Canda, aka: Caṇḍā, Caṇḍa, Candā, Cāṇḍa; 19 Definition(s)


Canda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chanda.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

1) Caṇḍa (चण्ड), one of the fifty Rudras according to the Caryāpāda section of the Makuṭāgama (one of the 28 Saiva Siddhanta Agamas).

2) Caṇḍa (चण्ड, “wrath”):—One of the ministers of Yama, who resides in the city known as Saṃyaminī. Yama, the vedic God of death, represents the embodiment of Dharma. Yama rules over the kingdom of the dead and binds humankind according to the fruits of their karma.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

1) Caṇḍā (चण्डा, “impetuous”):—One of the nine Dūtī presided over by one of the nine bhaivaravas named Caṇḍalokeśa (emanation of Ananta, who is the central presiding deity of Dūtīcakra), according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra and the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā.

2) Caṇḍā (चण्डा):—Sanskrit name of one of the thirty-two female deities of the Somamaṇḍala (second maṇḍala of the Khecarīcakra) according to the kubjikāmata-tantra. These goddesses are situated on a ring of sixteen petals and represent the thirty-two syllables of the Aghoramantra. Each deity (including Caṇḍā) is small, plump and large-bellied. They can assume any form at will, have sixteen arms each, and are all mounted on a different animal.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Caṇḍā (चण्डा):—Name of one of the goddesses to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva (“The truth concerning Durgā’s ritual”). They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ह्रीं ओं चण्डायै नमः
hrīṃ oṃ caṇḍāyai namaḥ

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Caṇḍā (चण्डा):—One of the nine Durgās (navadurgā) that are worshipped for the prosperity of children, according to the Agni-purāṇa. Her colour is gorocana (red sandal paste). She has sixteen hands each and holds within her right hands a skull, shield, mirror, bow, flag and pāśa (cord), and in her left hands a rod, iron pounder, Śūla, Vajra, sword, Aṅkuśa (a sticklike weapon), Śara (arrow), Cakra and a śalākā. These nine Durgās are seen as different forms of Pārvatī.

Source: Wisdom Library: Purāṇas

Caṇḍā (चण्डा) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (eg., Caṇḍā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Caṇḍā (चण्डा).—Name of a river (nadī) situated near the seven great mountains on the western side of mount Naiṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These settlements consume the water flowing from these seven great mountains (Viśākha, Kambala, Jayanta, Kṛṣṇa, Harita, Aśoka and Vardhamāna). Niṣadha (Naiṣadha) is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Caṇḍa (चण्ड).—(See Caṇḍamuṇḍās).

Source: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Caṇḍa (चण्ड).—A son of Bāṣkala.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 38; IV. 29. 75.

1b) A head of a Śivagaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 41. 28.

1c) A Bhairava on the sixth parva of Geyacakra; followed the army of Lalitā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 19. 78; 17. 4.

1d) A Rudra.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 153. 19.

1e) A Nāgapati.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 41. 73.

1f) One of the seven pralaya clouds.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 2. 8.

1g) One of the two piśācas who met yakṣa, the son of Khaśā.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 113.

2) Caṇḍā (चण्डा).—A mind-born mother.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 16.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

1) Caṇḍa (चण्ड):—One of the eight gatekeepers who are said to embody the eight siddhis (‘yogic powers’).

2) Caṇḍa (चण्ड) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Caṇḍanṛsiṃha or Caṇḍanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Caṇḍa (चण्ड) is the Sanskrit name of a form of Bhairava. According to the Rudrayāmala, there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. The term is used throughout Śilpaśāstra literature.

Caṇḍa has the following eight manifestations:

  1. Caṇḍa,
  2. Pralayāntaka,
  3. Bhūmikampa,
  4. Nīlakaṇṭha,
  5. Viṣṇu,
  6. Kulapālaka,
  7. Muṇḍapāla,
  8. Kāmapāla.

All these have a blue color and have good looks; they should carry in their hands agni, śakti, gadā and kuṇḍa.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

1) Caṇḍā (चण्डा) is another name for Liṅginī, an unidentified medicinal plant, according to verse 3.45-47 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Caṇḍā and Liṅginī, there are a total of sixteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

2) Caṇḍā (चण्डा) is also mentioned as a synonym for Kapikacchu, a medicinal plant identified with Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean or cowhage or cowitch) from the Fabaceae or “bean family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.50-53.

3) Caṇḍā (चण्डा) is also mentioned as a synonym for Ākhukarṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Ipomoea reniformis, synonym of Merremia emarginata (kidney leaf morning glory) from the Convolvulaceae or “morning glory family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.67-68.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Caṇḍa (चण्ड), a violent and cruel hunter who accidentally worshipped a Śiva liṅga on the night of Śivarātri by staying awake all night without eating and accidentally knocking bilva leaves onto the liṅga while trying to kill a boar. During the night Caṇḍa became greatly transformed by the performance of these acts; we are told that he was freed from all sins and his heart became pure. (See the Padma-purāṇa, Uttarakhaṇḍa, 154.8–53)

Source: Google Books: Hindu Ritual at the Margins

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

1. Canda - A king, one of the chief lay supporters of Kondanna Buddha (BuA.114).

2. Canda - Chief lay supporter of Sikhi Buddha. Bu.xxi.122; but BuA. (204) calls him Nanda.

3. Canda - One of the palaces occupied by Sumangala Buddha in his last lay life (Bu.v.22).

4. Canda - A manava, son of a rich brahmin, Sucindara. Canda and his friend, Subhadda, became arahants at the first assembly of Kondanna Buddha. BuA.110f.

