Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 10.89.7

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ज॒घान॑ वृ॒त्रं स्वधि॑ति॒र्वने॑व रु॒रोज॒ पुरो॒ अर॑द॒न्न सिन्धू॑न् । बि॒भेद॑ गि॒रिं नव॒मिन्न कु॒म्भमा गा इन्द्रो॑ अकृणुत स्व॒युग्भि॑: ॥
जघान वृत्रं स्वधितिर्वनेव रुरोज पुरो अरदन्न सिन्धून् । बिभेद गिरिं नवमिन्न कुम्भमा गा इन्द्रो अकृणुत स्वयुग्भिः ॥
jaghāna vṛtraṃ svadhitir vaneva ruroja puro aradan na sindhūn | bibheda giriṃ navam in na kumbham ā gā indro akṛṇuta svayugbhiḥ ||

English translation:

“(Indra) slew Vṛtra as an axe (cuts down) a tree; he demolished the cities (of the foes), he dug out therivers; he shattered the cloud like a new pitcher; with his allies (the Maruts) he recovered the cattle.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): reṇuḥ;
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ज॒घान॑ । वृ॒त्रम् । स्वऽधि॑तिः । वना॑ऽइव । रु॒रोज॑ । पुरः॑ । अर॑दत् । न । सिन्धू॑न् । बि॒भेद॑ । गि॒रिम् । नव॑म् । इत् । न । कु॒म्भम् । आ । गाः । इन्द्रः॑ । अ॒कृ॒णु॒त॒ । स्व॒युक्ऽभिः॑ ॥
जघान । वृत्रम् । स्वधितिः । वनाइव । रुरोज । पुरः । अरदत् । न । सिन्धून् । बिभेद । गिरिम् । नवम् । इत् । न । कुम्भम् । आ । गाः । इन्द्रः । अकृणुत । स्वयुक्भिः ॥
jaghāna | vṛtram | sva-dhitiḥ | vanāiva | ruroja | puraḥ | aradat | na | sindhūn | bibheda | girim | navam | it | na | kumbham | ā | gāḥ | indraḥ | akṛṇuta | svayuk-bhiḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.89.7 English analysis of grammar]

jaghāna < han

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“kill; cure; māray; remove; destroy; hit; injure; damage; destroy; paralyze; hurt; forge; beat; cut off; stop; overwhelm; kick; hunt; affect; strike; hammer; love; obstruct; shoot.”

vṛtraṃ < vṛtram < vṛtra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Vṛtra; vṛtra [word].”

svadhitir < svadhitiḥ < svadhiti

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“ax; knife.”

vaneva < vanā < vana

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“forest; wood; tree; grove; vana [word]; forest; brush.”

vaneva < iva


“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

ruroja < ruj

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“break; bend.”

puro < puras


“ahead; puras [word]; easterly; eastward; east; earlier.”

aradan < aradat < rad

[verb], singular, Imperfect




“not; like; no; na [word].”

sindhūn < sindhu

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“river; Indus; sindhu [word].”

bibheda < bhid

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“break; incise; burst; divide; cut; cleave; destroy; cure; disturb; lance; break; distinguish; disclose; pierce; tear; separate; transgress; break open; scratch; penetrate; sever; bribe; grind; betray; fester; strike.”

giriṃ < girim < giri

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“mountain; adri; rock; giri [word]; hill; śilājatu.”

navam < nava

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“new; fresh; young; matutinal; recent; nava [word]; modern; fresh.”

in < id


“indeed; assuredly; entirely.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

kumbham < kumbha

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“jar; Kumbha; kumbha [word]; kumbhapuṭa; kumbha; Aquarius.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

< gāḥ < go

[noun], accusative, plural

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

indro < indraḥ < indra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

akṛṇuta < kṛ

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

svayugbhiḥ < sva


“own(a); respective(a); akin(p); sva [word]; individual; present(a); independent.”

svayugbhiḥ < yugbhiḥ < yuj

[noun], instrumental, plural

“ally; friend; pair; two; companion.”

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