Rudhira: 21 definitions

Introduction:

Rudhira means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Rudhir.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to the medicinal plant Crocus sativus L., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Rudhira] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

The plant Crocus sativus L. (Rudhira) is also known as Kuṅkuma according to both the Ayurvedic Formulary and the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “blood”, according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] Then the god Bhairava, who bore the form of Sadyojāta, shook. He leapt up by the power of knowledge and rolled around again and again. The god, intent on the ritual, secreted blood from the navel, Liṅga and in the Cave. Then he became Bhairava, the abode of blood [i.e., rudhira-ālaya], in the sacrifice. (Thus) Bhairava bore the form of Sadyojāta (sadyarūpa—the Immediately Born)”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to a “blood-colored sun”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If in Śiśira (February, March) the sun be of copper colour or red black, if, in Vasanta (April, May), blue crimson, if, in Grīṣma (June, July), slightly white and of gold color, if, in Varṣā (August, September), white, if, in Śarada (October, November), of the colour of the centre of the lotus, if, in Hemanta (December, January), of blood color [i.e., rudhira], mankind will be happy. If, in Varṣā (August, September), the rays of the sun be soft, mankind will be happy even though the sun should be of any of the colors mentioned above”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Yoga Vasishtha Maharamayana

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “blood”, as mentioned in the Yogavasistha 4.27 (“Admonition of brahma”).—Accordingly: “As the war of the gods and Titans, was raging violently on both sides, and their bodies were pierced by the weapons of one another:—[...] The Daityas waged their battle with the rage of the midday sun, and put to flight the Airavata elephant of Indra—the leader of the gods. The Devas dropped down with their bodies gored with wounds, and spouting with blood [i.e., prasravat-rudhira]; and their armies fled on all sides, like the currents of a river overflowing and breaking down its bank. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Rudhira in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “blood”, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 108. Accordingly, “[...] The next day [Naravāhanadatta] deposited his wives in Mātaṅgapura, and went with the Vidyādhara kings to Govindakūṭa. There Gaurīmuṇḍa and Mānasavega came out to fight with them, and Caṇḍasiṃha and his colleagues met them face to face. When the battle began, brave warriors fell like trees marked out for the axe, and torrents of blood flowed [i.e., sravat-rudhira-nirjhara] on the mountain Govindakūṭa.”.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “blood”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “[...] By means of the wind (vāta) of deceptive concepts (mṛṣāvikalpa) and wrong thoughts, the father and mother (mātāpitṛ) blow upon the fire (agni) of sexual desire (rāga); blood (rudhira), marrow (majjan) and fat (vasā) escape, get hot and are changed into sperm. The seed-consciousness (vijñānabīja) conditioned by previous actions (pūrvakarman) settles in the blood (śoṇita) and whitish sperm (śukra). That is what is called the seed of the body (kāyabīja). [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Rudhira.—cf. Tamil udira-paṭṭi (SITI), literally, ‘blood-land;’ land given to the descendants of a person who fell fighting on the king's behalf; see also rakta-mānya, mṛtyuka-vṛtti, rakta- paṭṭaka and vīra-śeṣā. Note: rudhira is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Rudhira in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

rudhira : (nt.) blood.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Rudhira, (nt.) (late Vedic rudhira. Etym. connected with Lat. ruber red; Gr. e)ruqrόs red; Oicel. rodra blood, Goth. raups=Ger. rot=E. red) blood DhA. I, 140; PvA. 34 (for lohita; v. l. ruhira). See the more frequent words rohita & lohita; a form ruhira (q. v.) occurs e.g. at Pv. I, 91. (Page 573)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rudhira (रुधिर).—n (S) Blood.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

rudhira (रुधिर).—n Blood.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rudhira (रुधिर).—a. [rudh-kirac Uṇ.1.5] Red, red-coloured.

-ram 1 Blood.

2) Saffron.

-raḥ 1 The red colour.

2) The planet Mars; रोहिणीशकटमर्कनन्दनश्चेद् भिनत्ति रुधिरोऽथवा शशी (rohiṇīśakaṭamarkanandanaśced bhinatti rudhiro'thavā śaśī) Pt.1.213.

3) A kind of precious stone.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rudhira (रुधिर).—m.

(-raṃ) 1. Blood. 2. Saffron. m.

(-raḥ) The planet Mars. E. rudh to obstruct, kirac Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rudhira (रुधिर).— (from a vb. rudh, lost in corresponding signification), n. 1. Blood, [Pañcatantra] 123, 14. 2. Saffron.

— Cf. [Old High German.] rôt; [Anglo-Saxon.] reád, roder; [Latin] rutilus (for old ruthilus), rufus, ruber, robigo, etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rudhira (रुधिर).—[adjective] red, bloody; [masculine] the planet Mars; [neuter] (rudhira) blood, saffron.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rudhira (रुधिर):—[from rudh] mfn. ([probably] [from] the above lost root rudh, ‘to be red’; cf. rohita and also under rudra) red, blood-red, bloody, [Atharva-veda v, 29, 10]

2) [v.s. ...] m. the bloodred planet or Mars, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Pañcatantra]

3) [v.s. ...] a kind of precious stone (cf. rudhirākhya)

4) [v.s. ...] (ru) n. (ifc. f(ā). ) blood, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

5) [v.s. ...] n. saffron, [Caraka]

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a city, [Harivaṃśa] (cf. śonita-pura).

7) [v.s. ...] cf. [Greek] ἐρυθρός, ἔρευθος; [Latin] ruber, rubeo, rufus; [Lithuanian] rúdas, raúdas, raudónas; [Slavonic or Slavonian] rŭdrŭ, rŭdĕti; [Gothic] rauths; [Anglo-Saxon] reád; [English] red; [German] rôt, rot.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rudhira (रुधिर):—(raṃ) 1. n. Blood; saffron. m. The planet Mars.

[Sanskrit to German]

Rudhira in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Rudhira in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Rudhira (रुधिर) [Also spelled rudhir]:—(nm) blood; ~[nyūnatā] anaemia; ~[pāyī] blood-sucker/blood-sucking; ~[maya] bloody, full of blood; -[vikāra] impurity of blood; -[vijñāna] haematology; ~[vaijñānika] haematologist; haematological; ~[strāva] haemorrhage.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Rudhira (ರುಧಿರ):—[adjective] red; blood-red; bloody.

--- OR ---

Rudhira (ರುಧಿರ):—

1) [noun] the colour of blood; red colour.

2) [noun] blood.

3) [noun] (astrol.) the astrological planet Mars.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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