Ritu, Ṛtu: 28 definitions
Ritu means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Ṛtu can be transliterated into English as Rtu or Ritu, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Hritu.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Ṛtu (ऋतु, “Period”):—Fourth of the eight Mātṛs born from the body of Śaśinī, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra. These eight sub-manifestations (mātṛ), including Ṛtu, symbolize a connection to the moon. They are presided over by the Bhairava Krodha and his consort Vaiṣṇavī. Śaśinī is the third of the Eight Mahāmātṛs, residing within the Mātṛcakra (third of the five cakras) and represents the moon.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Ṛtu (ऋतु) refers to the “seasons”, according to the Skandapurāṇa 2.2.13 (“The Greatness of Kapoteśa and Bilveśvara”).—Accordingly: as Jaimini said to the Sages: “[...] [Dhūrjaṭi (Śiva)] went to the holy spot Kuśasthalī. He performed a very severe penance near Nīla mountain. [...] By the power of his penance that holy spot became one comparable to Vṛndāvana, the forest near Gokula. Its interior was rendered splendid by lakes, ponds, reservoirs and rivers. It was full of different kinds of trees and creepers (laden) with fruits and flowers of all seasons [i.e., sarva-ṛtu-phalapuṣpaka]. It was resonant with the humming sounds of bees inebriated with honey. It was full of different kinds of flocks of birds. It was a comfortable place of resort for all creatures. Since by means of his penance Śiva became (small) like a dove, he came to be called Kapoteśvara at the behest of Murāri (Viṣṇu). It is at his bidding that the Three-eyed Lord always stays here along with Mṛḍānī (Pārvatī). [...]”.Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Ṛtu (ऋतु) refers to the “seasons”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.29 (“Śivā-Śiva dialogue”).—Accordingly, as Śiva said to Pārvatī: “[...] This entire universe has been made of illusion; it is held by the supreme soul with His great intellect. It is united and enveloped by the Gaṇas of the nature of pervading souls of meritorious deeds, akin to the nature of supreme soul. What are these planets? What are these sets of seasons (ṛtu-gaṇa)? What are those other planets? O gentle lady, what is said by you, O fair-complexioned one. We two have created the universe different in attributes and actions for the sake of the devotees and with a disposition favourable to them. [...]”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Ṛtu (ऋतु).—A Sutapa god.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 14.
1b) An Amitābha god.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 16.
1c) Wife Samattī; with the sun in the hemanta*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 28. 31; 52. 16.
1d) One of the twenty Sutapa gaṇas.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 15.
1e) Six in number;1 due to the movements of the sun;2 representation of pitṛs and pitāmahas,3 sons of Brahmā;4 sons of Nimi;5 fathers of five ārtavas; considered as pitāmahas while ārtavas are pitṛs;6 duration of each, two months;7 three ṛtus make one ayana;8 their locale, māsa and ardhamāsa;9 are Agni;10 prayed to in śrāddha;11 sang and danced at the marriage of Umā;12 characteristics of.13
- 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 4; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 4.
- 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 3. 14; 23. 106; 31. 26; 62. 48; 66. 38; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 126, 153; 24. 57.
- 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 8; 23. 76; 28. 16-17; III. 1. 59; 72. 30; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 7.
- 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 12.
- 5) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 18.
- 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 18, 20, 23; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 18, 24-25.
- 7) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 17.
- 8) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 114.
- 9) Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 12.
- 10) Matsya-purāṇa 141. 14 and 57.
- 11) Matsya-purāṇa 16. 39.
- 12) Matsya-purāṇa 154. 492.
- 13) Matsya-purāṇa 229. 13-26.
2) Ritu (रितु).—One of the 20 Amitābha gaṇas.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 16.
