Canda, Caṇḍā, Caṇḍa, Candā, Cāṇḍa, Camda, Camdama: 48 definitions


Canda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chanda.

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In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

1) Caṇḍa (चण्ड), one of the fifty Rudras according to the Caryāpāda section of the Makuṭāgama (one of the 28 Saiva Siddhanta Agamas).

2) Caṇḍa (चण्ड, “wrath”):—One of the ministers of Yama, who resides in the city known as Saṃyaminī. Yama, the vedic God of death, represents the embodiment of Dharma. Yama rules over the kingdom of the dead and binds humankind according to the fruits of their karma.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

1) Caṇḍā (चण्डा, “impetuous”):—One of the nine Dūtī presided over by one of the nine bhaivaravas named Caṇḍalokeśa (emanation of Ananta, who is the central presiding deity of Dūtīcakra), according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra and the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā.

2) Caṇḍā (चण्डा):—Sanskrit name of one of the thirty-two female deities of the Somamaṇḍala (second maṇḍala of the Khecarīcakra) according to the kubjikāmata-tantra. These goddesses are situated on a ring of sixteen petals and represent the thirty-two syllables of the Aghoramantra. Each deity (including Caṇḍā) is small, plump and large-bellied. They can assume any form at will, have sixteen arms each, and are all mounted on a different animal.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Caṇḍā (चण्डा):—Name of one of the goddesses to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva (“The truth concerning Durgā’s ritual”). They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ह्रीं ओं चण्डायै नमः
hrīṃ oṃ caṇḍāyai namaḥ

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Caṇḍa (चण्ड) and Muṇḍa are two demons slain by the Goddess, according to the Kularatnoddyota (chapter 9).—We are told in the Kularatnoddyota that prior to the goddess’s incarnation in the nineteenth kalpa as Dakṣa’s daughter, she will come into the world to kill the demons Caṇḍa and Muṇḍa. Then as Durgā and Kātyāyaṇī in “a black and brown (kṛṣṇapiṅgalā)” form she will slay Mahiṣa, the king of the demons. She then appears again in the end of the Dvāpara Age, as described in the Purāṇas, to slay the evil king Kaṃsa and thereby save the newly-born Kṛṣṇa. Again, the Jayadrathayāmala says practically the same, identifying the goddess of the nineteenth and last age as Bhadrakālī.

2) Caṇḍā (चण्डा, “fierce”) refers to an aspect of Umā, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “The state of the Gander (arises) when all the energies (of the Moon) have dissolved away. The container of the world of the Gander is the first energy (of the Moon). Fierce (caṇḍā) she is Umā, the New Moon who illumines consciousness. The awakening of Kaula is its manifestation (udaya) (as) the deity of the group of six (Wheels). The deity is in the Tradition of the Cave and it is she who, by means (of her) modalities, is in the six (Wheels)”.

3) Caṇḍā (चण्डा) refers to one of the six Goddesses (parā-ṣaṭka) associated with Pūrṇagiri or Pūrṇapīṭha (which is located in the northern quarter), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—[...] The six Goddesses: Pūrṇāvvā, Pulindinī, Jyeṣṭhā, Caṇḍā, Cakreśī, Klinnā.

4) Caṇḍa (चण्ड) refers to one of the eight Servants (ceṭa-aṣṭaka) associated with Nādapīṭha (identified with Kulūta), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—[...] The eight Servants (ceṭāṣṭaka): Śuṣkaruṇḍa, Dīrghajaṅgha, Digambara, Mālādhara, Mahāmuṇḍa, Caṇḍa, Caṇḍaparākrama, Śukatuṇḍa.

5) Caṇḍā (चण्डा) refers to one of the nine attendants of Goddess Tvaritā, according to the Agnipurāṇa, the Tantrarāja verse 14.15-16 and the Kulakaulinīmata verse 3.82-88.—[...] These nine attendants (e.g., Caṇḍā) embody the syllables of Tvaritā’s Vidyā that are the initials of their names. The same nine are listed in the Tantrarāja as the attendants of Tvaritā. They are worshipped on the eight petals of a lotus as the energies of the letters of Tvaritā’s mantra (mantrārṇaśakti).