5. Canda - The moon; generally spoken of as a deva. See Candima.

6. Canda - The Bodhisatta, born as a kinnara. For details see the Canda kinnara Jataka.

7. Canda - A mountain in Himava. where lived the kinnara, Canda, with his wife (J.iv.283, 288). It is also called Candaka (J.v.162) and Candapassa (J.v.38).

8. Canda - A brahmin, father of Vidhurapandita.

9. Canda - One of the palaces occupied by Sumana Buddha in his last lay life (Bu.xxiv.22).

10. Canda - Younger brother of Sariputta and a member of the Order. DhA.ii.188.

11. Canda - Son of the brahmin Pandula. He later became the chaplain of Pandukabhaya. Mhv.x.25, 79.

12. Canda - See Candakumara.

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1. Canda - Wife of Sudinna and mother of Piyadassi Buddha (J.i.39). In the Buddhavamsa (xiv.15) she is called Sucanda.

2. Canda - One of the two chief women disciples of Vipassi Buddha. J.i.41; Bu.xx.29.

3. Canda - A kinnari, wife of Canda, the Bodhisatta. See the Candakinnara Jataka (J.iv.283ff). She is sometimes called Candi. E.g., J.iv.284.

4. Canda - Wife of Mahapatapa, king of Benares, and mother of Dhammapala. She is identified with Maha Pajapati Gotami. For details see the Culla Dhammapala Jataka. J.iii.178-ff.

5. Canda - Daughter of the Madda king and chief consort of the ruler of Benares. She was the mother of Mugapakkha (Temiya). For details see the Mugapakkha Jataka.

6. Canda - Chief consort of Candakumara. She was the daughter of the Pancala king and the mother of Vasula. It was her saccakiriya which saved her husband from death. She is identified with Rahulamata.

7. Canda - Chief consort of Sutasoma. She is identified with Rahulamata. J.v.177, 182, 192.

8. Canda Theri - An arahant. She belonged to a brahmin family which bad fallen on evil days and she grew up in wretched poverty. Her kinsfolk having all died of plague, she eked out a living by begging from door to door. One day she came across Patacara who had just finished eating. Patacara, seeing her pitiable condition, gave her some food and, when she had eaten, discoursed to her. Delighted by Patacaras sermon, Canda renounced the world and soon afterwards attained arahantship. Thig.vs.122-26; ThigA., p.120f.

9. Canda - The kinnari maiden of whom Brahmadatta became enamoured, preferring her to his own wife,Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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(Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Caṇḍa (चण्ड) is the name of a cloud (megha) associated with Kilakilārava: the north-western cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.

These clouds (eg., Caṇḍa) are known as cloud-kings (megharāja) and have names that are associated with the loud noises of thunderclouds and the noise of rain, according to the Guhyasamayasādhanamālā 11.77. Their presence in the cremation grounds may be connected with the nāgas, for they are known to be responsible for the rain.

The Guhyasamayasādhanamālā by Umāptideva is a 12th century ritualistic manual including forty-six Buddhist tantric sādhanas. The term sādhana refers to “rites” for the contemplation of a divinity.

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Canda in Pali glossary... « previous · [C] · next »

caṇḍa : (adj.) fierce; violent; passionate.

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canda : (m.) the moon.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Canda, (Vedic candra from *(s)quend to be light or glowing, cp. candana sandal (incense) wood, Gr. kάhdaros cinder; Lat. candeo, candidus, incendo; Cymr. cann white; E. candid, candle, incense, cinder) the moon (i.e. the shiner) S. I, 196; II, 206; M. II, 104; A. I, 227, II. 139 sq. ; III, 34; Dh. 413; Sn. 465, 569, 1016; J. III, 52; VI, 232; Pv. I, 127; II, 66; Vv 647 (maṇi° a shiny jewel. or a moonlike jewel, see VvA. 278, v. l. °sanda). —puṇṇa° the full moon J. I, 149, 267; V, 215; °mukha with a face like a full moon (of the Buddha) DhA. III, 171. Canda is extremely frequent in similes & comparisens: see list in J. P. T. S. 1907, 85 sq. In enumerations of heavenly bodies or divine beings Canda always precedes Suriya (the Sun), e.g. D. II, 259; A. I, 215; II, 139; Nd2 308 (under Devatā). Cp. candimant. On quâsi mythol. etym. see Vism. 418.

