Nirmana, aka: Nirmāṇa, Nirmāna; 5 Definition(s)

Introduction

Nirmana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Nirmāṇa (निर्माण, “metamorphosis”) refers to one of the ten comparisons (upamāna) according to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 11 (also see chapter 28 part 4.9). These upamānas represent a quality of the Bodhisattvas, accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata. The accepted that dharmas are like a metamorphosis (nirmāṇa).

The fourteen minds of metamorphosis (nirmāṇacitta) accomplish eight kinds of nirmāṇa:

  1. reducing to the size of an atom (paramāṇu),
  2. enlarging to the point of filling up space (ākāśa).
  3. becoming as light as the feather of a crane (sārasaloman),
  4. exercising sovereignty (vaśitvakaraṇa) by growing bigger, shrinking, lengthening, narrowing, etc.,
  5. possessing the Indrabala, the power that surpasses that of humans,
  6. being far distant and coming close,
  7. making the earth shake (kampana),
  8. obtaining whatever one desires.

There are four other kinds of nirmāṇa: (1) In the realm of desire (kāmadhātu), substances (dravya) can be transformed by means of herbs (oṣadhi), precious objects (ratnadravya) and magical means; (2) beings endowed with the superknowledges (abhijñā) can transform substances by their magical power (ṛddhibala); (3) the devas, nāgas, asuras, etc., can transform substances by means of the power of retribution (vipākabala) of their previous lifetimes; (4) beings rewarded in a lifetime in the form realm (rūpadhātu) can transform substances by the power of concentration (samādhibala).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Nirmāṇa (निर्माण) refers to “formation karma” and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by formation (nirmāṇa) body-making (nāma) karma? The karma rise of which causes development of pride for family, caste, wealth, power, knowledge, physical beauty, austerities and influence as well as lack of humility towards others is called formation body-making karma. 

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

nirmāṇa (निर्माण).—p S Created: also made, produced, effected gen.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nirmāṇa (निर्माण).—p Created; made, produced.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nirmāṇa (निर्माण).—1 Measuring, meting out; यतश्चाध्वकालनिर्माणम् (yataścādhvakālanirmāṇam) P.I.4.31 Vārt.

2) Measure, reach, extent; अयमप्राप्त- निर्माणः (ayamaprāpta- nirmāṇaḥ) (bālaḥ) Rām. 'not having reached the full measure of growth'.

3) Producing, forming, making, creation, formation, manufacture; त्रैलोक्यनिर्माणकरं जनित्रम् (trailokyanirmāṇakaraṃ janitram) Mb.5.71.7; ईदृशो निर्माणभागः परिणतः (īdṛśo nirmāṇabhāgaḥ pariṇataḥ) U.4.

4) A creation, created thing or object, form; निर्माणमेव हि तदादर- लालनीयम् (nirmāṇameva hi tadādara- lālanīyam) Māl.9.49.

5) A shape, make, figure; शरीर- निर्माणसदृशो नन्वस्यानुभावः (śarīra- nirmāṇasadṛśo nanvasyānubhāvaḥ) Mv.1.

6) Composition, work.

7) A building.

8) A part, portion.

9) Essence, pith, marrow.

1) (With Buddhists) Transformation.

11) Happening, birth; पूर्वनिर्माणबद्धा हि कालस्य गतिरीदृशी (pūrvanirmāṇabaddhā hi kālasya gatirīdṛśī) Rām. 7.16.2.

-ṇā Fitness, propriety, decorum.

Derivable forms: nirmāṇam (निर्माणम्).

--- OR ---

Nirmāna (निर्मान).—a.

1) without self-confidence.

2) free from pride.

Nirmāna is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms nir and māna (मान).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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