Virama, Virāma: 17 definitions


Virama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Virāma (विराम) refers to the “pause” in the recitation of a verse, which occurs after meaning has been fully expressed, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15.

Source: Natya Shastra

Virāma (विराम, “pause”) in connexion with enunciation is due to the completion of sense, and is to depend on the situation (lit. practical), and not on metre. Why? Because it is found in practice that there occurs pause even after one, the three or four syllables

Pauses (virāma) which are prescribed in a verse require alaṃkāras. Pause should be observed after a word, when the meaning or the breath (prāṇa) requires it. And when words and syllables are combined into a big compound or the utterance is quick, or confusion about different meanings is liable to arise, Pause should be observed at the end of a foot or as required by the breath. In the remaining cases Pause should depend on the meaning.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Virāma (विराम).—An ancient term used in the Prātiśākhya works for a stop or pause in general at the end of a word, or at the end of the first member of a compound, which is shown split up in the Padapāṭha, or inside a word, or at the end of a word, or at the end of a vowel when it is followed by another vowel. The duration of this virāma is different in different circumstances; but sometimes under the same circumstances, it is described differently in the different Prātiśākhyas. Generally,there is no pause between two consonants as also between a vowel and a consonant preceding or following it.The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya has given four kinds of विराम (virāma) (a) ऋग्विराम (ṛgvirāma), pause at the end of a foot or a verse of duration equal to three mātrās or moras, (b) पदविराम (padavirāma) pause between two words of duration equal to two matras; e. g. इषे त्वा ऊर्जे त्वा (iṣe tvā ūrje tvā), (c) pause between two words the preceding one of which ends in a vowel and the following begins with a vowel, the vowels being not euphonically combined; this pause has a duration of one matra e,g. स इधानः, त एनम् (sa idhānaḥ, ta enam), (d) pause between two vowels inside a word which is a rare occurrence; this has a duration of half a mātrā;e.g-प्रउगम्, तितउः (praugam, titauḥ); cf. ऋग्विरामः पदविरामो विवृत्तिविरामः समानपदविवृत्तिविरामस्त्रिमात्रो द्विमात्र एकमात्रोर्धमात्र इत्यानुपूर्व्येण (ṛgvirāmaḥ padavirāmo vivṛttivirāmaḥ samānapadavivṛttivirāmastrimātro dvimātra ekamātrordhamātra ityānupūrvyeṇa) T. Pr. XXII. 13. The word विवृत्ति (vivṛtti) is explained as स्वरयोरसंधिः (svarayorasaṃdhiḥ). The vivṛttivirāma is further divided into वत्सानुसति (vatsānusati) which has the preceding vowel short and the succeeding long, वत्सानुसारिणी (vatsānusāriṇī) which has the preceding vowel a long one and the succeeding vowel a short one, पाकवती (pākavatī) which has both the vowels short, and पिपीलिका (pipīlikā) which has got both, the vowels long. This fourfold division is given in the Śikṣā where their duration is given as one mātrā, one mātrā, three-fourths of a mātrā and one-fourth of a mātrā respectively. The duration between the two words of a compound word when split up in the पदपाठ (padapāṭha) is also equal to one mātrā; cf. R.Pr.I.16. The word विराम (virāma) occurs in Pāṇini's rule विरामो (virāmo)s वसानम् (vasānam) P.I. 4.110 where commentators have explained it as absence; cf. वर्णानामभावोवसानसंज्ञः स्यात् (varṇānāmabhāvovasānasaṃjñaḥ syāt) S.K.on P. I.4.110: cf. also विरतिर्विरामः । विरम्यते अनेन इति वा विरामः (viratirvirāmaḥ | viramyate anena iti vā virāmaḥ) Kāś. on P.I.4.110. According to Kāśikā even in the Saṃhitā text, there is a duration of half a mātrā between the various phonetic elements, even between two consonants or between a vowel and a consonant, which, however, is quite imperceptible; cf. परो यः संनिकर्षो वर्णानां अर्धमात्राकालव्यवधानं स संहितासंज्ञो भवति (paro yaḥ saṃnikarṣo varṇānāṃ ardhamātrākālavyavadhānaṃ sa saṃhitāsaṃjño bhavati) Kāś. on P. I.4.109, cf. also विरामे मात्रा (virāme mātrā) R.T.35; cf. also R.Pr.I.16 and 17. For details see Mahābhāṣya on P.I.4.109 and I.4.110.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)

Virāma (विराम) refers to “cessation”, according to the Amṛtasiddhi, a 12th-century text belonging to the Haṭhayoga textual tradition.—Accordingly, “The [four] bodily blisses whose last is [the bliss of] cessation (virāma) all arise from bindu, just as moonlight arises from the moon”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

virāma (विराम).—m (S) Stop, cessation, resting, standing still. 2 Cessation from labor, rest. 3 A pause or stop. 4 Death. v pāva.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

virāma (विराम).—m Stop. Rest; a pause. Death. f Strength, vigour. The sheath of the branch of the betelnut.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Virama (विरम).—

1) Cessation, stop.

