Kumbhanda, Kumbhāṇḍa, Kumbhaṇḍa, Kumbhandā, Kumbhānda: 11 definitions

Introduction

Kumbhanda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (K) next»] — Kumbhanda in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Kumbhāṇḍa (कुम्भाण्ड).—Minister of Bāṇāsura. Citralekhā, companion of Uṣā, the daughter of Bāṇa was the daughter of Kumbhāṇḍa. (See under UṢĀ). (Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kumbhāṇḍa (कुम्भाण्ड).—A minister of Bāṇa. His daughter Citralekhā, was a companion of Ūṣā, Bāṇa's daughter;1 was attacked by Balarāma in the siege of Śoṇitapura; defeated, ran away.2 Sent to Mathurā for Jarāsandha's help. Kṛṣṇa overcame his illusory warfare by vijñānāstra. Defeated by Sātyaki, he fell unconscious; was taken from the field in a chariot back to his city.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 62. 14; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 32. 17.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 63, 8 and 16.
  • 3) Ib. X. [51 (V) 18], [28-30, 59-63, 65].

1b) A commander of Bhaṇḍa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 21. 89.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Kumbhanda - A Nigantha for whom Pandukabhaya built a hermitage, named after him, near the Gamani Tank. Mhv.x.99.

2. Kumbhanda - A class of spirits mentioned with Yakkhas, Asuras and Nagas. They live in the South and Virulha is their king (D.ii.257; D.iii.198). In the Vidhurapandita Jataka (J.vi.272), Kumbhira (q.v.) is mentioned as one of their chiefs. They had huge stomachs, and their genital organs were as big as pots, hence their name. DA.iii.964.

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A class of beings (fairies or gnomes) grouped with Yakkhas, Rakkhasas, Asuras and others. Virulha is their king. They have large bellies (kumbhanda = gourd), and their genitals are also large like pots (kumbho viya), hence their name. D.iii.198; DA.iii.964.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous (K) next»] — Kumbhanda in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Kumbhāṇḍa (कुम्भाण्ड) is the name of an Asura (demon) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XX). Accordingly, “When the Bodhisattva cultivates generosity (dāna),... He knows that a minister (amātya) who wrings money out of people and plunders them of their goods illegally, but one who practices generosity, is reborn among the Kouei chen (asura) where he is the demon Kieou p’an tch’a (Kumbhāṇḍa), who enjoys himself by carrying out multiple transformations (pariṇāma) on the five outer objects (pañca-bāhyāyatana)”.

Note: Kumbhāṇḍa refers to a class of demons listed along with the Yakṣas, Asuras and Nāgas. They live in the south and their king is Virūdha (Dīgha II, p. 257; III, p. 198). They are so called because their genitals (aṇḍa) are as large as pots (kumbha) (cf. Sumaṅgala III, p. 964).

Kumbhāṇḍas, together with other deities constitute the Asuras, according to chapter XLVI.—Accordingly, “great gods such as the Asuras, Kiṃnaras, Gandharvas, Kumbhāndas, Yakṣas, Rakṣasas, Bhūtas, etc., are Asuras, and when their troops increase, those of the Devas decrease. Their power (anubhāva) and their transformations (nirmāṇa) were exercised at will. The Asura destiny is called thus because the Asuras appear at the head of a list; the others, namely, the Kiṃnaras, Gandharvas, Kuṃbhāṇḍas, Yakṣas, Bhūtas, etc. constitute one and the same destiny with them”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Kumbhāṇḍa (कुम्भाण्ड) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Kumbhāṇḍī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Cittacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the cittacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Kumbhāṇḍa] are black in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous (K) next»] — Kumbhanda in Buddhism glossary
Source: Google Books: Divine Stories: Divyavadana

Kumbhāṇḍa (कुम्भाण्ड).—One of a class of evil spirits who, as their name would indicate, had “testicles” (aṇḍa) as big as “pots” (kumbha). Virūḍhaka, one of the four great kings, is their lord.

Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism

A Kumbhāṇḍa is one of a group of dwarfish, misshapen spirits among the lesser deities of Buddhist mythology. They are classed among the Cāturmahārājikakāyika deities, and are subject to the Great King Virūḷhaka, Guardian of the South. One of their chiefs is called Kumbhīra.

Kumbhāṇḍa was a dialectal form for "gourd", so they may get their name from being thought to resemble gourds in some way, e.g. in having big stomachs. But kumbhāṇḍa can also be interpreted as "pot-egg"; since "egg" (aṇḍa) was a common euphemism for "testicle", the kumbhāṇḍas were imagined having testicles "as big as pots".

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (K) next»] — Kumbhanda in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kumbhaṇḍa : (m.) pumpkin; a kind of celestial beings.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kumbhaṇḍa, 1. m. a class of fairies or genii grouped with Yakkhas, Rakkhasas and Asuras S. II, 258 (k° puriso vehāsaṃ gacchanto); J. I, 204; III, 147 (with def.); Miln. 267; DhA. I, 280; Pgdp 60.—2. nt. a kind of gourd J. I, 411 (lābu°); V, 37; (elāḷuka-lābuka°); DA. I, 73= DhA. I, 309 (placed on the back of a horse, as symbol of instability); the same as f. kumbhaṇḍī Vism. 183 (lābu+). (Page 222)

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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (K) next»] — Kumbhanda in Sanskrit glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kumbhāṇḍa (कुम्भाण्ड).—m. (= Pali kumbhaṇḍa, which is recorded in BHS Gv 46.18; 102.25; 119.23, all prose, tho the Sktized ā is printed later in Gv, see below: = Sanskrit kuṣmāṇḍa, kūṣ°; in all verse passages where meter de- termines the quantity of the first syllable, it is short, except only in Gv 214.11; note that in Mv ii.203.16 it is necessary to read with mss. kumbhāṇḍa-su-(mss. śu)-bhairava-rutān, Senart erroneously em. by omitting su, the syllable kum° being short metrically), a kind of evil spirit, commonly mentioned with yakṣas, piśācas, bhūtas, etc., and esp. rāk- ṣasas; Virūḍhaka is standardly their lord: LV 217.21; 389.2; SP 399.6; compare Mvy 3436—7; but in LV 130.9 Rudra is called their overlord (adhipati); in LV 302.3 mentioned among Māra's followers, along with yakṣas, rākṣasas, and gandharvas; occurrences in verses where first syllable is short, LV 50.6; 54.13; 307.18; 341.16; Mv ii.203.16 (see above); Bhad 18; Śikṣ 333.9; in verses where meter is indecisive or in prose, SP 86.11; 401.5; LV 249.17; Mv i.257.5; 350.9; ii.106.13; 212.10; 296.10; 351.17; 410.5; iii.71.20; Mvy 3225; 4755; Divy 105.28; 119.9; Av i.67.10; 108.9; Kv 76.10 (in Kv 11.20 the Sanskrit form kuṣmāṇḍa is printed, probably by misprint or graphic corruption); Gv (compare above) 120.2; 169.10; 190.23; Laṅk 261.8; Sādh 411.2; Bhīk 26a.5. Cf. next two.

Kumbhāṇḍa can also be spelled as Kumbhaṇḍa (कुम्भण्ड).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kumbhāṇḍa (कुम्भाण्ड).—m.

(-ṇḍaḥ) A minister of the Asura, Bana, mf (ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍī) A pumpkin gourd: see kumbhāṇḍa.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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