Rudhira: 30 definitions


Rudhira means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Rudhir.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Cikitsa (natural therapy and treatment for medical conditions)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to the medicinal plant Crocus sativus L., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Rudhira] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

The plant Crocus sativus L. (Rudhira) is also known as Kuṅkuma according to both the Ayurvedic Formulary and the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “blood”, as taught in the Ceṣṭita (“symptoms of snake-bites”) section of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Agadatantra or Sarpavidyā).—Sage Kāśyapa adds a graphic description of the features of a fatally bitten victim. Blackish-blue coloured blood (rudhira) oozing from the site of a fatal snake-bite, thirst, sweat, stiffness of limbs, horripilation, trembling of organs, ungainly appearance of lips and teeth, nasal speech, loss of consciousness and disfigurement—all these are surefire signs of a fatally bitten person.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “blood”, according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] Then the god Bhairava, who bore the form of Sadyojāta, shook. He leapt up by the power of knowledge and rolled around again and again. The god, intent on the ritual, secreted blood from the navel, Liṅga and in the Cave. Then he became Bhairava, the abode of blood [i.e., rudhira-ālaya], in the sacrifice. (Thus) Bhairava bore the form of Sadyojāta (sadyarūpa—the Immediately Born)”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to a “blood-colored sun”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If in Śiśira (February, March) the sun be of copper colour or red black, if, in Vasanta (April, May), blue crimson, if, in Grīṣma (June, July), slightly white and of gold color, if, in Varṣā (August, September), white, if, in Śarada (October, November), of the colour of the centre of the lotus, if, in Hemanta (December, January), of blood color [i.e., rudhira], mankind will be happy. If, in Varṣā (August, September), the rays of the sun be soft, mankind will be happy even though the sun should be of any of the colors mentioned above”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Yoga Vasishtha Maharamayana

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “blood”, as mentioned in the Yogavasistha 4.27 (“Admonition of brahma”).—Accordingly: “As the war of the gods and Titans, was raging violently on both sides, and their bodies were pierced by the weapons of one another:—[...] The Daityas waged their battle with the rage of the midday sun, and put to flight the Airavata elephant of Indra—the leader of the gods. The Devas dropped down with their bodies gored with wounds, and spouting with blood [i.e., prasravat-rudhira]; and their armies fled on all sides, like the currents of a river overflowing and breaking down its bank. [...]”.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “blood”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.5.5 (“The Tripuras are fascinated).—Accordingly, as Arihan said to the Lord of the Three Cities: “[...] Supporters and exponents of the Vedas accept this as an authoritative Vedic text that no living being shall be injured. Violence is not justifiable. The Vedic text encouraging slaughter of animals cannot be held authoritative by the learned. To say that violence is allowed in Agniṣṭoma is an erroneous view of the wicked. It is surprising that heaven is sought by cutting off trees, slaughtering animals, making a muddy mess with blood (rudhira-kardama) and by burning gingelly seeds and ghee”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Rudhira in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “blood”, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 108. Accordingly, “[...] The next day [Naravāhanadatta] deposited his wives in Mātaṅgapura, and went with the Vidyādhara kings to Govindakūṭa. There Gaurīmuṇḍa and Mānasavega came out to fight with them, and Caṇḍasiṃha and his colleagues met them face to face. When the battle began, brave warriors fell like trees marked out for the axe, and torrents of blood flowed [i.e., sravat-rudhira-nirjhara] on the mountain Govindakūṭa.”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Rudhira (रुधिर) (Cf. Śoṇita) refers to “blood”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 224-228).—Accordingly, “[Then he notices the dvārapāla (guardian of the gate), about which it is said that] [Caṇḍikā] had protected her entrance with an iron buffalo installed in front, which, because of the fact that it had been marked by palms [dyed with] red-sandalwood, seemed to have been stamped by Yama’s hand-prints red with blood (rudhira-aruṇa), the red eyes of which were being licked by jackals greedy for drops of blood (śoṇita-lava)”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “blood”, according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.3-6, while describing the interpretation of dreams]—“In [auspicious] dreams [the dreamer] drinks wine, eats raw flesh, smears insect feces and sprinkles blood (rudhirarudhireṇābhiṣecanam). He eats food of sour milk and smears a white garment. [He holds] a white umbrella over his head, decorates [himself] with a white garland or ribbon. [He sees] a throne, chariot or vehicle, the flag of royal initiation. He decorates [these things] with a coral, betel leaf fruit. [He also] sees Śrī or Sarasvatī”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “blood”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “[...] By means of the wind (vāta) of deceptive concepts (mṛṣāvikalpa) and wrong thoughts, the father and mother (mātāpitṛ) blow upon the fire (agni) of sexual desire (rāga); blood (rudhira), marrow (majjan) and fat (vasā) escape, get hot and are changed into sperm. The seed-consciousness (vijñānabīja) conditioned by previous actions (pūrvakarman) settles in the blood (śoṇita) and whitish sperm (śukra). That is what is called the seed of the body (kāyabīja). [...]”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “blood”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “Then the Bodhisattva named Kālarāja addressed himself to the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja: ‘In this Saha universe, son of good family, there are living beings suffering from poverty, lacking food or drink, and wearing ragged clothes; there are hungry ghosts tormented by hunger and thirst, covering themselves with their hairs, and subsisting on such as spittle, mucus, blood (rudhira), and pus. In order to protect these living beings, please pour down the rain of food, drink, and clothing!’ [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to a “bloody (opening)”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “[...] Six joyful seals, the foremost of them (being) her holiness, Colored red, with one face, two arms, and three eyes, Naked with loose hair, (and) partly adorned with a girdle, The left arm embracing, holding in a skull bowl, sin and death for eating, On the right a threatening finger pointing in the direction of all defilement, Sounding the thunder of an impending kalpa-fire of great majesty, With the bloody opening (rudhira-mukhī) (between) both hips penetrated by (her) hero, One who loves great pleasure, belonging to the nature of compassion”.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “bloody (mouths)”, according to chapter 50 of the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “Now, I will explain the characteristic of Mahākaṅkāla. [...] The corporeal [ones], Lāmā and so on, are seen residing there by means of meditation. [They are] all in the form of a donkey, [have] bloody mouths (rudhira-vaktra), and [have] tridents. He sees [and distinguishes between] a consciousness of one who is dying and [a consciousness of] one who lives long. He, a hero, sees himself [having] the form [that is] according to [the bodily constituents] starting with an elephant. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Rudhira (रुधिर) refers to “blood”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Alone [the living soul] who is very wise becomes a god [like] a bee on a lotus [like] the face of a woman . Alone, being cut by swords [com.—swallows (pibati) his own blood (svāsraṃ), his own blood (svarudhiraṃ), and flesh (māṃsaṃ) which is mixed with it (kalilaṃ)], he appropriates a hellish embryo. Alone the one who is ignorant, driven by the fire of anger, etc., does action. Alone [the living soul] enjoys the empire of knowledge in the avoidance of all mental blindness. [Thus ends the reflection on] solitariness”.