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha

Caṇḍā (चण्डा) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Caṇḍā] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala

Caṇḍā (चण्डा) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Caṇḍā]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Caṇḍā (चण्डा) refers to one of the Navadurgā (“nine Durgās”), whose worship formed a part of the Navarātra Tantric ritual (an autumnal festival of the warrior goddess Caṇḍikā).—On Mahāṣṭamī is the worship of the Nine Durgās (e.g., Caṇḍā), the eight mothers, the sixty-four Yoginīs, purification of the gross elements, installation of mantras on the body; [...] Goddess is believed to morph into a more uncontrollable presence requiring constant placation.—Various 8th century sources refer to rituals such as the worship of Caṇḍā, for example: Devīpurāṇa, Kālikāpurāṇa, Kṛtyakalpataru, Durgābhaktitaraṅgiṇī, Durgāpūjātattva, Durgāpūjāviveka, Bhadrakālīmantravidhiprakaraṇa in Sanderson (2007); account of the Durgā Pūjā in Kelomal, West Bengal (Nicholas 2013).

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Purāṇas

Caṇḍā (चण्डा):—One of the nine Durgās (navadurgā) that are worshipped for the prosperity of children, according to the Agni-purāṇa. Her colour is gorocana (red sandal paste). She has sixteen hands each and holds within her right hands a skull, shield, mirror, bow, flag and pāśa (cord), and in her left hands a rod, iron pounder, Śūla, Vajra, sword, Aṅkuśa (a sticklike weapon), Śara (arrow), Cakra and a śalākā. These nine Durgās are seen as different forms of Pārvatī.

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Caṇḍā (चण्डा) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Caṇḍā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Caṇḍā (चण्डा).—Name of a river (nadī) situated near the seven great mountains on the western side of mount Naiṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These settlements consume the water flowing from these seven great mountains (Viśākha, Kambala, Jayanta, Kṛṣṇa, Harita, Aśoka and Vardhamāna). Niṣadha (Naiṣadha) is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Caṇḍa (चण्ड).—(See Caṇḍamuṇḍās).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Caṇḍa (चण्ड) is the name of a Gaṇeśvara (attendant of Śiva), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.5.9 (“Śiva’s campaign”).—Accordingly, as Śiva with the Gods attacked Tripura: “[...] O great Brahmins, all the Gaṇeśvaras went to the three cities. Who can enumerate them fully? I shall mention a few. These were the important ones who were there—[e.g., Caṇḍa] [...]. These and other innumerable lords of Gaṇas who cannot be characterised and classified surrounded Śiva and went ahead. [...] They were capable of burning the entire world including the mobile and immobile beings, within a trice by their very thought. Surrounding Śiva, the great lord, they went ahead. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Caṇḍa (चण्ड).—A son of Bāṣkala.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 38; IV. 29. 75.

1b) A head of a Śivagaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 41. 28.

1c) A Bhairava on the sixth parva of Geyacakra; followed the army of Lalitā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 19. 78; 17. 4.

1d) A Rudra.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 153. 19.

1e) A Nāgapati.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 41. 73.

1f) One of the seven pralaya clouds.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 2. 8.

1g) One of the two piśācas who met yakṣa, the son of Khaśā.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 113.

2) Caṇḍā (चण्डा).—A mind-born mother.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 16.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

1) Caṇḍa (चण्ड):—One of the eight gatekeepers who are said to embody the eight siddhis (‘yogic powers’).

2) Caṇḍa (चण्ड) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Caṇḍanṛsiṃha or Caṇḍanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Source: Catalogue of Pancaratra Agama Texts

Caṇḍa (चण्ड) or Caṇḍamantra is the name of a Mantra discussed in chapter 29 (Caryāpāda) of the Padmasaṃhitā: the most widely followed of Saṃhitā covering the entire range of concerns of Pāñcarātra doctrine and practice (i.e., the four-fold formulation of subject matter—jñāna, yoga, kriyā and caryā) consisting of roughly 9000 verses.—Description of the chapter [śryādiparivāra-mantravarṇana]: [...]  The remainder of the chapter deals with mantras addressed to the doorway deities, Caṇḍa and Pracaṇḍa (174b-178), and to the deities found in the second prākāra-courtyard. [...] The final point made is concerning the procedure for offering bali at the balipīṭha-pedestal in daily routine worship (210b-219).

