Viparyaya, Viparyāya: 26 definitions


Viparyaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Viparyay.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Viparyaya (विपर्यय, “transposition”) refers to one of the thirty-six “characteristic features” (lakṣaṇa) of perfect ‘poetic compositions’ (kāvyabandha) and ‘dramatic compositions’ (dṛśyakāvya, or simply kāvya). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17, these thirty-six lakṣaṇas act as instructions for composing playwrights. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature.

Source: Natya Shastra

Viparyaya (विपर्यय, “inversion”).—One of the thirty-six lakṣaṇa, or “excellent points of a dramatic composition”;—Description of viparyaya: When due to seeing something, an alteration of Deliberation, is made on account of a doubt, it is called Inversion (viparyaya).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra

Viparyaya (विपर्यय) refers to “contrariety” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.

Arthashastra book cover
context information

Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Samkhya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Viparyaya in Samkhya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Sāṃkhya philosophy

Viparyaya (विपर्यय, “ignorance”) refers to a category of pratyayasarga (intellectual products) according to the Sāṃkhya theory of evolution. Pratyayasarga is the first of two types of sarga (products) that come into being during tattvapariṇāma (elemental manifestations), which in turn, evolve out of the two types of pariṇāma (change, modification).

In the Sāṃkhyatattvakaumudī on kārikā 47, the following five types of viparyaya are defined:

  1. tamas (dullness),
  2. moha (delusion),
  3. mahāmoha (the great delusion),
  4. tāmisra (darkness),
  5. andhatāmisra (utter darkness).

In Yoga philosophy, they are known as the five kleśas:

  1. avidyā (ignorance or wrong identification),
  2. asmitā (ego-sense),
  3. rāga (addiction),
  4. dveṣa (anger),
  5. abhiniveśa (fear of death).
context information

Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Viparyaya (विपर्यय).—Change in the reverse order; reverse transposition; interversion; cf. the usual expression वर्णविपर्यय (varṇaviparyaya).cf. वर्णागमाद् भवेद्धंसः सिंहो वर्णविपर्ययात् । (varṇāgamād bhaveddhaṃsaḥ siṃho varṇaviparyayāt |) S.K. on P.VI.3.109. The word व्यत्यय (vyatyaya) is used in this sense in the Mahābhāṣya; cf. वर्णव्यत्यये कृतेस्तर्कः । हिंसेः सिंहः । (varṇavyatyaye kṛtestarkaḥ | hiṃseḥ siṃhaḥ |) M.Bh. on Śiva Sūtra 5 Vārt. 15; cf. also Kāś. on P.VI.3.109 and Cāndra Vyākaraṇa II.2.48.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Viparyaya in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Viparyaya (विपर्यय, “error”) refers to one of the three kinds of apramā (“non-valid knowledge”), according to Annaṃbhaṭṭa in the  Tarkasaṃgraha.—Error (viparyaya) is defined as false apprehension (mithyājñāna). Error is the opposite of valid knowledge. Erroneous knowledge is the cognition of an object as possessing certain characteristics which do not belong to it. The knowledge of a conch-shell as silver, of a rope as a snake are examples of error. In these cases there is the cognition of an object as different from the real object. In case of error the definition of apramā as “tadabhāvatī tatprakārako anubhava” rightly applies. In error (viparyaya) an attribute is referred not to its own locus but to that of another locus. For example, in case of the cognition of silver on a conch-shell the generality of silverness is referred to the locus conch-shell which is wrong.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Viparyaya in Ayurveda glossary
Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Viparyaya (विपर्यय):—[viparyayaḥ] When exceptionary example is given in an already exissted exception