2) Sunse. अभितिग्मरश्मि चिरमाविरमात् (abhitigmaraśmi ciramāviramāt) Śiśupālavadha 9.11.

Derivable forms: viramaḥ (विरमः).

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Virāma (विराम).—(a)

1) Cessation, discontinuance; सुधां विना न प्रययुर्विरामम् (sudhāṃ vinā na prayayurvirāmam) Bhartṛhari 2.8; प्रवृत्तस्याविरामे भवन्ती शासितव्या (pravṛttasyāvirāme bhavantī śāsitavyā) Mahābhārata (b) Rest, repose.

2) End, termination, conclusion; आरामः कल्पवृक्षाणां विरामः सकलापदाम् (ārāmaḥ kalpavṛkṣāṇāṃ virāmaḥ sakalāpadām) Rāma-rakṣā.16; रजनिरिदानीभियमपि याति विरामम् (rajaniridānībhiyamapi yāti virāmam) Gītagovinda 5; Uttararāmacarita 3.16; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 9.34.

3) Pause, stop.

4) The stop or pause of the voice; वर्णानामपि मूर्च्छनान्तरगतं तारं विरामे मृदुम् (varṇānāmapi mūrcchanāntaragataṃ tāraṃ virāme mṛdum) Mṛcchakaṭika 3.5.

5) A small oblique stroke placed under a consonant, usually at the end of a sentence.

6) Name of Viṣṇu.

Derivable forms: virāmaḥ (विरामः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virama (विरम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Cessation, stop. 2. Sunset.

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Virāma (विराम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. End, conclusion, cessation, term. 2. Rest, cessation from labour. 3. Stop, pause of the voice. 4. Interval between words or sentences. E. vi before ram to stop, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virama (विरम).—[vi-ram + a], m. Cessation, sunset, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 11.

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Virāma (विराम).—i. e. vi-ram + a, m. 1. Cessation, rest, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 73; ºmaṃ yā, To rest, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 72. 2. End, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 63, 5. 3. Pause.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virama (विरम).—[masculine] ṇa [neuter] ceasing, desisting, abstaining from (—°).

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Virāma (विराम).—[masculine] cessation, rest, end, pause, caesura, stop and its sign ([grammar]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Virama (विरम):—[=vi-rama] [from vi-ram] m. cessation, end, [Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] sunset, [Śiśupāla-vadha ix, 11]

3) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) desistence or abstention from, [Mahābhārata]

4) Virāma (विराम):—[=vi-rāma] [from vi-ram] m. cessation, termination, end, [Śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Manu-smṛti] etc. ([accusative] with √ or pra-√yā, to come to an end, rest)

5) [v.s. ...] end of a word or sentence, stop, pause (ifc. = ending with), [Atharvaveda-prātiśākhya; Pāṇini] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] end of or caesura with in a Pāda, [Śrutabodha]

7) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) ‘the stop’, Name of a small oblique stroke placed under a consonant to denote that it is quiescent id est. that it has no vowel inherent or otherwise pronounced after it (this mark is sometimes used in the middle of conjunctions of consonants; but its proper use, according to native grammarians, is only as a stop at the end of a sentence ending in a consonant)

8) [v.s. ...] desistence, abstention, [Kāśikā-vṛtti; Vopadeva]

9) [v.s. ...] exhaustion, languor, [Caraka]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of Viṣṇu, [Mahābhārata]

11) [v.s. ...] of Śiva, [Śivagītā, ascribed to the padma-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virāma (विराम):—[vi-rāma] (maḥ) 1. m. End, rest, pause.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Virama (विरम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Virama, Virāma.

[Sanskrit to German]

Virama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Virāma (विराम) [Also spelled viram]:—(nm) pause; pause in or at the end of a sentence; (full) stop; stoppage; repose, rest; halt; respite; interval/intermission; -[cinha] full-stop—a punctuation mark; •[lagānā] to punctuate; to put a full-stop; -[saṃdhi] an armistice.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Virama (विरम) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Viram.

2) Virama (विरम) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Virama.

3) Virāma (विराम) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Virāma.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Virāma (ವಿರಾಮ):—

1) [noun] a ceasing or stopping, either forever or for some time; a coming to an end; stoppage; cessation.

2) [noun] a period of time during which the continuity of a work being carried on is stopped for taking rest.

3) [noun] (pros.) a place where the reading or reciting of a poem is stopped for a brief time without breaking the continuity of the sense.

4) [noun] (pros.) a prosodic verse having four lines, each having two groups of three syllables each followed by a long syllable (-uu, -u-, -).

5) [noun] (mus.) the point where a song is stopped for a brief time, for taking breath or for making the sense more clear, without affecting the rhythm.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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