Synonyms: Asra, Asṛj.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Rudhira.—cf. Tamil udira-paṭṭi (SITI), literally, ‘blood-land;’ land given to the descendants of a person who fell fighting on the king's behalf; see also rakta-mānya, mṛtyuka-vṛtti, rakta- paṭṭaka and vīra-śeṣā. Note: rudhira is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Rudhira in India is the name of a plant defined with Crocus sativus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Safran officinarum Medik. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Nomenclator Botanicus (1840)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Fl. Ital. (1860)
· Gardeners Dictionary, ed. 8 (1768)
· Regnum Vegetabile, or ‘a Series of Handbooks for the Use of Plant Taxonomists and Plant Geographers’ (1993)
· Illustrations of the Botany of the Himalayan Mountains (1834)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Rudhira, for example chemical composition, health benefits, extract dosage, side effects, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Rudhira in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

rudhira : (nt.) blood.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Rudhira, (nt.) (late Vedic rudhira. Etym. connected with Lat. ruber red; Gr. e)ruqrόs red; Oicel. rodra blood, Goth. raups=Ger. rot=E. red) blood DhA. I, 140; PvA. 34 (for lohita; v. l. ruhira). See the more frequent words rohita & lohita; a form ruhira (q. v.) occurs e.g. at Pv. I, 91. (Page 573)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rudhira (रुधिर).—n (S) Blood.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

rudhira (रुधिर).—n Blood.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rudhira (रुधिर).—a. [rudh-kirac Uṇādi-sūtra 1.5] Red, red-coloured.

-ram 1 Blood.

2) Saffron.

-raḥ 1 The red colour.

2) The planet Mars; रोहिणीशकटमर्कनन्दनश्चेद् भिनत्ति रुधिरोऽथवा शशी (rohiṇīśakaṭamarkanandanaśced bhinatti rudhiro'thavā śaśī) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.213.

3) A kind of precious stone.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rudhira (रुधिर).—m.

(-raṃ) 1. Blood. 2. Saffron. m.

(-raḥ) The planet Mars. E. rudh to obstruct, kirac Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rudhira (रुधिर).— (from a vb. rudh, lost in corresponding signification), n. 1. Blood, [Pañcatantra] 123, 14. 2. Saffron.

— Cf. [Old High German.] rôt; [Anglo-Saxon.] reád, roder; [Latin] rutilus (for old ruthilus), rufus, ruber, robigo, etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rudhira (रुधिर).—[adjective] red, bloody; [masculine] the planet Mars; [neuter] (rudhira) blood, saffron.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rudhira (रुधिर):—[from rudh] mfn. ([probably] [from] the above lost root rudh, ‘to be red’; cf. rohita and also under rudra) red, blood-red, bloody, [Atharva-veda v, 29, 10]

2) [v.s. ...] m. the bloodred planet or Mars, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Pañcatantra]

3) [v.s. ...] a kind of precious stone (cf. rudhirākhya)

4) [v.s. ...] (ru) n. (ifc. f(ā). ) blood, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

5) [v.s. ...] n. saffron, [Caraka]

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a city, [Harivaṃśa] (cf. śonita-pura).

7) [v.s. ...] cf. [Greek] ἐρυθρός, ἔρευθος; [Latin] ruber, rubeo, rufus; [Lithuanian] rúdas, raúdas, raudónas; [Slavonic or Slavonian] rŭdrŭ, rŭdĕti; [Gothic] rauths; [Anglo-Saxon] reád; [English] red; [German] rôt, rot.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rudhira (रुधिर):—(raṃ) 1. n. Blood; saffron. m. The planet Mars.

[Sanskrit to German]

Rudhira in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Rudhira in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Rudhira (रुधिर) [Also spelled rudhir]:—(nm) blood; ~[nyūnatā] anaemia; ~[pāyī] blood-sucker/blood-sucking; ~[maya] bloody, full of blood; -[vikāra] impurity of blood; -[vijñāna] haematology; ~[vaijñānika] haematologist; haematological; ~[strāva] haemorrhage.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Rudhira (ರುಧಿರ):—[adjective] red; blood-red; bloody.

--- OR ---

Rudhira (ರುಧಿರ):—

1) [noun] the colour of blood; red colour.

2) [noun] blood.

3) [noun] (astrol.) the astrological planet Mars.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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