2) [viparyayaḥ] Reverse action

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Viparyaya in Kavya glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Viparyaya (विपर्यय) refers to the “separation (of body and soul)”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 8.88-90.—Accordingly: “The wise say that death is the natural state of embodied creatures and life is a change in that state. If a being remains breathing even for a moment it is surely fortunate. The foolish man regards the loss of his dear one as a dart shot into his heart. Another man looks on the same as a dart that has been pulled out, for it is a door to beatitude. When we are taught that our own body and soul unite and then separate (viparyaya), tell me which wise person should be tormented by separation from the external objects of the senses?”.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Viparyaya in Shaivism glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Viparyaya (विपर्यय) refers to “(being) contrary (to the mundane practice)”, according to the Jayadrathayāmala, Ṣaṭka 1 verse 13.3–18::—Accordingly, “[...] Besides (bhūyas) the nirvāṇadīkṣā bestowing liberation is of many kinds: śivadharma-dīkṣā, lokadharma-dīkṣā and the initiation which kills quickly, causing the body to fall. [The initiation] which reveals everything through the attainment of Śiva through the performance of post-initiatory rites once the three bonds (i.e. the three impurities) have ceased due to the purification of the consciousness on one [of the six] paths, [that] initiation is known to be the śivadharmadīkṣā, which bestows the attainment of liberation because it is contrary to the mundane practice (lokācāra-viparyayalokācāraviparyayāt). [...]”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Viparyaya (विपर्यय) refers to “incorrect perception”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 21.6-9ab]—“[...] What is conquerable [by one who is] imperfect? One supposes that [which is] imperfect. Somewhere Śakti exists. In this sense she is not empty of substance. The incorrect perception (viparyaya) [is] that the pure form of Śakti [constitutes] the mantras”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Viparyaya in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Viparyaya (विपर्यय) refers to “eliminating (being and non-being)”, according to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya verse 7.237cd-239.— Accordingly, “In order to eliminate (viparyaya) Being and Non-being (bhāvābhāva), the (yogi) intent (on this process) reposes somewhere (in an indefinable state) having contemplated his own consciousness which expands out perpetually, manifest as the bliss intent on the radiant pulse (of consciousness). One obtains (this teaching) from the teacher's mouth. The Kālikrama arises where what has been forgotten which is neither below nor above, neither in the middle, nor internal or external, is recollected”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Viparyaya in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Viparyaya (विपर्यय) refers to a “mistake” (Cf. Abhibhava—‘defect’), according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[The eighteen āveṇika-dharmas (‘special attributes’)]— [...] (9). The Buddha has no loss of mindfulness.—He has no loss of mindfulness.—[...] [Question].—First it was said that the Buddha has no failure of mindfulness and now it is said that he has no loss of mindfulness. Are the absence of failure of mindfulness and the absence of loss of mindfulness the same or different? If they are the same, why repeat it; if they are different, what does the difference consist of? [Answer].—Failure of mindfulness is a mistake (viparyaya); loss of mindfulness is a defect (abhibhava). Failure of mindfulness is an error in the postures, the way one holds one’s head, comes or goes; non-loss of mindfulness is the mindfulness lasting during the concentrations and the superknowledges, the unhindered penetration of the past and the present. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Viparyaya in Jainism glossary
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

Viparyaya (विपर्यय) means opposite of the real knowledge or erroneous knowledge. according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.31, “Sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge and clairvoyance may also be erroneous knowledge”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Viparyaya in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

viparyaya (विपर्यय).—m S Contrariety, opposition, oppositeness. 2 Reverse, nature or quality opposite to that which is regular or right. It signifies therefore Misery or calamity (as the reverse of good fortune); error, misapprehension &c. (as the reverse of reason or truth); inverted order or succession (as the reverse of the direct or the prescribed order).

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

viparyaya (विपर्यय).—m Opposition, contrariety; reverse.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Viparyaya in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viparyaya (विपर्यय).—a. Reversed, inverted, perverse; यदा वृश्चिकादिषु पञ्चसु वर्तते तदाहोरात्राणि विपर्ययाणि भवन्ति (yadā vṛścikādiṣu pañcasu vartate tadāhorātrāṇi viparyayāṇi bhavanti) Bhāgavata 5.21.5.