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Caṇḍa (चण्ड) is the Sanskrit name of a form of Bhairava. According to the Rudrayāmala, there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. The term is used throughout Śilpaśāstra literature.

Caṇḍa has the following eight manifestations:

  1. Caṇḍa,
  2. Pralayāntaka,
  3. Bhūmikampa,
  4. Nīlakaṇṭha,
  5. Viṣṇu,
  6. Kulapālaka,
  7. Muṇḍapāla,
  8. Kāmapāla.

All these have a blue color and have good looks; they should carry in their hands agni, śakti, gadā and kuṇḍa.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

1) Caṇḍā (चण्डा) is another name for Liṅginī, an unidentified medicinal plant, according to verse 3.45-47 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Caṇḍā and Liṅginī, there are a total of sixteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

2) Caṇḍā (चण्डा) is also mentioned as a synonym for Kapikacchu, a medicinal plant identified with Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean or cowhage or cowitch) from the Fabaceae or “bean family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.50-53.

3) Caṇḍā (चण्डा) is also mentioned as a synonym for Ākhukarṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Ipomoea reniformis, synonym of Merremia emarginata (kidney leaf morning glory) from the Convolvulaceae or “morning glory family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.67-68.

4) Caṇḍā (चण्डा) is another name for Dravantī an unidentified medicinal plant, possibly identified with either (1) Jaipal—Croton tiglium, (2) Baliospermum sinuatum Muell or (3) Ratanjota—Jatropha glandulifera Roxb., according to verse 5.134-136. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Caṇḍā and Dravantī, there are a total of fifteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Caṇḍā (चण्डा) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Costus speciosus (Koenig ex Retz.) J. E. Smith” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning caṇḍā] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: Hindu Ritual at the Margins

Caṇḍa (चण्ड), a violent and cruel hunter who accidentally worshipped a Śiva liṅga on the night of Śivarātri by staying awake all night without eating and accidentally knocking bilva leaves onto the liṅga while trying to kill a boar. During the night Caṇḍa became greatly transformed by the performance of these acts; we are told that he was freed from all sins and his heart became pure. (See the Padma-purāṇa, Uttarakhaṇḍa, 154.8–53)

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Canda - A king, one of the chief lay supporters of Kondanna Buddha (BuA.114).

2. Canda - Chief lay supporter of Sikhi Buddha. Bu.xxi.122; but BuA. (204) calls him Nanda.

3. Canda - One of the palaces occupied by Sumangala Buddha in his last lay life (Bu.v.22).

4. Canda - A manava, son of a rich brahmin, Sucindara. Canda and his friend, Subhadda, became arahants at the first assembly of Kondanna Buddha. BuA.110f.

5. Canda - The moon; generally spoken of as a deva. See Candima.

6. Canda - The Bodhisatta, born as a kinnara. For details see the Canda kinnara Jataka.

7. Canda - A mountain in Himava. where lived the kinnara, Canda, with his wife (J.iv.283, 288). It is also called Candaka (J.v.162) and Candapassa (J.v.38).

8. Canda - A brahmin, father of Vidhurapandita.

9. Canda - One of the palaces occupied by Sumana Buddha in his last lay life (Bu.xxiv.22).

10. Canda - Younger brother of Sariputta and a member of the Order. DhA.ii.188.

11. Canda - Son of the brahmin Pandula. He later became the chaplain of Pandukabhaya. Mhv.x.25, 79.

12. Canda - See Candakumara.

-- or --

1. Canda - Wife of Sudinna and mother of Piyadassi Buddha (J.i.39). In the Buddhavamsa (xiv.15) she is called Sucanda.

2. Canda - One of the two chief women disciples of Vipassi Buddha. J.i.41; Bu.xx.29.

3. Canda - A kinnari, wife of Canda, the Bodhisatta. See the Candakinnara Jataka (J.iv.283ff). She is sometimes called Candi. E.g., J.iv.284.

4. Canda - Wife of Mahapatapa, king of Benares, and mother of Dhammapala. She is identified with Maha Pajapati Gotami. For details see the Culla Dhammapala Jataka. J.iii.178-ff.

