Raudri, Raudrī: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Raudri means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Raudrī (रौद्री, “terrible, dreadful”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ॐ रौद्र्यै नमः
oṃ raudryai namaḥ.

Source: Sreenivasarao's blog: Saptamatrka (part 4)

Raudri or Maheshvari refers to one of the seven mother-like goddesses (Matrika).—The Matrikas emerge as shaktis from out of the bodies of the gods: Maheshvari from Shiva. The order of the Saptamatrka usually begins with Brahmi symbolizing creation. Then, Vaishnavi. Then, Maheshvari, who resides in the hearts of all beings, breaths in life and individuality.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Raudrī (रौद्री) is the form of Trikalā having a black body representing the energy of Maheśvara (Śiva), according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 90. Trikalā is the name of a Goddess born from the combined looks of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara (Śiva).

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Raudrī (रौद्री).—A kalā of Rudra and a Śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 19. 73; 35. 96.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Raudrī (रौद्री, “cruel”) refers to a specific “glance” (dṛṣṭi), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. This is a type of glance that expresses the ‘furious sentiment’ (raudrarasa). There are a total thirty-six glances defined.

Source: Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi

Raudrī (रौद्री) refers to one of the twenty-two quarters tones (śruti) existing within an octave, according to the Saṅgīta-ratnākara (“ocean of music and dance”). This work is an important Sanskrit treatise dealing with ancient Indian musicology (gāndharva-śāstra), composed by Śārṅgadeva in the 13th century and deals with both Carnatic and Hindustani music. Raudrī has a frequency of 294.3288Hz.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Raudrī (रौद्री).—A type of glance (dṛṣṭi) expressing sentiment (rasa);—The pitiless Glance in which the eyeballs are rough, red, raised, and the eyelids are still and the eyebrows knitted, is called Raudrī (cruel), and it is used in the Furious Sentiment.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Raudrī (रौद्री, “terrible”).—Illustration of Raudrī-śruti according to 15th century art:—The colour of her body is yellow. She holds a vīṇā with both hands. The colour of her bodice is green. Her scarf is rosy with a red design, the lower garment is sky-blue with a black design.

The illustrations (of, for example Raudrī) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas

Raudri (रौद्रि) or Raudra refers to the fifty-fourth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—The native born in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘raudri’ is of horrible appearance, rears cattle, speaks ill of others, is excessively deceitful, gets a bad name, is of vicious heart and is very fierce.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year raudri (2040-2041 AD) will be a rake, perverse, proud and wicked.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Raudrī (रौद्री) is another name for Rudrajaṭā, a medicinal plant identified with Aristolochia indica (Indian birthwort or duck flower) from the Aristolochiaceae or “birthwort family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.79-81 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Raudrī and Rudrajaṭā, there are a total of sixteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Raudri (रौद्रि) is the fifty-fourth of sixty years (saṃvatsara) in the Vedic lunar calendar according to the Arcana-dīpikā by Vāmana Mahārāja (cf. Appendix).—Accordingl, There are sixty different names for each year in the Vedic lunar calendar, which begins on the new moon day (Amāvasyā) after the appearance day of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu (Gaura-pūrṇimā), in February or March. The Vedic year [viz., Raudri], therefore, does not correspond exactly with the Christian solar calendar year.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Google Books: An Esoteric Exposition of the Bardo Thodol Part A

Raudrī (रौद्री):—One of the six Īśvarī performing the rites of pacification.—The greenish-white leopard-headed Raudrī, holding a trident, is one of a pair of carnivores directing Watery-Fiery prāṇas to and from the Stomach centre, (the western direction) which processes the forceful predatory saṃskāras of mental-emotions, aggression, as well as the general manasic propensities developed by the emotions through sense contact. The carnivores are represented here because they express the energies of the will, and the stalking tendencies associated with ambitious and aggressive activities. These are iḍā in nature because the necessities of the hunt tends to develop the attributes of the mind.

Raudrī, who prāṇically embodies the ambidexterity of the left thumb, directs the most powerful kāma-mamasic prāṇas the Solar Plexus centre has developed to the Stomach centre. The powerful leopard consequently is used to symbolise this prāṇic flow. It is quite capable of seeking out the desirous propensities of mind within the jungles of saṃsāra. The trident allows Raudrī to control the general Watery disposition of the Solar Plexus by means of the attributes of mind.

The counterpart of this pair is Vaiṣṇāvī..

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Raudrī (रौद्री) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—the
—[commentary] on the Tattvacintāmaṇidīdhiti and the Nyāyasiddhāntamuktāvalī by Rudra Bhaṭṭācārya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Raudrī (रौद्री):—[from raudra] a f. Name of Gaurī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] one of the 9 Samidhs, [Gṛhyāsaṃgraha]

3) [v.s. ...] a [particular] Śakti, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

4) [v.s. ...] (in music.) a [particular] Śruti, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

5) [v.s. ...] a [particular] Mūrchanā, [ib.]

6) [v.s. ...] a species of creeper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of the Comms. on the Tattva-cintāmaṇi-dīdhiti and the Nyāya-siddhānta-muktāvalī by Rudra Bhaṭṭācārya

8) [v.s. ...] (with megha-mālā and śānti) of two older works.

9) Raudri (रौद्रि):—[from raudra] m. [patronymic] [from] rudra, [Harivaṃśa]

10) Raudrī (रौद्री):—[from raudra] b in [compound] for rudra.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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