-yaḥ 1 Contrariety, reverse, inversion; आहितो जयविपर्ययोऽपि मे श्लाध्य एव परमेष्ठिना त्वया (āhito jayaviparyayo'pi me ślādhya eva parameṣṭhinā tvayā) R.11.86. स्वशरीरशरीरिणावपि श्रुतसंयोगविपर्ययौ यदा (svaśarīraśarīriṇāvapi śrutasaṃyogaviparyayau yadā) 8.89; नभसः स्फुटतारस्य रात्रेरिव विपर्ययः (nabhasaḥ sphuṭatārasya rātreriva viparyayaḥ) (na bhājanam) Kirātārjunīya 11.44; विपर्यये तु (viparyaye tu) Ś.5 'if it be otherwise', if contrary be the case; विपर्यये त्वस्याधिपतेरुल्लङ्घितः क्षात्रधर्मः स्यात् (viparyaye tvasyādhipaterullaṅghitaḥ kṣātradharmaḥ syāt) Ve.5.

2) Change (of purpose, dress &c.); कथमेत्य मतिर्विपर्ययं करिणी पङ्कमिवावसीदति (kathametya matirviparyayaṃ kariṇī paṅkamivāvasīdati) Kirātārjunīya 2.6; so वेषविपर्ययः (veṣaviparyayaḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.

3) Absence or non-existence; समुद्रगारूपविपर्ययेऽपि (samudragārūpaviparyaye'pi) Kumārasambhava 7.42; त्यागे श्लाघाविपर्ययः (tyāge ślāghāviparyayaḥ) R.1.22.

4) Loss; राघवाणा- मयुक्तोऽयं कुलस्यास्य विपर्ययैः (rāghavāṇā- mayukto'yaṃ kulasyāsya viparyayaiḥ) Rām.1.21.2; निद्रा संज्ञाविपर्ययः (nidrā saṃjñāviparyayaḥ) Kumārasambhava 6.44 'loss of consciousness'.

5) Complete destruction, annihilation; दुःशासनवधं श्रुत्वा कर्णस्य च विपर्ययम् (duḥśāsanavadhaṃ śrutvā karṇasya ca viparyayam) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 11.1.16; Rām.7.6.5.

6) Exchange, barter.

7) Error, trespass, mistake, misapprehension.

8) A calamity, misfortune, adverse fate; प्रियं त्वत्कृतमिच्छामि मम गर्भविपर्यये (priyaṃ tvatkṛtamicchāmi mama garbhaviparyaye) Rām.1.47.3.

9) Hostility, enmity.

1) Perverseness, opposition.

11) The destruction of the world (pralaya); हरिं विशन्ति स्म शरा लोका इव विपर्यये (hariṃ viśanti sma śarā lokā iva viparyaye) Rām.7. 7.4.

12) Misapprehension; भयं द्वितीयाभिनिवेशतः स्यादीशा- दपेतस्य विपर्ययोऽस्मृतिः (bhayaṃ dvitīyābhiniveśataḥ syādīśā- dapetasya viparyayo'smṛtiḥ) Bhāgavata 11.2.37; Mv.3.35.

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Viparyāya (विपर्याय).—Reverse, contrariety; V.4; see विपर्यय (viparyaya) above.

Derivable forms: viparyāyaḥ (विपर्यायः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Viparyāya (विपर्याय).—m. (Sanskrit Lex. id., Pali vipariyāya, = Sanskrit viparyaya), contrariety, the being opposed (of signs, omens): nimitta-°yaḥ Mahāvyutpatti 9303.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viparyaya (विपर्यय) or Viparyyaya.—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Contrariety, opposition. 2. Reverse in general, and thence applied to that of which reverse is predicated, as misery, calamity, (the reverse of fortune;) error, misapprehension, (the reverse of reason or truth;) inverted order or succession, (the reverse that which is usual or prescribed,) &c. 3. Destruction, annihilation. 4. Perverseness of disposition. 5. Change of purpose or conduct. 6. Enmity, hostility. 7. Absence, non-existence. 8. Exchange, barter. E. vi and pari implying reverse, and iṇ to go, aff. ac; also with ghañ aff. viparyāya m. (-yaḥ) .

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Viparyāya (विपर्याय) or Viparyyāya.—m.

