairocanī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Hṛdayacakra, according to the same work. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Vairocana] are reddish yellow in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

1) Vairocana (वैरोचन) is the name of a Ḍāka (male consort) and one of the deities of the Cakrasaṃvara-maṇḍala or Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—The Cakrasaṃvara mandala has a total of sixty-two deities. [...] Three concentric circles going outward, the body, speech and mind wheels (kāya-vāka-citta), in the order: mind (blue), speech (red), and body (white), with eight Ḍākinīs each in non-dual union with their Ḍākas, "male consorts".

Associated elements of Cakravartiṇī and Vairocana:

Circle: kāyacakra (body-wheel) (white);
Ḍākinī (female consort): Cakravartiṇī;
Ḍāka (male consort): Vairocana;
Bīja: maṃ;
Body-part: toes;
Pīṭha: Maru;
Bodily constituent: kheṭa (saliva);
Bodhipakṣa (wings of enlightenment): samyaksaṃkalpa (right intention).

2) Vairocana (वैरोचन) is associated with Vijñānaskandha (“the aggregate of consciousness”), according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “There, in the five aggregates, originates the making of I. Vairocana in the aggregate of forms. Vajrasūrya in sensations. Padmanṛtyeśvara in perceptions. Vajrarāja in mental formations. Vajrasattva in consciousness. Śrī Heruka Vajra in the truth of all Tathāgata”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Vairocana in Mahayana glossary
Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Vairocana (वैरोचन) refers to the “sun”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, as Bodhisattva Gaganagañja explains to Bodhisattva Ratnaśrī what kind of concentration should be purified: “[...] (4) [when the Bodhisattvas attain] the concentration called ‘The sun’ (vairocana-samādhi), all good qualities will increase. (5) [when the Bodhisattvas attain] the concentration called ‘Virtue’, there will be no impurity; (6) [when the Bodhisattvas attain] the concentration called ‘The highest peak’, nobody can look at the crown of the head; [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Vairocana in Buddhism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Vairocana (वैरोचन) refers to “shining Buddha” and represents one of the “five Buddhas” (pañcabuddha) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 3). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., pañcabuddha and Vairocana). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vairocana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vairocana (वैरोचन).—a. Solar; वैरोचनैर्द्वीगुणिताः सहसा मयूखैः (vairocanairdvīguṇitāḥ sahasā mayūkhaiḥ) Kirātārjunīya 5.46.

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Vairocana (वैरोचन).—

1) Epithets of the demon Bali, son of Virochana; व्यक्षोभयेतां तौ सैन्यमिन्द्र- वैरोचनाविव (vyakṣobhayetāṃ tau sainyamindra- vairocanāviva) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.138.46.

2) Of the son of Agni.

3) Of the son of Sūrya.

Derivable forms: vairocanaḥ (वैरोचनः).

See also (synonyms): vairocani, vairoci.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vairocana (वैरोचन).—(1) (= Pali vero°, Sanskrit viro°) the sun: °naṃ vā gagaṇasmiṃ sarvaraśmisamāgataṃ arcitvā… Mahāvastu ii.304.9 (verse); °nasya jagato viśiṣṭā ābhā (Senart adds abhū) bhaviṣyati kiṃ tu adya Mahāvastu ii.316.9 (verse); this is probably the meaning of the first member of many of the [compound] proper names which follow this entry; (2) (compare Pali 2 Verocana in Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names), name of a certain jewel; AMg. vairoyaṇa, fire; and see virocana 1), a certain jewel (also viro°): °nāṃ maṇiratnāṃ grahetvā Mahāvastu ii.317.13 (verse); °na-maṇi- ratna- Gaṇḍavyūha 101.12 (prose; -padmagarbhāṇi); 159.1 (prose; vitāna-vitataṃ); (3) name of one (the first) of the five ‘transcendent’ Buddhas: Dharmasaṃgraha 3 (first of ‘five Buddhas’); Mahāvyutpatti 82 (followed by the other four of Dharmasaṃgraha 3, at the head of a list of names of Tathāgatas) = Tibetan rnam par snaṅ mdzad; once replaced by Kāyeśa, q.v.; Sādhanamālā 16.9 etc. (same group of five); he is probably identical with the Vairo- cana who occurs in Śākyamuni's place in the standard series of Buddhas (after Kāśyapa) Gaṇḍavyūha 298.6; the standard story of Śākyamuni's birth in the Lumbinī grove is told of Vai°, Gaṇḍavyūha 379.24 ff.; 381.5, with the usual personnel, Māyā, Gopā, etc.; mentioned with Gopā but not as her husband, 396.23; other refs., see s.v. Māyā (1); and compare P. Mus, Barabudur, p. 584; a Tathāgata of this name mentioned in several earlier passages of Gaṇḍavyūha, e.g. 40.1; 277.23; 290.23, with what seems to be special respect, may be identified with the V. just described, and so probably with the ‘transcendent’ Buddha; in Gaṇḍavyūha 82.12 the last of a list of Buddhas the first of which is Amitābha, but the others mostly unknown; (4) probably not to be identified with the prec., name of one or more former (in (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa perhaps contemporary) Buddhas: Lalitavistara 171.10 (verse; Lefm. Virocana (3), most mss. Vai°, metrical(ly) indifferent); (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 64.2; Gaṇḍavyūha 104.18; (5) name of a future Buddha: Mahāvastu iii.330.15; (6) name of a cakravartin, former incarnation of Maitreya: Mahāvastu i.59.2, 13; (7) name of a nīlakāyika (q.v.) devaputra: Lalitavistara 383.11; (8) name of a samādhi: Mahāvyutpatti 536; Śatasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 1417.12.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vairocana (वैरोचन).—m.

(-naḥ) 1. The third of the Bud'dhas, called Dhyani Bud'dhas. 2. Bali, the sovereign so named. 3. The son of Agni. 4. The son of Surya, or the sun. 5. A Sid'dha, a sort of demi-god or deified mortal. E. virocana the sun, &c. and aff. of descent aṇ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vairocana (वैरोचन).—i. e. virocana + a, I. adj. Proceeding from the sun, [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 46. Ii. patronym. 1. The son of Agni. 2. The son of the sun. 3. Bali, son of Virocana, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 30, 42.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vairocana (वैरोचन).—[adjective] belonging to or coming from the sun; [masculine] [Epithet] of Viṣṇu, [Name] of a prince etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vairocana (वैरोचन):—mfn. ([from] vi-rocana) coming from or belonging to the sun, solar, [Kirātārjunīya]

2) descended from Virocana etc., [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

3) m. a son of the Sun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) a son of Viṣṇu, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) a son of Agni, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) ‘son of the Asura Virocana’ [patronymic] of Bali, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

7) a [particular] Samādhi, [Buddhist literature]

8) Name of a king, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa]

9) of a Dhyāni-Buddha, [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 202]

10) of a son of the class of gods called Nīla-kāyikas, [Lalita-vistara]

11) of a class of Siddhas, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) of a world of the Buddhists, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vairocana (वैरोचन):—(naḥ) 1. m. 3rd Buddha; Bali, son of the sun; a demigod.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vairocana (वैरोचन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vairoaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vairocana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vairocana in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vairōcana (ವೈರೋಚನ):—[adjective] of, relating to, bestowed by the Sun-God.

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Vairōcana (ವೈರೋಚನ):—[noun] name of various gods (in Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism).

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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