5. Canda - Daughter of the Madda king and chief consort of the ruler of Benares. She was the mother of Mugapakkha (Temiya). For details see the Mugapakkha Jataka.

6. Canda - Chief consort of Candakumara. She was the daughter of the Pancala king and the mother of Vasula. It was her saccakiriya which saved her husband from death. She is identified with Rahulamata.

7. Canda - Chief consort of Sutasoma. She is identified with Rahulamata. J.v.177, 182, 192.

8. Canda Theri - An arahant. She belonged to a brahmin family which bad fallen on evil days and she grew up in wretched poverty. Her kinsfolk having all died of plague, she eked out a living by begging from door to door. One day she came across Patacara who had just finished eating. Patacara, seeing her pitiable condition, gave her some food and, when she had eaten, discoursed to her. Delighted by Patacaras sermon, Canda renounced the world and soon afterwards attained arahantship. Thig.vs.122-26; ThigA., p.120f.

9. Canda - The kinnari maiden of whom Brahmadatta became enamoured, preferring her to his own wife,

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vajrayogini

Caṇḍa (चण्ड) is the name of a cloud (megha) associated with Kilakilārava: the north-western cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.

These clouds (e.g., Caṇḍa) are known as cloud-kings (megharāja) and have names that are associated with the loud noises of thunderclouds and the noise of rain, according to the Guhyasamayasādhanamālā 11.77. Their presence in the cremation grounds may be connected with the nāgas, for they are known to be responsible for the rain.

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Caṇḍā (चण्डा) is another name for Cundā: one of the various emanations of Vairocana, as mentioned in the 5th-century Sādhanamālā (a collection of sādhana texts that contain detailed instructions for rituals).—Her Colour is white;her Symbol is the book on lotus; she has one face, and two, four, sixteen, eighteen or twenty-six arms.—According to the Niṣpannayogāvalī under the mañjuvajra-maṇḍala, Cundā is affiliated to the Dhyāni Buddha Vairocana, and thus Cundā is the spiritual daughter of Vairocana, and is required to be classed under the emanations of this very Dhyāni Buddha.

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Caṇḍa (चण्ड) refers to one of the eight cloud king (meghendra) of the Guṇacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the guṇacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. Caṇḍa is associated with the charnel grounds (śmaśāna) named Kilikilārava; with the tree (vṛkṣa) named Pārthiva; with the direction-guardians (dikpāla) named Vāyu and with the serpent king (nāgendra) named Śaṅkhapāla.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

1) Caṇḍa (चण्ड) refers to the “fierce (Vajrapāṇi)”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Oṃ homage to the fierce (caṇḍa) Vajrapāṇi, great vajra-anger, a Bhairava, With gigantic fangs, grasping in hand a sword, club, ax and noose”.

2) Caṇḍa (चण्ड) is the name of a Bhairava deity [i.e., oṃ caṇḍabhairavāya svāhā], according to the Vāruṇī Pūjā [i.e., Varuni Worship] ritual.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

Caṇḍā (चण्डा) is the name of a Goddess appointed as one of the Divine protector deities of Kapilavastu, according to chapter 17 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—In the Candragarbhasūtra, the Bhagavat invites all classes of Gods and Deities to protect the Law [dharma?] and the faithful in their respective kingdoms of Jambudvīpa [e.g., the Goddesses Caṇḍī and Caṇḍā in Kapilavastu], resembling the time of the past Buddhas.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The Jaina Iconography

Caṇḍā (चण्डा) (or Pracaṇḍā, Gāndhārī) is the name of the Yakṣiṇī accompanying Vāsupūjya: the twelfth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The emblem constantly associated with Vāsupūjya, as wegather from Jaina books, is the buffalo. The other characteristics of his image viz. the Śāsanadeva and the Śāsanadevī are known by the names of Kumāra and Caṇḍā (Digambara: Gāndhārī). The tree which gave him shade while acquiring the Kevala knowledge is Pāṭalika according to the Abhidhānacintāmaṇi and Kadamba according to the Uttarapurāṇa. A King named Darpiṣṭa-Vāsudeva is to wave the Chowri or the fly-fan by his side.