Ṛtu (ऋतु) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.10) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Ṛtu) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Ṛtu (ऋतु).—Each season (ṛtu) should be Indicated by the sign, costume, activity or scenery which is proper to it or whatever is specially desired or avoided (lit. undesired) in it. These seasons according to the necessity should be indicated with proper Sentiments as being full of happiness for those who are happy, and full of distress for those who are afflicted.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Ṛtu (ऋतु) refers to 2 solar months, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (the qualifications of) a jyotiṣaka. [...] He must have a correct, knowledge of a yuga (43,20,000 Solar years), varṣa (a solar year), āyana (6 solar months), ṛtu (2 solar months), māsa (a solar month), pakṣa (15 solar days), ahorātra (a solar day), yama (one-eighth of a solar day), muhūrta (one-thirtieth of a solar day), nāḍī (one-sixtieth of a solar day or 24 minutes), vināḍi (one sixtieth of a nāḍī or 24 seconds), prāṇa (4 seconds) truṭi (33, 75th of a second) and parts of a truṭi and other divisions of time and also of divisions of space”.Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Ṛtu (ऋतु).—Season. Note: Ṛtu is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Ṛtu (ऋतु) refers to “seasons” in the traditional Indian calendar, as defined in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The physician (bhiṣaj) should pay attention to the seasonal (ṛtu) factor in the use of medicinal drugs.
Accordingly, there are five seasons (ṛtu) defined:
- Hemanta (Mārgaśirṣa and Pauṣa),
- Śiśira (Māgha and Phālguna),
- Vasanta (Caitra and Vaiśākha),
- Nidagha (Jyeṣṭha and Āṣāḍha),
- Śarada (Aśvin and Kārtika).
Accordingly, “the bulbous roots in winter season (hemanta), other roots in cold season (śiśira) and flowers during spring season (vasanta) are supposed to contain better properties. The new leaves or shoots in summer (nidagha) and the drugs, which grow in mud, like Lotus etc., should be used in autumn season (śarada)”.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)
Ṛtu (ऋतु) refers to “season”.—According to the Vedic calendar, there are six different seasons, which correspond to the twelve months of the year. For precise dates please refer to a Vedic calendar.
- Vasanta, or spring (Phālguna to Vaiśākha—mid March to mid May);
- Grīṣma, or summer (Vaiśākha to Āṣāḍha—mid May to mid July);
- Varṣa, or rainy season (Āṣāḍha to Bhādrapadā—mid July to mid September );
- Śarada, or autumn (Bhādrapadā to Kārtika—mid September to mid November);
- Hemanta, winter, before the frost (Kārtika to Pauṣa—mid November to mid January);
- Śiśa, or winter (Pauṣa to Phālguna—mid January to mid March).
In accordance with the season, one would utter, for example, varṣa-ṛtau.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Ṛtu (ऋतु) refers to “sexual energy” (of the female consort), according to the Vijñānabhairava and Mālinīvijayavartikā:—[...] Once one has attained entry here into the plane of full (and perfect) emission, one (truly) practices the teaching which says that by “kissing (lehanā) and sex (manthana) and the like (one attains the supreme state)”. In this way, having laid hold of (Suṣumṇā) the (common) Channel in the Centre (between the partners identified with Śiva and Śakti), the supreme radiant energy (tejas) (of consciousness) vitalizes the entire body (of both). Then (when) (the female consort’s) sexual energy (ṛtu) has been aroused from the start, one should proceed to the state (induced by orgasm), which is ejaculation (visṛṣṭi), the (spiritual) wonder of bliss. That (wonder experienced) alone is incomplete, but (when it is) complete, it is God (himself). Thus the one energy of emission (vaisargikī śakti) itself unfolds (in this way.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)
Ṛtu (ऋतु) represents the number 6 (six) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 6—ṛtu] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.
Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.
General definition (in Jainism)
Ṛtu (ऋतु) refers to the “seasons”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Fool, you must understand, in reality, substance is not acknowledged in a mass of foam, the trunk of a plantain tree or in the body of human beings. The planets, moon, sun, stars and seasons (ṛtu) go and come [but] certainly for embodied souls bodies do not [go and come] even in a dream”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geography
Ṛtu.—(EI 7-1-2), ‘six’. Note: ṛtu is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
ṛtu (ऋतु).—m (S) A season, a period of two months. The Hindu year is divided into six such; viz. vasanta, grīṣma, varṣā, śarat, hēmanta, śiśira. 2 The menstrual flux. 3 fig. The periodical conception or bringing forth of female animals: also the flowering and bearing of trees and plants.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
ṛtu (ऋतु).—m A season. The menstrual flux.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Ṛtu (ऋतु).—[ṛ-tu-kicca Uṇ1.71]
1) A season, period of the year, commonly reckoned to be six; शिशिरश्च वसन्तश्च ग्रीष्मो वर्षाः शरद्धिमः (śiśiraśca vasantaśca grīṣmo varṣāḥ śaraddhimaḥ); sometimes only five; शिशिर (śiśira) and हिम (hima) or हेमन्त (hemanta) being counted together; cf. पञ्चर्तवो हेमन्तशिशिरयोः समासेन (pañcartavo hemantaśiśirayoḥ samāsena) Ait. Br. वसन्तश्चैत्रवैशाखौ ज्येष्ठाषाढौ च ग्रीष्मकौ । वर्षा श्रावणभाद्राभ्यां शरदश्विनकार्तिकौ ॥ मार्गपौषौ च हेमन्तः शिशिरो माघफाल्गुनौ ॥ गोरक्षसंहिता (vasantaścaitravaiśākhau jyeṣṭhāṣāḍhau ca grīṣmakau | varṣā śrāvaṇabhādrābhyāṃ śaradaśvinakārtikau || mārgapauṣau ca hemantaḥ śiśiro māghaphālgunau || gorakṣasaṃhitā).
