Desha, aka: Desa, Deśa, Deśā; 18 Definition(s)
Desha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Deśa and Deśā can be transliterated into English as Desa or Desha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Ayurveda (science of life)
Deśa (देश) refers to “land” or “region”, as defined in the first chapter (ānūpādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia).
Accordingly, three classifications of land are defined:
- anūpa-deśa (wet land),
- jāṅgala-deśa (dry land),
- sādhāraṇa-deśa (mixed land).
Deśa (देश, “habitat”):—Geographically the places of habitat can be divided into six zones according to predominance of bhūtas—
- Jāṅgala (‘forest’, has a predominance of vāta),
- Sāmudra (‘oceanic’, has a predominance of kapha and pitta),
- Saikata (‘arid zone’, has a predominance of vāta and pitta),
- Pārvatya (‘hilly’, has a predominance of vāta and kapha),
- Ānupa (‘sub-aquatic’, has a predominance of kapha)
- and Madhya (‘central zone’, average distribution of vāta, kapha and pitta)
One should keep in mind the nature of the particular habitat while prescribing the diet.(Source): Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Dharmashastra (religious law)
Deśa (देश) refers to “a district” (a group of villages). The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 8.219)(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Deśā (देशा).—Regions different from Rāṣṭras and Janapadas.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 50. 6.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)
Deśa (देश, “place”) refers to one of the six factors through which positive ethical precepts (regarding Dharma) are conditioned. The discerning student is required to distinguish between grades of vidhi or to compare their levels of authority or applicability. The primary distinction is derived from their motivation and goals, thus producing the concepts of puruṣārtha and kratvārtha.(Source): Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis
Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Deśa (देश).—lit. place; (l) original place of articulation: cf. अदेशे वा वचनं व्यञ्ज-नस्य (adeśe vā vacanaṃ vyañja-nasya), R. Pr. XIV. 5; (2) place of origin; उच्चारणस्थानः (uccāraṇasthānaḥ) (3) place of inferential establishment of a Paribhasa etc. परिभाषादेशः उद्देशः (paribhāṣādeśaḥ uddeśaḥ) Par. Sek. pari. 2,3; (4) passage of the Samhita text, cf..T. Pr. I. 59.(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Deśa (देश, ‘land’) is a word that does not come into use till the time of the Upaniṣads and Sūtras, excepting one occurrence in the latest period of the Brāhmaṇa literature, and one in a much-discussed passage of the Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā, where the Sarasvatī is mentioned as having five tributaries. This passage militates against the view that Sarasvatī was a name of the Indus, because the use of Deśa here seems to indicate that the seer of the verse placed the Sarasvatī in the Madhyadeśa or ‘Middle Country’, to which all the geographical data of the Yajurvedas point.(Source): archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
M (Spot). Place, region. / motive (subject that is being dealt with).(Source): Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
(Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
Deśa (देश).—This is a set of ten “places” (deśa) made up of five primary places, and five secondary or “nearby” places. Each of the places contains two or four of the twenty-four sacred sites (Vajravārāhī-sādhana 43-53). The places during the course of the body maṇḍala with the ten bodhisattva stages. In the semi-mythical world of the highest tantras, the places and sites serve as dwelling places for various classes of yoginī.