Caṇḍā or Pracaṇḍā, as she is also called by the Śvetāmbaras, has a horse for her riding animal, and carries the symbols of Varada, spear, flower and club. The Digambara form of the same deity is represented as riding on a crocodile and having the hands equipped with a club, two lotuses and Varada-mudrā. Like the previous one, this Yakṣiṇī, too, lakes her part as a Vidyādevī. As such, the name borne by her is Gāndhārī. There is some essential connection between the Yakṣiṇī Gāndhāri’s animal of a crocodile and the Vidyadevī Gāndhārī’s animal of a tortoise, Caṇḍā or Pracaṇḍā seems to be, as the name indicates, a Jaina prototype of the Brahmanic Caṇḍā or Durgā.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Caṇḍā (चण्डा) is the name of a vidyā subdued by Rāvaṇa, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.1 [origin of the rākṣasavaṃśa and vānaravaṃśa] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, “[...] Rāvaṇa, knowing the highest good, not considering it worthless, remained motionless like a high mountain, absorbed in preeminent meditation. ‘Well done! Well done!’ was the cry of gods in the sky, and the Yakṣa-servants departed quickly, terrified. One thousand vidyās, the sky being lighted up by them, came to Daśāsya (=Rāvaṇa), saying aloud, ‘We are subject to you.’ [e.g., Caṇḍā, ...] great vidyās beginning with these were subdued by noble Daśāsya in just a few days because of his former good acts. [...]”.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Caṇḍa (चण्ड) refers to “fierce (heretics)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Some person destroys himself, someone is destroyed by those who have destroyed [themselves] and someone is diverted from the path [to liberation] by the teachings of fierce heretics (caṇḍa-pākhaṇḍa-śāsana). Having abandoned the ruby of discrimination that fulfils all desires the one who is stupid is occupied with ideas that are unconsidered and pleasing”.

Synonyms: Rudra.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Canda in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Angelica glauca Edgew. from the Apiaceae (Carrot) family having the following synonyms: Angelica nuristanica. For the possible medicinal usage of canda, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Canda in India is the name of a plant defined with Angelica archangelica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Archangelica archangelica (L.) Huth (among others).

2) Canda is also identified with Angelica glauca.

3) Canda is also identified with Boesenbergia rotunda It has the synonym Gastrochilus panduratus (Roxb.) Ridl. (etc.).

4) Canda is also identified with Cheilocostus speciosus It has the synonym Costus loureiroi Horan. (etc.).

5) Canda is also identified with Coscinium fenestratum It has the synonym Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebrooke (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (1999)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1990)
· Systema Naturae, ed. 13 (1791)
· Florula Javanica (1825)
· Transactions of the Linnean Society of London (1846)
· Enumeratio Plantarum Javae (1827)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Canda, for example health benefits, extract dosage, diet and recipes, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

caṇḍa : (adj.) fierce; violent; passionate.

-- or --

canda : (m.) the moon.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Canda, (Vedic candra from *(s)quend to be light or glowing, cp. candana sandal (incense) wood, Gr. kάhdaros cinder; Lat. candeo, candidus, incendo; Cymr. cann white; E. candid, candle, incense, cinder) the moon (i.e. the shiner) S. I, 196; II, 206; M. II, 104; A. I, 227, II. 139 sq. ; III, 34; Dh. 413; Sn. 465, 569, 1016; J. III, 52; VI, 232; Pv. I, 127; II, 66; Vv 647 (maṇi° a shiny jewel. or a moonlike jewel, see VvA. 278, v. l. °sanda). —puṇṇa° the full moon J. I, 149, 267; V, 215; °mukha with a face like a full moon (of the Buddha) DhA. III, 171. Canda is extremely frequent in similes & comparisens: see list in J. P. T. S. 1907, 85 sq. In enumerations of heavenly bodies or divine beings Canda always precedes Suriya (the Sun), e.g. D. II, 259; A. I, 215; II, 139; Nd2 308 (under Devatā). Cp. candimant. On quâsi mythol. etym. see Vism. 418.