—kanta a gem Miln. 118; —(g)gāha a moon-eclipse (lit. seizure, i.e. by Rāhu) D. I, 10 (cp. DA. I, 95); —maṇḍala the moon’s disc, the shiny disc, i.e. the moon A. I, 283; J. I, 253; III, 55; IV, 378; V, 123; Dhs. 617; Vism. 216 (in compar, ); PvA. 65; —suriyā (pl.) sun & moon J. IV, 61. (Page 261)

— or —

Caṇḍa, (adj.) (Sk. caṇḍa) fierce, violent; quick-tempered, uncontrolled, passionate Vin. II, 194 (hatthī); D. I. 90 (=māṇa-nissita-kopa-yutta DA. I, 256); S. I, 176; II, 242; A. II, 109=Pug. 47 (sakagava°); J. I, 450; II, 210, 349; Vism. 343, 279 (°sota, fierce current), (°hatthi); DhA. IV, 9 (goṇa) 104; Sdhp. 41, 590, 598.—f. caṇḍī M. I, 126; J. II, 443; III, 259; Pv. II, 34 (=kodhanā PvA. 83). ‹-› Compar. caṇḍatara S. II, 242.—In cpds. caṇḍi°, see caṇḍikata & caṇḍitta. (Page 260)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

caṇḍa (चंड).—m (S) A misshapen stone which is placed near the idol of mahādēva, and is designed to represent one of his attendants.

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caṇḍa (चंड).—a S Irascible, fiery, choleric: also, in comp., furious, outrageous, fervid; as caṇḍavāta Hurricane or tempest; caṇḍāṃśu Ardent beams of the sun, or the sun, caṇḍa-kiraṇa-kōpa-ghana-bhānu-vāda &c. 2 (Poetry.) Huge, vast, immense, enormous, massive &c. Ex. pāyīṃ caṇḍa śiḷā bāndhiti || mahā narakīṃ buḍavi- ti || &c.

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candā (चंदा).—m ( H) A share of a contribution or general subscription. 2 Raising money by subscription. v kara.

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cānda (चांद).—m (candra S through H) The moon. The is tsa. 2 A certain moon-form ornament.

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cāndā (चांदा) [or द्या, dyā].—a (cāndēṃ) Having a white spot on the forehead--a bullock &c.

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cāndā (चांदा).—m cāndāḍā m A tree, called also cāndavaḍa.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

caṇḍa (चंड).—a Irascible, flery, choleric. Furious, outrageous, fervid. Huge, vast, im- mense. caṇḍavāta Hurricane or tempest. caṇḍāṃśa Ardent beams of the sun, or the sun.

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candā (चंदा).—m A share of a contribution or general subscription. Raising money by subscription.

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cāṇḍā (चांडा).—a Loose-tongued; all-disclosing fool.

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cānda (चांद).—m The Moon. A kind of ornament.

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cāndā (चांदा).—a Having a white spot on the forehead.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Caṇḍa (चण्ड).—a.

1) (a) Fierce, violent, impetuous. (b) Passionate, angry, wrathful; अथैकधेनोपराधचण्डात् गुरोः कृशानुप्रतिमाद् बिभेषि (athaikadhenoparādhacaṇḍāt guroḥ kṛśānupratimād bibheṣi) R.2.49; M.3.2; see चण्डी (caṇḍī) below.

2) Hot, warm; as in चण्डांशु (caṇḍāṃśu).

3) Active, quick.

4) Pungent, acrid.

5) Mischievous evil.

6) Circumcised.

-ṇḍaḥ 1 An evil being or demon.

2) Śiva.

3) Skanda.

4) The tamarind tree.

-ṇḍam 1 Heat, warmth.

2) Passion, wrath. adv. Violently, fiercely, angrily.

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Caṇḍā (चण्डा).—f.

1) An epithet of Durgā.

2) A passionate or angry woman; चण्डी चण्डं हन्तुमभ्युद्यता माम् (caṇḍī caṇḍaṃ hantumabhyudyatā mām) M.3.2; चण्डी मामवधूय पादपतितं जातानुतापेव सा (caṇḍī māmavadhūya pādapatitaṃ jātānutāpeva sā) V.4.38; R.12.5; Me.14.

3) Name of plant.

4) A kind of perfume (Mar. vāḷā).

-ṇḍī 1 A term of endearment applied to one's mistress.

2) Hurt, injury.

See also (synonyms): caṇḍī.

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Canda (चन्द).—

1) The moon; L. D. B.

2) Camphor.

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Cāṇḍa (चाण्ड).—Violence, force.

Derivable forms: cāṇḍam (चाण्डम्).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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Caṇḍagrāma (चण्डग्राम) is a place-name classified as a grāma and mentioned in the Gupta inscrip...
Caṇḍāsidhāra (चण्डासिधार) or Caṇḍāsidhāratantra refers to one of the twenty Bhūtatantras, belon...
Caṇḍanarasiṃha (चण्डनरसिंह) is short for Caṇḍa, one of the aspects of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), acc...
Caṇḍamṛga (चण्डमृग).—a wild animal. Derivable forms: caṇḍamṛgaḥ (चण्डमृगः).Caṇḍamṛga is a Sansk...
Caṇḍadīdhiti (चण्डदीधिति).—the sun; हेमन्त- शिशिरावाप्य चण्डांशोरिव मण्डलम् (hemanta- śiśirāvāp...

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