The ten places (deśa):
- pīṭha (site),
- kṣetra (field),
- melāpaka (meeting place),
- śmaśāna (cremation ground),
- upapīṭha (nearby site),
- upakṣetra (nearby field),
- upamelāpaka (nearby meeting place),
- upaśmaśāna (nearby cremation ground)
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
India history and geogprahy
Deśa (देश) refers to a name-ending for place-names mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions (reigned from 3rd century CE). Deśa means a “province”, “country”, “kingdom”. Sometimes it is used as a technical territorial term. But its exact meaning and bearing are difficult to explain due to the fact that sometimes it is described as bigger and at others smaller than other geographical divisions, such as maṇḍala, rāṣṭra and viṣaya. We find only one reference each in the Brāhmaṇas and the Vājasaneyī-saṃhitā. The passage in the Vājasaneyī-saṃhitā is significant in as much as here for the first time, deśa is used in the sense of a ‘country’. We find a reference to the river Sarasvatī as flowing in the Madhyadeśa or “Middle Country”. The term was much in vogue in the Upaniṣad and Sūtra period denoting therein the meaning ‘land’.(Source): archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
Deśa (देश) refers to an “administrative designation”.—In the time of the Chālukyas of Vātāpi and Veṅgī, and the Rāṣṭrakūṭas of Mānyakheṭa, three designations largely held the field—deśa, maṇḍala, and viṣaya. The term viṣaya occurs most frequently. The antiquity of the word deśa goes back to the days of the Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā of the Yajurveda. But its occurrence in the early Vedic texts is very rare. It is more common in the Buddhist texts where it is sometimes used as a synonym of janapada. It is clear that deśa had become the designation of an administrative unit possibly as early as the time of Aśoka, and certainly in the early Pallava age. In the post-Pallava period deśa is at times used as a bigger unit than a viṣaya.(Source): Early History Of The Deccan Pts.1 To 6: Principal Administrative Divisions from the Rise of the Sātavāhanas
Deśa was the largest administrative unit under the rule of the Śilāhāra dynasty (r. 765-1029 A.D.).—Koṅkana, which comprised several deśas was called Mahā-deśa. The deśas were previously divided into rāṣṭras. The deśas were divided into viṣayas in North and south Koṅkaṇ. Several viṣayas are mentioned in the records of the Śilāhāras. Deśas, viṣaya and khollas are sometimes named together with the numbers of the villages comprised in them.(Source): What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras
Desa is one of the terms designating an ‘administrative division’ used in the inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh.—This is a territorial term denoting a small area or a group of villages in some cases, but a kingdom, district, tract or country in others. As a territorial appellation it occurs in the inscriptions of almost all over India. In Andhra Prdesh sthe earliest available reference to desa as a territorial unit is Velpurudesa mentioned in the Velpuru pillar inscription of the Vishnukundi king Madhavavarman II.
Sometimes the desa denotes entire country, viz., Kalinga-desa, Andhra-desa, etc. It was also synonymous with vishaya and nadu. For instance, Kalinga-desa and Palli-desa were also known as Kalinga-Vishaya and Palli-nadu respectively. Desa appellation is found throughout Andhra Pradesh. Being a Sandkrit appellation its provenance is more in the North(Source): Shodhganga: A study of place names of Nalgonda district
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
desa : (m.) region; country; a district.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Desa, (Ved. deśa, cp. disā) point, part, place, region, spot, country, Vin.I, 46; II, 211; M.I, 437; J.I, 308; DhsA.307 (°bhūta); PvA.78 (°antara prob. to be read dos°), 153; KhA 132, 227.—desaṃ karoti to go abroad J.V, 340 (p. 342 has disaṃ).—kañcid-eva desaṃ pucchati to ask a little point D.I, 51; M.I, 229; A.V, 39, sometimes as kiñcid-eva d. p. S.III, 101; M.III, 15; v. l. at D.I, 51.—desāgata pañha a question propounded, lit. come into the region of some one or having become a point of discussion Miln.262. (Page 330)(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