— or —

Caṇḍa, (adj.) (Sk. caṇḍa) fierce, violent; quick-tempered, uncontrolled, passionate Vin. II, 194 (hatthī); D. I. 90 (=māṇa-nissita-kopa-yutta DA. I, 256); S. I, 176; II, 242; A. II, 109=Pug. 47 (sakagava°); J. I, 450; II, 210, 349; Vism. 343, 279 (°sota, fierce current), (°hatthi); DhA. IV, 9 (goṇa) 104; Sdhp. 41, 590, 598.—f. caṇḍī M. I, 126; J. II, 443; III, 259; Pv. II, 34 (=kodhanā PvA. 83). ‹-› Compar. caṇḍatara S. II, 242.—In cpds. caṇḍi°, see caṇḍikata & caṇḍitta. (Page 260)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

caṇḍa (चंड).—m (S) A misshapen stone which is placed near the idol of mahādēva, and is designed to represent one of his attendants.

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caṇḍa (चंड).—a S Irascible, fiery, choleric: also, in comp., furious, outrageous, fervid; as caṇḍavāta Hurricane or tempest; caṇḍāṃśu Ardent beams of the sun, or the sun, caṇḍa-kiraṇa-kōpa-ghana-bhānu-vāda &c. 2 (Poetry.) Huge, vast, immense, enormous, massive &c. Ex. pāyīṃ caṇḍa śiḷā bāndhiti || mahā narakīṃ buḍavi- ti || &c.

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candā (चंदा).—m ( H) A share of a contribution or general subscription. 2 Raising money by subscription. v kara.

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cānda (चांद).—m (candra S through H) The moon. The is tsa. 2 A certain moon-form ornament.

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cāndā (चांदा) [or द्या, dyā].—a (cāndēṃ) Having a white spot on the forehead--a bullock &c.

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cāndā (चांदा).—m cāndāḍā m A tree, called also cāndavaḍa.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

caṇḍa (चंड).—a Irascible, flery, choleric. Furious, outrageous, fervid. Huge, vast, im- mense. caṇḍavāta Hurricane or tempest. caṇḍāṃśa Ardent beams of the sun, or the sun.

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candā (चंदा).—m A share of a contribution or general subscription. Raising money by subscription.

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cāṇḍā (चांडा).—a Loose-tongued; all-disclosing fool.

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cānda (चांद).—m The Moon. A kind of ornament.

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cāndā (चांदा).—a Having a white spot on the forehead.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Caṇḍa (चण्ड).—a.

1) (a) Fierce, violent, impetuous. (b) Passionate, angry, wrathful; अथैकधेनोपराधचण्डात् गुरोः कृशानुप्रतिमाद् बिभेषि (athaikadhenoparādhacaṇḍāt guroḥ kṛśānupratimād bibheṣi) R.2.49; M.3.2; see चण्डी (caṇḍī) below.

2) Hot, warm; as in चण्डांशु (caṇḍāṃśu).

3) Active, quick.

4) Pungent, acrid.

5) Mischievous evil.

6) Circumcised.

-ṇḍaḥ 1 An evil being or demon.

2) Śiva.

3) Skanda.

4) The tamarind tree.

-ṇḍam 1 Heat, warmth.

2) Passion, wrath. adv. Violently, fiercely, angrily.

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Caṇḍā (चण्डा).—f.

1) An epithet of Durgā.

2) A passionate or angry woman; चण्डी चण्डं हन्तुमभ्युद्यता माम् (caṇḍī caṇḍaṃ hantumabhyudyatā mām) M.3.2; चण्डी मामवधूय पादपतितं जातानुतापेव सा (caṇḍī māmavadhūya pādapatitaṃ jātānutāpeva sā) V.4.38; R.12.5; Meghadūta 14.

3) Name of plant.

4) A kind of perfume (Mar. vāḷā).

-ṇḍī 1 A term of endearment applied to one's mistress.

2) Hurt, injury.

See also (synonyms): caṇḍī.

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Canda (चन्द).—

1) The moon; L. D. B.

2) Camphor.

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Cāṇḍa (चाण्ड).—Violence, force.

Derivable forms: cāṇḍam (चाण्डम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Caṇḍā (चण्डा).—(in Sanskrit, like Caṇḍikā and (Lex.) Caṇḍālikā, names of deities identified with Durgā), name of a yakṣiṇī: Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 163.1 (with Caṇḍikā and Caṇḍālikā); name of a rākṣasī, Mahā-Māyūrī 243.30, 34.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caṇḍa (चण्ड).—mfn.