2) An epoch, a period, any fixed or appointed time.
3) Menstruation, courses, menstrual discharge.
4) A period favourable for conception; वरमृतुषु नैवाभिगमनम् (varamṛtuṣu naivābhigamanam) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1; ऋतुः स्वाभाविकः स्त्रीणां रात्रयः षोडश स्मृताः (ṛtuḥ svābhāvikaḥ strīṇāṃ rātrayaḥ ṣoḍaśa smṛtāḥ) Manusmṛti 3.46,9.7; Y.1.11,79.
5) Any fit season or right time.
6) Fixed order or rule; द्वा यन्तारा भवतस्तथ ऋतुः (dvā yantārā bhavatastatha ṛtuḥ) Ṛgveda 1.162.19.
7) Light, splendour.
8) A month.
9) Name of Viṣṇu.
1) A symbolical expression for the number 'six'.
11) A kind of collyrium.
Derivable forms: ṛtuḥ (ऋतुः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Ritu (रितु).—(MIndic = Sanskrit ṛtu; compare AMg. riu), season: Gaṇḍavyūha 408.1 (verse; after vowel).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-tuḥ) 1. A season, (the Hindu year is divided into six seasons, each consisting of two months.) 2. The menstrual evacuation. 3. The time favourable for procreation, or sixteen days in each month. 4. A month. 5. A kind of collyrium. 6. Light. E. ṛ to go, tu Unadi aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ṛtu (ऋतु).—[ṛ + tu], m. 1. Order (ved.). 2. Right time,
Ṛtu (ऋतु).—[masculine] right or fixed time, period, epoch, season (mostly reckoned as 6, but also 5, 7, 12, & 24); the menses of a woman & coition at that time; fixed order, rule.
— ṛtunā & ṛtubhis in time, at the appointed time, [especially] for sacrifice or a festival: pura ṛtos before the (right) time, too early.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Ṛtu (ऋतु):—[from ṛ] m. ([Uṇādi-sūtra i, 72]) any settled point of time, fixed time, time appointed for any action ([especially] for sacrifices and other regular worship), right or fit time, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]
2) [v.s. ...] an epoch, period ([especially] a division or part of the year), season (the number of the divisions of the year is in ancient times, three, five, six, seven, twelve, thirteen, and twenty-four; in later time six seasons are enumerated, viz. Vasanta, ‘spring’; Grīṣma, ‘the hot season’; Varṣās (f. [plural] [nominative case]), ‘the rainy season’ Śarad, ‘autumn’; Hemanta, ‘winter’; and Śiśira, ‘the cool season’; the seasons are not unfrequently personified, addressed in Mantras, and worshipped by libations), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc., [Mahābhārata; Manu-smṛti] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] symbolical expression for the number six, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Sūryasiddhānta] etc.
4) [v.s. ...] the menstrual discharge (in women), the time after the courses (favourable for procreation; according to, [Bhāvaprakāśa] sixteen days after their appearance), [Suśruta; Mahābhārata; Manu-smṛti] etc.