dēśa (देश).—m (S) A country, a tract, a region. Pr. dēśāsārakhā vēṣa. 2 A place; a spot. Ex. vṛkṣācē mūladēśīṃ sēcana kēlēṃ mhaṇajē agradēśīṃ hī ṭavaṭavī yētī. 3 Place, the suitable place. Ex. dēśa kāla pāhūna kāma karāvēṃ. 4 The middle country, the country bounded by the Sayhadri range, the Balaghaṭ hills, the Carnatic, and the Godavari river. 5 Space. 6 Under this word may be gathered, and exhibited in their gradations, the words dēśa, prānta, subhā, para- gaṇā, tālukā, jilhā, mahāla, kasabā, pēṭā, puṭhā, maujā, sammata, tarapha. dēśa & prānta are the most comprehensive, expressing COUNTRY in the largest sense; as mahārāṣṭradēśa, gujarāthadēśa, karanāṭakadēśa, cīnadēśa; also any DIVISION OF A COUNTRY; as puṇēdēśa, vāīdēśa, mirajadēśa; also mahārāṣṭraprānta, gujarāthaprānta, & puṇēprānta, vāīprānta &c. subhā is well known as a Subha or Province. paragaṇā, tālukā, jilhā differ but little, expressing generally Division of a dēśa or prānta, a shire, a county, a district: in some parts one word is common, in others, another, and, amongst ourselves, we have long had the words Pergunnah and Zilla. mahāla & pēṭā A subdivision of a tālukā or paragaṇā, a canton, circuit, hundred; a tract and villages having a kasabā or large town at the head. puṭhā Any collection of villages. maujā A village. sammata & tarapha A small division of a para- gaṇā or tract; a small collection of villages. With some the order of these terms is understood to be khātēṃ (Department or division), dēśa or prānta, subhā, jilhā (or jilhā, subhā), tālukā, pēṭā, mahāla or ṭappā or paragaṇā, tarapha, kasabā, maujā, majarā, mujarī. dēśa ghēṇēṃ or āpalā dēśa ghēṇēṃ To take one's proper place--to mind one's own business; as tū āpalā dēśa ghē You go to Bath. dēśācā pāṭāvaravaṇṭā hōṇēṃ To be laid flat and bare; to be utterly devastated--a country. dēśīṃ jāṇēṃ To return to one's native country.
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dēsa (देस).—m (dēśa S through H) A country, region, tract. 2 A Rag or mode of music. See rāga.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
dēśa (देश).—m A country; a place. The region above the Ghauts.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
1) A place or spot in general; देशः को नु जलावसेकशिथिलः (deśaḥ ko nu jalāvasekaśithilaḥ) Mk.3.12 (often used after words like kapola, skandha, aṃsa, nitamba &c., without any meaning; skandhadeśe Ś.1.19 'on the shoulder').
2) A region, country, province, land, territory; यं देशं श्रयते तमेव कुरुते बाहुप्रतापार्जितम् (yaṃ deśaṃ śrayate tameva kurute bāhupratāpārjitam) H.1.15.
3) A department, part, side, portion (as of a whole); as in एकदेश, एकदेशीय (ekadeśa, ekadeśīya) q. v.
4) An institute, an ordinance.
5) Range, compass; दृष्टिदेशः (dṛṣṭideśaḥ) Pt.2.
Derivable forms: deśaḥ (देशः).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Paradeśa (परदेश).—a hostile or foreign country. Derivable forms: paradeśaḥ (परदेशः).Paradeśa is...
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Sādhāraṇadeśa (साधारणदेश) or simply Sādhāraṇa refers to “mixed land” and represents one of the ...
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Pūrvadeśa (पूर्वदेश).—the eastern country, or the eastern part of India. Derivable forms: pūrva...
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Search found 43 books and stories containing Desha, Desa, Deśa or Deśā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
Later Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Appendix: Nanadesis < [Chapter XVI - Temples of Rajendra III’s Time]
Appendix: Temples or parts thereof built and miscellaneous facts < [Chapter II - Temples of Kulottunga I’s Time]
Appendix 1: Mote on M. Sethuraman’s views on Rajadkiraja II < [Chapter IX - Rajadhiraja II (a.d. 1166 to 1182)]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Tattva 2: Ajīva (non-soul) < [Appendix 1.4: The nine tattvas]
Part 17: Incarnation as Nandana < [Chapter I - Previous births of Mahāvīra]
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
*The Sembiyan Style* < [Chapter X - Historical Survey]
Temples in Tiruppugalur < [Chapter X - Historical Survey]
Temples in Vada-Tirumullaivayil < [Chapter VIII - Temples of Uttama Chola’s Time]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.1.98 < [Part 1 - Ecstatic Excitants (vibhāva)]
Verse 2.1.25 < [Part 1 - Ecstatic Excitants (vibhāva)]
Verse 1.3.51 < [Part 3 - Devotional Service in Ecstasy (bhāva-bhakti)]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)