(-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍā-ṇḍaṃ) 1. Fierce, violent, passionate. 2. Hot, warm. 3. Pungent, acrid. m.

(-ṇḍaḥ) 1. The tamarind tree. 2. A messenger of Yama, 3. A Daitya, a demon. f.

(-ṇḍā) 1. A perfume, commonly Chor. 2. A kind of grass, (Andropogon aciculatum.) 3. The name of a river in the east of Bengal. 4. A goddess, peculiar to the Jainas. f. (-ṇḍā-ṇḍī) A name of the goddess Durga, applied especial. ly to her incarnation for the purpose of destroying Mahisasura; this exploit forms the subject of a section of the Markandeya Puran, and is particularly celebrated in Bengal at the Durga Puja, or festival held in honour of the goddess, towards the close of the year, (Oct.-Nov.) (-ṇḍī) 1. A passionate woman. 2. A mischievous or furious woman. 3. A species of the Atijgati verse. n.

(-ṇḍaṃ) 1. Heat, warmth. 2. Passion, wrath. E. caḍi to be wrathful, ac affix, and ṭā or ṅīp affixes of the feminine gender. caḍi kope ac caṇa dāne camu adane vā ḍa tasya nettvam .

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Canda (चन्द).—m.

(-ndaḥ) The moon. E. cadi to shine, affix ac see candra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caṇḍa (चण्ड).— (a dialectical form of cand + ra), I. adj., f. ḍī. 1. Flaming, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 7, 8, 20; hot, e. g. in caṇḍ- āṃśu, i. e. caṇḍa-aṃśu, m. The sun (properly, Having hot rays), [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 4, 401. 2. Violent, Mahābhārata 1, 1493; [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 47. 3. Passionate, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 49. 4. Wrathful, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 70, 10 (ḍī). 5. Cruel, Mahābhārata 1, 6752. Ii. ºḍam, adv. Passionately, [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] [distich] 56. Iii. m. 1. A name of Śiva, Mahābhārata 12, 10358. 2. A name of Skanda, Mahābhārata 3, 14631. 3. A proper name, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 12937. Iv. f. ḍā. 1. A name of Durgā, Mahābhārata 6, 797. 2. A name of several plants, [Suśruta] 1, 139, 9. V. f. ḍī, A name of Durgā, Mahābhārata 6, 797.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caṇḍa (चण्ड).—[feminine] ā & ī fierce, violent, wrathful, angry; [neuter] [adverb] —[masculine] [Name] of [several] myth. beings, [Epithet] of Śiva or Skanda. [feminine] ā & ī [Epithet] of Durgā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Caṇḍa (चण्ड) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—instead of Cāmuṇḍa. L. 910. Bik. 643.

2) Caṇḍa (चण्ड):—Prākṛtalakṣaṇa. Kh. 86. Peters. 3, 265. 393.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caṇḍa (चण्ड):—[from caṇḍ] mf(ā, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā lxviii, 92]; ī, [Rāmāyaṇa ii; Vikramorvaśī; Raghuvaṃśa] etc.)n. (probably [from] candra, ‘glowing’ with passion) fierce, violent, cruel, impetuous, hot, ardent with passion, passionate, angry, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] mf(ā)n. circumcised, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a mythical being (caṇḍasya naptyas, ‘daughters of Caṇḍa’, a class of female demons, [Atharva-veda ii, 14, 1]), [Agni-purāṇa xlii, 20]

4) [v.s. ...] Śiva or Bhairava, [Mahābhārata xii, 10358; Śaṃkara-vijaya xxiii] (= sūrya), [Skanda-purāṇa; Mahābhārata iii, 14631]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of a demon causing diseases, [Harivaṃśa 9563]

6) [v.s. ...] of a Daitya, [12937]

7) [v.s. ...] of an attendant of Yama or of Śiva, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] of one of the 7 clouds enveloping the earth at the deluge, [Matsya-purāṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] = -cukrā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] n. heat, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] passion, wrath, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) Caṇḍā (चण्डा):—[from caṇḍa > caṇḍ] f. ([gana] bahv-ādi), Name of Durgā ([especially] as incarnation for the purpose of destroying the Asura Mahiṣa, this exploit forming the subject of the [Devī-māhātmya] and being particularly celebrated in Bengāl at the Durgāpūjā about Oct. Nov.), [Mahābhārata vi, 797; Harivaṃśa 10245]

13) [v.s. ...] Name of one of the 8 Nāyikās or Saktis of Durgā, [Brahma-purāṇa; DevīP.]

