The Nighantu and the Nirukta

author: Lakshman Sarup
edition: 2015, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers pvt. ltd.
pages: 577
language: English
ISBN-13: 9788120813816
Topic: Hinduism

Summary: The English translation of the Nighantu and the Nirukta, the oldest Indian Treatise on Etymology, Philology and Semantics. The Nighantus are the glossaries or lists of rare and obscure words occurring in the Vedic hymns. According to Yaska they were collected and classified by the descendants of ancient sages for the easier understanding of the Vedic texts.

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Introduction:

The Nirukta is a famous work of Yaska. It is the oldest Indian Treatise on Etymology, Philology and Semantics. This being a commentary on the Nighantus, collection of obscure words which tradition ascribes also to Yaska, follows the three-fold division of the contents of the Nighantus. There are three sections in the Nirukta, viz. Naighantuka Kanda (consisting of lists in which Vedic words are collected under certain main ideas), Naigama Kanda or Aikapadika (containing a list of ambiguous and particularly difficult word of the Vedas) and Daivanta-Kanda (classification of deities according to the three regions: earth, sky and heaven).
The book is divided into three parts. These contain Introduction, Translation and Sanskrit Text, accompanied by exegetical and critical notes, indices and Appendices.

Contents of this online book (index):

The full text of the The Nighantu and the Nirukta in English can be quickly summarized in the following table of contents. Becaue these pages are not available to read online, I would recommend you buy the book.

PART I

Preface 1
I. INTRODUCTION TO THE NIGHANTU
a. Detailed description of Manuscripts 5
b. Two recensions 9
c. Devaraja and his commentary 10
d. Roth's edition of the Nighantu 11
e. Bibliotheca Indica edition of the Nighantu 12
f. Title of the work 13
g. Division of the Nighautu 13
h. Author of the Nighautu 14
II. INTRODUCTION TO THE NIRUKTA
a. Earlier editions of the Nirukta 15
b. Detailed description of the Manuscripts 19
c. Relationship of the Manuscripts - two recensions 39
d. Omissio ex homoeleleuto in Sanskrit Manuscripts 40
e. Dittography in Sanskrit Manuscripts 41
f. 1. Three Stages of interpolations 45
2. Parallel instance of Servius, commentator of Virgil 48
g. Commentators of Yaska 49
h. Yaska's contributions to Etymology, Philology and Semanties 53
1. Date of Yaska 53
2. Phonetic equipment of Yaska 54
3. Importance of Etymology 56
4. Principles of Etymology 57
5. Plato on Etymology 63
6. Philological speculations of Yaska 64
7. Origin of Language 65
8. Parts of Speech 66
9. Aristotle's definition of Noun and Verb 66
10. Semantics. How names are given: Criticism and Rejoinder 68
i. Early anti-Vedic Scepticism 71

PART II

Preface 3
List of Abbreviations 4
CHAPTER I
Four classes of words 5
Prepositions 7
Particles 8
Expletives 13
Are all nouns derived from verbs? 14
The Kautsa controversy 16
Importance of etymology 18
Compilation of the Nighantu 20
CHAPTER II
Principles of Etymology 21
Sakapuni and a deity 27
Devapi and Santanu 28
Vrtra 31
Visvamitra and the Rivers 35
CHAPTER III
Inheritance 39
Brotherless maiden 41
Fingers 43
Synonyms of beauty 47
Niyoga 48
Similes 49
Onomatopoeia 51
Synonyms of Heaven and Earth 55
CHAPTER IV
Homonyms 56
Jathara 59
Kayamana 61
Dayamana 63
Vyantah 65
Erire 67
Anta 69
Varya 71
CHAPTER V
Vanusyati 71
Varaha 75
Visnu 77
Adhrigu 79
Vajapas 81
Nicumpu 83
Krtti 85
Prthak 87
Srni 89
CHAPTER VI
Virudhah 91
Indra and the Seers 93
Asih 95
Kimidin 97
Jarayayi 99
Amina 101
Ghramsa 102
Pratadvasu 105
Bekunata 107
Sirimbitha 109
Bunda 111
CHAPTER VII
Nature of Stanzas 113
Deity 115
Are Gods anthropomorphic 116
Metres 119
Agni 121
Jatavedah 123
Vaisvanara 123
CHAPTER VIII
Dravinoda 129
Barhih 133
Tvastr 135
Apri 138
Sakuni 139
Dice 141
Quiver 143
Whip 145
Rivers 147
Wilderness 149
Ends of the Bow 151
CHAPTER X
Vayu 153
Rudra 155
Brhaspati 157
Yama 159
Ka 161
Tarkeya 163
Vata 165
Indu 167
CHAPTER XI
Soma 169
Death 171
Maruts 173
Aptyah 175
Sarasvati 177
Sinivali 179
Gauri 181
Ha 183
CHAPTER XII
Asvins 184
Bhaga 189
Varuna 191
Seven Seers 196
Divine womeu 199
Exegetical and Critical Notes 200
Appendix
Alphabetical list of Stories related in the Nirukta 246
Index of Authorities cited in the Nirukta 247
List of Quotations occurring in the Nirukta, arranged in the order of the Samhitas 248

PART III
SANSKRIT TEXT 1-287

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