Kumbhanda, aka: Kumbhāṇḍa, Kumbhaṇḍa, Kumbhandā, Kumbhānda; 10 Definition(s)
Kumbhanda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Kumbhāṇḍa (कुम्भाण्ड).—Minister of Bāṇāsura. Citralekhā, companion of Uṣā, the daughter of Bāṇa was the daughter of Kumbhāṇḍa. (See under UṢĀ). (Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Kumbhāṇḍa (कुम्भाण्ड).—A minister of Bāṇa. His daughter Citralekhā, was a companion of Ūṣā, Bāṇa's daughter;1 was attacked by Balarāma in the siege of Śoṇitapura; defeated, ran away.2 Sent to Mathurā for Jarāsandha's help. Kṛṣṇa overcame his illusory warfare by vijñānāstra. Defeated by Sātyaki, he fell unconscious; was taken from the field in a chariot back to his city.3
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 62. 14; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 32. 17.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 63, 8 and 16.
- 3) Ib. X. [51 (V) 18], [28-30, 59-63, 65].
1b) A commander of Bhaṇḍa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 21. 89.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
1. Kumbhanda - A Nigantha for whom Pandukabhaya built a hermitage, named after him, near the Gamani Tank. Mhv.x.99.
2. Kumbhanda - A class of spirits mentioned with Yakkhas, Asuras and Nagas. They live in the South and Virulha is their king (D.ii.257; D.iii.198). In the Vidhurapandita Jataka (J.vi.272), Kumbhira (q.v.) is mentioned as one of their chiefs. They had huge stomachs, and their genital organs were as big as pots, hence their name. DA.iii.964.
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A class of beings (fairies or gnomes) grouped with Yakkhas, Rakkhasas, Asuras and others. Virulha is their king. They have large bellies (kumbhanda = gourd), and their genitals are also large like pots (kumbho viya), hence their name. D.iii.198; DA.iii.964.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Kumbhāṇḍa (कुम्भाण्ड) is the name of an Asura (demon) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XX). Accordingly, “When the Bodhisattva cultivates generosity (dāna),... He knows that a minister (amātya) who wrings money out of people and plunders them of their goods illegally, but one who practices generosity, is reborn among the Kouei chen (asura) where he is the demon Kieou p’an tch’a (Kumbhāṇḍa), who enjoys himself by carrying out multiple transformations (pariṇāma) on the five outer objects (pañca-bāhyāyatana)”.
Note: Kumbhāṇḍa refers to a class of demons listed along with the Yakṣas, Asuras and Nāgas. They live in the south and their king is Virūdha (Dīgha II, p. 257; III, p. 198). They are so called because their genitals (aṇḍa) are as large as pots (kumbha) (cf. Sumaṅgala III, p. 964).
Kumbhāṇḍas, together with other deities constitute the Asuras, according to chapter XLVI.—Accordingly, “great gods such as the Asuras, Kiṃnaras, Gandharvas, Kumbhāndas, Yakṣas, Rakṣasas, Bhūtas, etc., are Asuras, and when their troops increase, those of the Devas decrease. Their power (anubhāva) and their transformations (nirmāṇa) were exercised at will. The Asura destiny is called thus because the Asuras appear at the head of a list; the others, namely, the Kiṃnaras, Gandharvas, Kuṃbhāṇḍas, Yakṣas, Bhūtas, etc. constitute one and the same destiny with them”.Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Kumbhāṇḍa (कुम्भाण्ड).—One of a class of evil spirits who, as their name would indicate, had “testicles” (aṇḍa) as big as “pots” (kumbha). Virūḍhaka, one of the four great kings, is their lord.Source: Google Books: Divine Stories: Divyavadana
A Kumbhāṇḍa is one of a group of dwarfish, misshapen spirits among the lesser deities of Buddhist mythology. They are classed among the Cāturmahārājikakāyika deities, and are subject to the Great King Virūḷhaka, Guardian of the South. One of their chiefs is called Kumbhīra.
Kumbhāṇḍa was a dialectal form for "gourd", so they may get their name from being thought to resemble gourds in some way, e.g. in having big stomachs. But kumbhāṇḍa can also be interpreted as "pot-egg"; since "egg" (aṇḍa) was a common euphemism for "testicle", the kumbhāṇḍas were imagined having testicles "as big as pots".