14) [v.s. ...] Name of an attendant of the 12th Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] of a river, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] of a plant (Andropogon aciculatus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Mucuna pruritus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Salvinia cucullata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; white Dūrvā grass, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; liṅginī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Suśruta i, iv; vi, 51]

17) [v.s. ...] a kind of perfume (commonly Chor), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) Canda (चन्द):—[from cand] m. (for dra) the moon, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] Name of the author of the work Pṛthivi-rāja-rāsaka.

20) Cāṇḍa (चाण्ड):—m. [patronymic] [from] caṇḍa [gana] śivādi

21) n. violence etc. [gana] pṛthv-ādi.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caṇḍa (चण्ड):—[(ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍaṃ) a.] Fierce, angry, hot, pungent. 1. m. The tamarind tree; a demon. f. Durgā; a perfume. n. Heat, passion.

2) Canda (चन्द):—(ndaḥ) 1. m. The moon.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Caṇḍa (चण्ड) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Caṃḍa, Caṃḍā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Canda in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Caṃḍa (चंड) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Piṣ.

2) Caṃḍa (चंड) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Caṇḍa.

3) Caṃḍā (चंडा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Caṇḍā.

4) Caṃda (चंद) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Candra.

5) Caṃda (चंद) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Candra.

6) Caṃdā (चंदा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Candrā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Caṃḍa (ಚಂಡ):—

1) [adjective] having a high temperature; hot.

2) [adjective] harsh; severe; serious.

3) [adjective] violently angry; full of fury or wild rage; furious.

4) [adjective] merciless; pitiless; hard-hearted; cruel.

5) [adjective] mischievous or playfully malicious.

6) [adjective] characterised by much action or motion; lively; active.

7) [adjective] physically powerful; very strong.

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Caṃḍa (ಚಂಡ):—

1) [noun] name of an attendant of Śiva.

2) [noun] excessive or violent anger; fury; rage.

3) [noun] a man who is easily annoyed or provoked; an irritable, ill-tempered man.

4) [noun] a brave and valorous man.

5) [noun] Śiva.

6) [noun] 6.Ṣaṇmukha, the son of Śiva.

7) [noun] (myth.) name of a hell.

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Caṃda (ಚಂದ):—

1) [noun] the quality present in a thing or person who gives intense pleasure or deep satisfaction to the mind, whether arising from sensory manifestations (as shape, colour, sound, etc.); beauty.

2) [noun] a way of doing, being done or happening; mode of action, occurrence, etc.; manner.

3) [noun] that which is right, apt, correct, etc.

4) [noun] the good state, as good health, happiness, prosperity, etc., of a person, group or organisation; well-being; welfare.

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Caṃda (ಚಂದ):—

1) [noun] the moon.

2) [noun] the day of the month or year; date.

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Caṃda (ಚಂದ):—

1) [noun] meter a) a. poetic measure; arrangement of words in regularly measured, patterned or rhythmic lines or verses; b) a particular form of such arrangement, depending on either the kind or the number of feet constituting the verse or both rhythmic kind and number of feet.

2) [noun] the science or study of poetic meters and versification; prosody.

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Caṃda (ಚಂದ):—[noun] = ಚಂದಾ [camda].

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Caṃdama (ಚಂದಮ):—[noun] = ಚಂದ್ರ [camdra]3 - 1.

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Caṃdā (ಚಂದಾ):—

1) [noun] a gift or contribution, as to a charitable organisation.

2) [noun] something that is contributed; contribution.

3) [noun] an amount (relatively a large sum) collected one time annually, by educational institutions apart from the regular school fee; donation.

4) [noun] a fixed sum paid or to be paid as a price for getting a periodical for a fixed period; subscription.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Candā (चन्दा):—n. 1. a donation; a contribution; 2. a subscription;

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Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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