Shmashana, Śmaśāna, Smashana: 17 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Shmashana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śmaśāna can be transliterated into English as Smasana or Shmashana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (S) next»] — Shmashana in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śmaśāna (श्मशान) refers to one who “resides in the cremation ground”, and is used by Satī to describe Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.29. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] Then inciting the fury of Dakṣa further, she said to Viṣṇu and all other Devas and sages unhesitatingly.. Satī said:—‘[...] Śiva who holds the skull in his hands resides in the cremation ground (śmaśāna) in the company of goblins. He wears matted hair. But sages and devas keep on their heads the dust from His feet. Such is the nature of lord Śiva, the great God.’”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Śmaśāna (श्मशान).—The burning ground; the name of Avimukta; those who regard Benares as such will be deluding themselves; those who die there attain release.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 184. 5, 19-21, 63.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous (S) next»] — Shmashana in Hinduism glossary
Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Śmaśāna (श्मशान) is the name of the ‘burial mound’ in which the bones of the dead man were laid to rest (cf. Anagniidagdha). It is mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and often later. The Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa (xiii, 8, 1, 1) prescribes a four-cornered mound facing the south-east, on ground inclined to the north, out of sight of the village, in a peaceful spot amid beautiful surroundings, or on barren ground. For an Agni-cit (‘builder of a fire-altar’) a funeral mound like a fire-altar is prescribed. The Easterners (Prācyāḥ) made their mounds round.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Śmaśāna (श्मशान) refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Śmaśāna).

Source: Google Books: Vajrayogini

Śmaśāna (श्मशान, “cremation ground”).—The Hevajra-tantra 1.3.16 later finds a convenient etymology (nirukti) of the word śmaśāna from the verbal root “to expire”. The locus classicus for the eight cremation grounds in the Saṃvara tradition is the Saṃvarodaya-tantra (17.36-45). The Saṃvarodaya-tantra ends with a moe generalized description of the terrifying contents of the cremation grounds, and this seems to be the basis for a similar account in the Abhidhānottara-tantra (chapter 9) and Vārāhyabhyudaya-tantra (103-109) that mentions colors, animals, corpses, etc., but no individual features or names.

The cremation grounds (śmaśāna) are home to fearsome creatures, such as crows, owls, vultures, jackals, hawks, lion-faced and tiger-faced beings, lizards, camels, and so on. Gruesome corpses are found impaled on spears, hanging, half-burned, or decapitated; their dismembered parts are scattered about: skulls, knees, large bellies, heads with tusks, and bald heads. Supernatural spirits haunt the grisly place, such as yakṣas, vetālas, rākṣasas, and others roaring with kilikilā laughter. Finally, we find tantric adepts and spiritual beings resident there; siddas with magical powers, vidyādharas, troops of yogins and yoginīs, and so forth.

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

Śmaśāna (श्मशान, “cremation ground”).—The cremation ground is used as a visualisation technique according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. The practicioner of the sādhana is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds. Each cremation ground is associated with a tree (vṛkṣa), a protector (dikpati), a serpent (nāga), a cloud (megha), demons (rākṣasa), great adepts (mahāsiddha), funeral monuments (caitya), mountains, fires, lakes (the abode of the nāgas) and rivers.

The eight cremation grounds (śmaśāna) are given in the Saṃvarodaya-tantra (17.36-45):

  1. Caṇḍogra (east),
  2. Gahvara (north),
  3. Karaṅkala or Jvālākula (west),
  4. Subhīṣaṇa (south),
  5. Aṭṭaṭṭahāsa (north-east),
  6. Lakṣmīvana (south-east),
  7. Ghorāndhakāra (south-west),
  8. Kilakilārava (north-west)
Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Śmaśāna (श्मशान) is one of the Pīṭhādis (group of districts) present within the Kāyacakra (‘circle of body’) which is associated with the Ḍākinī named Pātālavāsinī (‘a woman living underground’), according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra.

The Pīṭhādi named Śmaśāna within the Kāyacakra contains the following four districts or seats:

  1. Nagara,
  2. Sindhu.
Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: archive.org: Husain Shahi Bengal

Śmaśāna (श्मशान) refers to “crematorium” according to Śrīnātha Ācāryacūḍāmaṇi’s Vivāha-tattvārṇava.—Rural settlements [in medieval Bengal] contained, in addition to habitations, roads and paths, tanks with bathing ghāṭs which supplied water to the people, jungles serving the purpose of the pasture-land and canals forming a sort of drainage system for the village. [...] It is known from Śrīnātha Ācāryacūḍāmaṇi’s Vivāha-tattvārṇava that rural areas had [viz., crematorium (śmaśāna)][...]. Thus the disposition of land in rural settlements conformed, in many respects, to the needs of the people.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Shmashana in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śmaśāna (श्मशान).—n (S śava Corpse, śayana Resting.) śmaśāna- bhūmi f (S) A place where dead bodies are buried or burned, a cemetery &c.

--- OR ---

smaśāna (स्मशान).—&c. Common mis-spellings of śmaśāna &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śmaśāna (श्मशान).—n śmaśānabhūmi f A cemetery.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Shmashana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śmaśāna (श्मशान).—[śmānaḥ śavāḥ śerate'tra śī-ānac ḍicca Tv.]

1) A cemetery, a burial or burning ground; राजद्वारे श्मशाने च यस्तिष्ठति स बान्धवः (rājadvāre śmaśāne ca yastiṣṭhati sa bāndhavaḥ) Subhāṣ.

2) An oblation to deceased ancestors.

Derivable forms: śmaśānam (श्मशानम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śmaśāna (श्मशान).—n.

(-naṃ) A cemetery, a place where dead bodies are burnt or buried. E. śma substituted for śava a corpse, and śāna for śayana place of repose.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śmaśāna (श्मशान).—i. e. probably śman (for śam + an, cf. in ), -śayana, n. A cemetery, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śmaśāna (श्मशान).—[neuter] cemetery (for burning or burying the dead), place of execution; funeral rite.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śmaśāna (श्मशान):—[from śman] n. ([according to] to [Kirātārjunīya iii, 5] for śmaśayana above; but [probably] for aśma-śayana) an elevated place for burning dead bodies, crematorium, cemetery or burial-place for the bones of cremated corpses, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] an oblation to deceased ancestors (= pitṛ-medha See above), [Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]]

3) [v.s. ...] = brahma-randhra.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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