Languages of India and abroad
kumbhaṇḍa : (m.) pumpkin; a kind of celestial beings.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Kumbhaṇḍa, 1. m. a class of fairies or genii grouped with Yakkhas, Rakkhasas and Asuras S. II, 258 (k° puriso vehāsaṃ gacchanto); J. I, 204; III, 147 (with def.); Miln. 267; DhA. I, 280; Pgdp 60.—2. nt. a kind of gourd J. I, 411 (lābu°); V, 37; (elāḷuka-lābuka°); DA. I, 73= DhA. I, 309 (placed on the back of a horse, as symbol of instability); the same as f. kumbhaṇḍī Vism. 183 (lābu+). (Page 222)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Kumbhāṇḍa (कुम्भाण्ड).—m. (= Pali kumbhaṇḍa, which is recorded in BHS Gv 46.18; 102.25; 119.23, all prose, tho the Sktized ā is printed later in Gv, see below: = Sanskrit kuṣmāṇḍa, kūṣ°; in all verse passages where meter de- termines the quantity of the first syllable, it is short, except only in Gv 214.11; note that in Mv ii.203.16 it is necessary to read with mss. kumbhāṇḍa-su-(mss. śu)-bhairava-rutān, Senart erroneously em. by omitting su, the syllable kum° being short metrically), a kind of evil spirit, commonly mentioned with yakṣas, piśācas, bhūtas, etc., and esp. rāk- ṣasas; Virūḍhaka is standardly their lord: LV 217.21; 389.2; SP 399.6; compare Mvy 3436—7; but in LV 130.9 Rudra is called their overlord (adhipati); in LV 302.3 mentioned among Māra's followers, along with yakṣas, rākṣasas, and gandharvas; occurrences in verses where first syllable is short, LV 50.6; 54.13; 307.18; 341.16; Mv ii.203.16 (see above); Bhad 18; Śikṣ 333.9; in verses where meter is indecisive or in prose, SP 86.11; 401.5; LV 249.17; Mv i.257.5; 350.9; ii.106.13; 212.10; 296.10; 351.17; 410.5; iii.71.20; Mvy 3225; 4755; Divy 105.28; 119.9; Av i.67.10; 108.9; Kv 76.10 (in Kv 11.20 the Sanskrit form kuṣmāṇḍa is printed, probably by misprint or graphic corruption); Gv (compare above) 120.2; 169.10; 190.23; Laṅk 261.8; Sādh 411.2; Bhīk 26a.5. Cf. next two.
Kumbhāṇḍa can also be spelled as Kumbhaṇḍa (कुम्भण्ड).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
(-ṇḍaḥ) A minister of the Asura, Bana, mf (ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍī) A pumpkin gourd: see kumbhāṇḍa.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 21 books and stories containing Kumbhanda, Kumbhāṇḍa, Kumbhaṇḍa, Kumbhandā, Kumbhānda; (plurals include: Kumbhandas, Kumbhāṇḍas, Kumbhaṇḍas, Kumbhandās, Kumbhāndas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Book of Protection (by Piyadassi Thera)
Discourse 24 - Discourse On Atanatiya < [Discourses]
Discourse 18 - The Great Assembly < [Discourses]
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Part 1 - The Āṭānāṭiya Paritta < [Chapter 39 - How the Āṭānāṭiya Paritta came to be Taught]
Part 4 - Taming of Āḷavaka the Ogre < [Chapter 33 - The Buddha’s Fifteenth Vassa at Kapilavatthu]
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 53 - The dalliance of Ūṣā and Aniruddha < [Section 2.5 - Rudra-saṃhitā (5): Yuddha-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 51 - The story of Ūṣā < [Section 2.5 - Rudra-saṃhitā (5): Yuddha-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 52 - The story of Ūṣā (2) < [Section 2.5 - Rudra-saṃhitā (5): Yuddha-khaṇḍa]
Kathasaritsagara (the Ocean of Story) (by Somadeva)
Appendix 1.1 - Mythical Beings < [Appendices]
Notes on vampires < [Notes]
Chapter XLVI < [Book VIII - Sūryaprabha]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Appendix 3 - Balance of power between the Devas and the Asuras < [Chapter XLVI - Venerating with the Roots of Good]
Appendix 8 - The four gardens of the Trāyastriṃśa gods < [Chapter XIV - Emission of rays]
6. Generosity and the virtue of wisdom. < [Part 14 - Generosity and the other virtues]