Nirmana, Nirmāṇa, Nirmāna: 14 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Nirmana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Nirmāṇa (निर्माण, “metamorphosis”) refers to one of the ten comparisons (upamāna) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 11 (also see chapter 28 part 4.9). These upamānas represent a quality of the Bodhisattvas, accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata. The accepted that dharmas are like a metamorphosis (nirmāṇa).

The fourteen minds of metamorphosis (nirmāṇacitta) accomplish eight kinds of nirmāṇa:

  1. reducing to the size of an atom (paramāṇu),
  2. enlarging to the point of filling up space (ākāśa).
  3. becoming as light as the feather of a crane (sārasaloman),
  4. exercising sovereignty (vaśitvakaraṇa) by growing bigger, shrinking, lengthening, narrowing, etc.,
  5. possessing the Indrabala, the power that surpasses that of humans,
  6. being far distant and coming close,
  7. making the earth shake (kampana),
  8. obtaining whatever one desires.

There are four other kinds of nirmāṇa: (1) In the realm of desire (kāmadhātu), substances (dravya) can be transformed by means of herbs (oṣadhi), precious objects (ratnadravya) and magical means; (2) beings endowed with the superknowledges (abhijñā) can transform substances by their magical power (ṛddhibala); (3) the devas, nāgas, asuras, etc., can transform substances by means of the power of retribution (vipākabala) of their previous lifetimes; (4) beings rewarded in a lifetime in the form realm (rūpadhātu) can transform substances by the power of concentration (samādhibala).

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Nirmāṇa (निर्माण, “emanation”) or Nirmāṇapuṭa refers to the fourth layer of the Herukamaṇḍala: a large-scale and elaborate maṇḍala of Heruka, consisting of 986 deities, as found in the Ḍākārṇava chapter 15.—The Herukamaṇḍala consists of four layers (puṭa) consisting of concentric circles (cakra, totally one lotus at the center and 12 concentric circles, that is, 13 circles in total).

The Fourth layer (nirmāṇa-puṭa, ‘emanation’) consists of:

  1. The mind circle (cittacakra),
  2. The word circle (vākcakra),
  3. The body circle (kāyacakra).
Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Nirmāṇa (निर्माण) refers to “formation karma” and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by formation (nirmāṇa) body-making (nāma) karma? The karma rise of which causes development of pride for family, caste, wealth, power, knowledge, physical beauty, austerities and influence as well as lack of humility towards others is called formation body-making karma. 

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nirmāṇa (निर्माण).—p S Created: also made, produced, effected gen.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nirmāṇa (निर्माण).—p Created; made, produced.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nirmāṇa (निर्माण).—1 Measuring, meting out; यतश्चाध्वकालनिर्माणम् (yataścādhvakālanirmāṇam) P.I.4.31 Vārt.

2) Measure, reach, extent; अयमप्राप्त- निर्माणः (ayamaprāpta- nirmāṇaḥ) (bālaḥ) Rām. 'not having reached the full measure of growth'.

3) Producing, forming, making, creation, formation, manufacture; त्रैलोक्यनिर्माणकरं जनित्रम् (trailokyanirmāṇakaraṃ janitram) Mb.5.71.7; ईदृशो निर्माणभागः परिणतः (īdṛśo nirmāṇabhāgaḥ pariṇataḥ) U.4.

4) A creation, created thing or object, form; निर्माणमेव हि तदादर- लालनीयम् (nirmāṇameva hi tadādara- lālanīyam) Māl.9.49.

5) A shape, make, figure; शरीर- निर्माणसदृशो नन्वस्यानुभावः (śarīra- nirmāṇasadṛśo nanvasyānubhāvaḥ) Mv.1.

6) Composition, work.

7) A building.

8) A part, portion.

9) Essence, pith, marrow.

1) (With Buddhists) Transformation.

11) Happening, birth; पूर्वनिर्माणबद्धा हि कालस्य गतिरीदृशी (pūrvanirmāṇabaddhā hi kālasya gatirīdṛśī) Rām. 7.16.2.

-ṇā Fitness, propriety, decorum.

Derivable forms: nirmāṇam (निर्माणम्).

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Nirmāna (निर्मान).—a.

1) without self-confidence.

2) free from pride.

Nirmāna is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms nir and māna (मान).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Nirmāṇa (निर्माण).—nt. (compare Pali nimmāna, in [compound] issara-ni° hetu, supernatural creation), a magical creation, usually concrete, and used as symbol of unreality: (samāsato nirvastukaṃ) nirmāṇaṃ Bodhisattvabhūmi 63.24 (definition of the word), in brief, a magic-creation is what has no material basis; (sarvadharma-māyā-svapna-) pratibhāsa-pratiśrutko- dakacandra-pratibimba-nirmāṇa-samatayā Daśabhūmikasūtra 47.14; sarvatathāgata-nirmāṇāny Gaṇḍavyūha 469.1; dharmasya nirmā- ṇam ivopaviṣṭam Buddhacarita x.19, (the Bodhisattva) sitting like a magic-image of dharma, i.e. a ‘picture’ of Dh. (otherwise Johnston,…magically projected by Dh.; Weller, wie eine übernatürliche Schöpfung des Gesetzes; Tibetan chos kyi (gen.) sprul pa, which seems to support my interpretation).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirmāṇa (निर्माण) or Nirmmāṇa.—n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. Manufacture, production, making. 2. Pith, marrow, essence. 3. Propriety, fitness. E. nir before, mi to measure, affix bhāve lyuṭ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirmāṇa (निर्माण).—i. e. nis-mā + ana, n. 1. Measure, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 42, 24 (in a-vyakta-, vb. añj, adj., Not fullgrown). 2. A part, 4, 44, 44. 3. Forming, creating, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 91, 13. 4. Work, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 40, 54.

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Nirmāna (निर्मान).—adj. free from pride, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 3, 95.

Nirmāna is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms nis and māna (मान).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirmāṇa (निर्माण).—[neuter] measuring, measure; making, production, creation, work.

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Nirmāna (निर्मान).—[adjective] free from pride or egoism.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nirmāna (निर्मान):—[=nir-māna] [from nir > niḥ] mfn. without self-confidence, free from pride, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature]

2) Nirmāṇa (निर्माण):—[=nir-māṇa] [from nir-mā] n. measuring, measure, reach, extent (often, mfn. ifc.), [Harivaṃśa; Rāmāyaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] forming, making, creating, creation, building, composition, work (ifc. ‘made of’ [Suśruta]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] (with, [Buddhist literature]) transformation

5) [v.s. ...] pith, the best of anything (= sāra), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] = asamañjasa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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