Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra

by Helen M. Johnson | 1931 | 742,503 words

This page describes The people in the Manushyaloka which is the twenty-ninth part of chapter III of the English translation of the Ajitanatha-caritra, contained within the “Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra”: a massive Jain narrative relgious text composed by Hemacandra in the 12th century. Ajitanatha in jainism is the second Tirthankara (Jina) and one of the 63 illustrious beings or worthy persons.

Part 29: The people in the Manuṣyaloka

In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; on the mountains, Meru, etc., by kidnapping and power of learning, in the 2½ continents and in 2 oceans.

They are called Bhāratakas, Jambūdvīpyas, Lāvaṇakas, etc., from divisions with reference to zones, continents, and oceans. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. The Āryas have sub-divisions: kṣetra (country), jāti (caste), kula (family), karma (work), śilpa (craft), and bhāṣā (language). The kṣetrāryas are born in the 15 karmabhumis.[1] Here in Bharata they have 25½ places of origin. The Ārya-countries, distinguishable by cities, are as follows:

  1. Magadhas.... Rājagṛha.
  2. Aṅgadeśa.... Campā.
  3. Vaṅgas.... Tāmraliptī.
  4. Kāśis.... Vārāṇasī.
  5. Kaliṅgas.... Kāñcanapurī.
  6. Kosalas.... Sāketa.
  7. Kurus.... Gajapura.
  8. Kuśārtakas.... Saurya.
  9. Pañcālas.... Kāmpīlya.
  10. Jāṅgalas.... Ahicchatra.
  11. Videhas.... Mithilā.
  12. Surāṣṭrakas.... Dvāravatī.
  13. Vatsas.... Kauśāmbīpurī.
  14. Malayas.... Bhadrila.
  15. Sandarbhas.... Nāndīpura.
  16. Varuṇas.... Ucchā.
  17. Matsya.... Vairāṭa.
  18. Cedis.... Śuktimatī.
  19. Daśārṇas.... Mṛttikāvatī.
  20. Sindhus.... Vītabhaya.
  21. Sauvīras.... Mathurā.
  22. Śūrasenas.... Apāpā.
  23. Māsapurīvarta.... Bhaṅgī.
  24. Kuṇālakas.... Śrāvastī.
  25. Lāṭas.... Koṭīvarṣa.
  26. ½ of the Ketakas.... Śvetambī.

These are the Ārya-countries distinguished by these cities, in which the birth of Tīrthakṛts, Cakrabhṛts, Kṛṣṇas, and Balas takes place.

The Jātyāryas are the Ikṣvākus, Jñātas, Haris, Videhas, Kurus, Ugras, Bhojas, and Rājanyas.

Kulāryas are the Kulakaras, Cakrins, Viṣṇus, and Balas, or those who are born in a pure family from the third, fifth, or seventh generation.[2]

They are called Karmāryas who earn their livelihood by sacrifices, making sacrifices for others, by study and teaching of the śāstras, or by suitable occupations.

They are Śilpāryas who have occupations of little blame, such as weavers, tailors, potters, barbers, and attendants on idols.

They are called Bhāṣāryas who transact the business of the (other) five Āryas with language restricted to the best language.[3]

Footnotes and references:


There are 15 of these; 5 Bharatas, 5 Airāvatas, and 5 Videhas. A karmabhumi is where the inhabitants must earn their living by ploughing, trade, etc. Uttar. B. com. to 36. 194. Another interpretation is that they are able to attain any state after death as a result of their karma. K. p. 227.


See Com. to T. 3. 15.


Śiṣṭabhāṣā. I.e., Ardha-Māgadhī. See Pra. 37. p. 56a; Bhag. 191, p. 221; Apabhraṃśakāvyatrayī (GOS XXXVII).

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