(-yaḥ) Contrariety, &c.: see viparyaya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viparyaya (विपर्यय).—i. e. vi-pari-i + a, m. 1. Change, [Pañcatantra] 37, 3. 2. A morbid change, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 48; failure of conception, 3, 49; cf. [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 47, 3. 3. Reverse, that which is contrary, opposite to something, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 12; [Kirātārjunīya] 11, 44; loc. ye, On the contrary, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 26, 34. 4. Error. 5. Trespass, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 249. 6. Overthrow, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 171. 7. Opposition, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 218, 12; contrariety. 8. Perverseness of disposition. 9. Hostility.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viparyaya (विपर्यय).—[adjective] inverted, perverse; [masculine] revolution (of the sun), expiration (of a time); failure (of conception); overthrow, inversion; opposition, the contrary of ([genetive] or —°); change, barter, alteration, [especially] to the bad, reverse of fortune, calamity, ill luck, adversity; error, mistake.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Viparyaya (विपर्यय):—[=vi-paryaya] [from vi-parī] mfn. reversed, inverted, perverse, contrary to ([genitive case]), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] m. turning round, revolution, [Jyotiṣa]

3) [v.s. ...] running off, coming to an end, [Rāmāyaṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] m. transposition, change, alteration, inverted order or succession, opposite of [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Nirukta, by Yāska; Mahābhārata] etc. (e.g. buddhi-v, the opposite opinion; svapna-v, the opp. of sleep, state of being awake; saṃdhi-viparyayau, peace and its opposite id est. war; yaye ind., yena ind. and yāt ind. in the opp° case, otherwise)

5) [v.s. ...] m. exchange, barter (e.g. dravya-v, exchange of goods, buying and selling, trade), [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

6) [v.s. ...] change for the worse, reverse of fortune, calamity, misfortune, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] perverseness, [Rāmāyaṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] overthrow, min, loss, destruction ([especially] of the world), [Kāvya literature]

9) [v.s. ...] change of opinion, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] change of purpose or conduct, enmity, hostility, [Horace H. Wilson]

11) [v.s. ...] misapprehension, error, mistake, [Manu-smṛti; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

12) [v.s. ...] mistaking anything to be the reverse or opposite of what it is, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

13) [v.s. ...] shunning, avoiding, [Rāmāyaṇa vii, 63, 31] ([Scholiast or Commentator])

14) [v.s. ...] Name of [particular] forms of intermittent fever, [Suśruta]

15) Viparyāya (विपर्याय):—[=vi-paryāya] [from vi-paryaya > vi-parī] m. = vi-paryaya, reverse, contrariety, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Viparyaya (विपर्यय):—[vi-parya-ya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Contrariety; reverse of fortune, of reason, &c.; destruction; perversity, enmity.

2) Viparyāya (विपर्याय):—[vi-paryāya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Contrariety.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Viparyaya (विपर्यय) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vivajjaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Viparyaya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Viparyaya in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Viparyaya (विपर्यय) [Also spelled viparyay]:—(nm) metathesis, transposition; reversal; -, [sthiti] reversal of the situation, peripeteia.

2) Viparyāya (विपर्याय) [Also spelled viparyay]:—(nm) an antonym, antonymous word; ~[vicaka/vācī] antonymous.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Viparyaya in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Viparyaya (ವಿಪರ್ಯಯ):—

1) [adjective] turned upside down; inverted; reversed.

2) [adjective] deviated from what is natural, right or good; perverse.

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Viparyaya (ವಿಪರ್ಯಯ):—

1) [noun] an obstructing, impeding; obstruction; impediment.

2) [noun] a feeling of strong dislike or hatred; ill will; hostility; enmity.

3) [noun] the condition of being destroyed completely; destruction; ruin.

4) [noun] a danger; peril; calamity; a period of this.

5) [noun] bad-luck; mis-fortune.

6) [noun] loss; damage.

7) [noun] the fact or condition of not having any; lack.

8) [noun] the act of changing; substitution; alteration.

9) [noun] a giving or taking of one thing for another; exchange; barter.

10) [noun] a fault; an error; a mistake.

11) [noun] (rhet.) a figure of speech in which something is said to be exactly opposite to what it really is.

12) [noun] (phil.) a mistaking anything to be the reverse or opposite of what it is.

13) [noun] (jain.) false knowledge got from wrong or mistaken ideas.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of viparyaya in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

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