5) [v.s. ...] sexual union at the above time, [Manu-smṛti ix, 93; Mahābhārata]
6) [v.s. ...] fixed order, order, rule ([Boehtlingk & Roth’s Sanskrit-Woerterbuch]), [Ṛg-veda i, 162, 19]
7) [v.s. ...] light, splendour, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] a particular mineral, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) [v.s. ...] Name of a Ṛṣi
10) [v.s. ...] of the twelfth Manu.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ṛtu (ऋतु):—(tuḥ) 2. m. A season; mensesSource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Ṛtu (ऋतु) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Uu, Khau.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Ṛtu (ऋतु) [Also spelled hritu]:—(nf) season; ~[kāla] the period of menstrual discharge, the period of menses; ~[matī] a woman in her menses; ~[vijñāna] meteorology; ~[saha] weather-proof.
1) [noun] any of the six divisions of the year, each extending to a period of two months, characterised by or distinguished from each other by differences in temperature, precipitation, length of the day, etc.
2) [noun] the periodic flow of blood and sloughed-off tissue from the uterus, discharged through the genital tract, normally about every four weeks in a woman who is not pregnant, from menarche to menopause; menses.
3) [noun] a symbol for the number six.
4) [noun] a time or season that is proper or favourable, in gen.
5) [noun] a favourable time for conception.
6) [noun] light; lustre; splendour.
--- OR ---
1) [noun] (corrupt form of ಋತು [ritu])1. any of the six divisions of the year, each extending to a period of two months, characterised by or distinguished from each other by differences in temperature, precipitation, length of the day, etc.
2) [noun] the periodic flow of blood and sloughed-off tissue from the uterus, discharged through the genital tract, normally about every four weeks in a woman who is not pregnant, from menarche to menopause; menses.
3) [noun] a symbol fo the number six.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+97): Ritual language, Ritual purification, Ritualism, Ritubaddha, Ritubana, Ritubhaga, Ritubhaj, Ritubheda, Ritubhuhvaya, Ritucakra, Ritucarya, Ritucharya, Ritudana, Ritudarshana, Ritudbhava, Ritudevata, Ritudhaman, Ritudharma, Ritudharmashastra, Ritudhvaja.
Ends with (+31): Abhicaritu, Abhicharitu, Adhvaryukritu, Akhandittu, Anritu, Anussaritu, Caritu, Ciritu, Dharitu, Durdharitu, Dushtarataritu, Dushtaritu, Ekartu, Grishmartu, Haritu, Hemantaritu, Himtu, Hritu, Kaduguritu, Kamkritu.
Full-text (+242): Himtu, Akhandittu, Ritugana, Rituparyaya, Ritukala, Ritulinga, Ritusnata, Rituyaja, Ritucarya, Ritupatra, Ritugraha, Ritusatmya, Ritumati, Ritumukha, Shadritu, Ritavya, Ritumukhin, Taptu, Varshartuvarnana, Shishirartu.
Search found 45 books and stories containing Ritu, Ṛtu, Rtu; (plurals include: Ritus, Ṛtus, Rtus). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Rig Veda 7.103.9 < [Sukta 103]
Rig Veda 1.162.19 < [Sukta 162]
Rig Veda 4.34.7 < [Sukta 34]
Significance of the Moon in Ancient Civilizations (by Radhakrishnan. P)
5. Chandramasa and Seasons < [Chapter 5 - Adoration of the Sun and Moon]
1. Assumptions of Vedakala < [Chapter 5 - Adoration of the Sun and Moon]
3. Moon in Jyotisha < [Chapter 2 - A Sceintific Outlook on Astrology]
Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study) (by Debabrata Barai)
Part 8.8 - Region of Madhyadeśa (central part) < [Chapter 5 - Analyasis and Interpretations of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā]
Part 8.14 - Characteristics of Grīṣma-kāla (summer season) < [Chapter 5 - Analyasis and Interpretations of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā]
Part 9 - Deśa-vibhāga and Kāla-vibhāga < [Chapter 3 - Contribution of Rājaśekhara to Sanskrit Poetics]
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Appendix 3 - Purāṇic measurements of time < [Appendices]
Chapter 272 - Characteristics of Different Yugas < [Section 1 - Tīrtha-māhātmya]
Chapter 194 - Description of Tīrthas < [Section 1 - Tīrtha-māhātmya]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 1.64 < [Section XXXVII - Measures of Time]
Verse 3.46 < [Section V - Duties of Marital Life]
Verse 1.30 < [Section XVI - Creation dependent upon ‘Karma’]