The Agni Purana

by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596

This page describes The science of Jyotisha (Astronomy and Astrology) [jyotihshastra] which is chapter 121 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.

Chapter 121 - The science of Jyotiṣa (Astronomy and Astrology) [jyotiḥśāstra]

Fire-god said:

1. I shall describe the science of astrology [i.e., jyotiḥśāstra] which gives discrimination of good and bad events. It is the quintessence of four lakhs (of treatises). By knowing this (science) one becomes omniscient.

2. The marriage of girls should not be done when there is ṣaḍaṣṭaka[1] or dvidvādaśa[2] as well as in trikoṇa[3]. In other cases as well as in samasaptaka, there will be happiness.

3. If there is friendship between the lords of the second and twelfth (houses) or the trines or there is single lordship, then there will be prosperity in the married life even if there be hostility.

4. Even in such a condition the union may be made, but not in sixth-eighth (ṣaḍaṣṭaka) condition. (If the marriage is done) when Jupiter or Venus has set, the bridegroom and bride would die.

5. A marriage is not commendable when the Sun is in the house of Jupiter or Jupiter is in the house of the Sun.

6. The marriage should be postponed by three fortnights or by four months respectively when there is transit (of a planet from one house to another) or retrograde motion (of a planet). A vow or marriage should not be done when there is retrograde motion or transit of Jupiter.

7. (Marriages done) in (the months of) Caitra (April-May), Pauṣa (January-February) on the riktā days (fourth, ninth and the fourteenth day of a fortnight) or when (lord) Hari (Viṣṇu) is asleep, or on Tuesdays and Sundays or on the new moon day would bring forth unfavourable result. But the twilight (time) is auspicious.

8. A marriage is said to be commendable in the asterisms rohīṇī, uttarā, mūla, svātī, hasta and revatī (when the Sun is) in Libra or Gemini.

9. One should avoid a viddharkṣa[4] in celebrating a marriage, piercing the ears, vow, rite to determine the sex of a child before its birth, the first feeding of the child, and the tonsure.

10. The rite to determine the sex of the child before its birth should be done in (the asterism) śravaṇa, mūla and puṣya, on Sundays, Tuesdays and Jupiter and in (the signs of) Aquarius, Leo and Pisces.

11. The discharge of a debt (should be done) in (the asterisms) hasta, mūla, mṛga(śīrṣa) and revatī and on Wednesday and Friday. The (rite of) chewing of betal leaf should be done on Sunday, Monday, Thursday and Friday and in (the asterism) mūla.

12. The first feeding (of a child) (should be done) on a Friday or Thursday or in (the asterism) mṛga (śīrṣa) in (the sign of) Pisces, in the five asterisms (beginning with hasta (citrā and svātī) and in the three asterisms beginning with kṛttikā (rohiṇī and mṛgaśīrṣa).

13. New fruits and food should be eaten in (the asterisms of) aśvinī or revatī, puṣya, hasta, jyeṣṭha, rohiṇī, śravaṇa and aśvinī.

14. Medicine should be administered in (the asterisms of) svāti, saumya (name of the five stars in orion’s head), the three pūrvas (Pūrvaphālgunī, pūrvabhādrapada and pūrvāṣāḍha, maghā, yāmya (bharaṇi) and the three (beginning with) śravaṇa which are auspicious.

15-20. One should bathe first after becoming free from illness on Tuesday or Sunday or Saturn. One should write eight times the syllable ‘hrīṃ’ and the name (of the enemy) in the middle and the (names of the eight) vasus as well as the (syllable) hrīṃ in the (eight) angular points on a Tuesday and wear it in his cloth on the neck with the gorocanā (pigment got from the cow) and saffron. It is certain that one’s enemies get subjugated by this mantra. Śrīṃ hrīṃ is the protective (mantra) when the (mantras) śrīṃ and hrīṃ are written on the bhūrja leaf as stated above in the eight (points) together with gorocanā and saffron and covered by turmeric. (Similar writing) on a stone slab kept buried under the soil with its face downwards nullifies them. Oṃ hūṃ saḥ is the mantra. This mantra written on a bhūrja leaf along with gorocanā and saffron wards off death. The first, fifth and ninth houses confer satisfaction and second, sixth and twelfth confer general welfare.

21-23. The third, seventh and eleventh cause acquisition; fourth, eighth and twelfth cause enmity. (The twelve houses Meṣa etc. denote) respectively the body, wealth, brothers, friendship, progeny, enmity, wife, death, righteousness, activity, income and expenditure. One should speak about the nine tārābala[5] (as follows): the janma (birth), sampat (prosperity), vipat (misfortune), kṣema (welfare), pratyari (enmity), sādhaka (seeker or accomplisher), nidhana (death), mitra (friend) and paramamitra (close friend).

24. The first shave (of a child) is commended on Sunday, Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday in the six months commencing with Māgha (February-March).

25-26. The karṇavedha (piercing of the ear) (should be done) on Wednesday and Thursday in the (asterisms of) puṣya, śravaṇa and citrā. The commencement of study in the fifth year (should be done) after worshipping (lord) Hari (Viṣṇu) and (goddesses) Vāṇī (goddess of speech) and Śrī (Lakṣmī, goddess of wealth), avoiding the sixth, first and the fifteenth, the rīktā days (fourth, ninth and fourteenth days) and Tuesday. The tying up of the girdle is auspicious (if done) in the six months commencing with Māgha.

27-31. The tonsure and other (rites) are not commended in (the asterisms) śravaṇa etc. The investiture of a brahmin (boy) performed when the Jupiter or Venus has set and the Moon is waning brings forth death or stupidity. The rite marking conclusion of the study should be done on an auspicious day, in the asterism suitable for shaving, at an auspicious place on the rising constellations in a good house. The imparting of the science of archery in the asterisms aśvinī, maghā, citrā, svātī, yāmya (bharaṇī), uttarā, punarvasu and puṣya is commendable. One who desires to live should not wear new clothes in the asterisms bharaṇī, ārdrā, maghā, āśleṣā, kṛttikā and uttaraphālgunī. (Wearing of new) clothes on Wednesday, Thursday and Friday is not objectionable at (the time of) marriage (and other festive occasions).

32. Wearing of gems like conch-shell and coral is commendable in (the asterisms of) revatī, aśvinī, dhaniṣṭhā, and the five commencing with hasta.

33. Anything bought in (the asterisms of) bharaṇī, sarpa (a particular constellation), dhaniṣṭhā, the three pūrva (pūrva-phālguni, pūrvabhādrapada and pūrvāṣāḍha) and vāruṇa (śatabhiṣak) causes adversity. Also its sale causes adversity.

34. Anything bought in (the asterisms of) aśvinī, svātī, citrā, revatī and śatabhṣak and on Sunday causes profit. If anything is sold (on the days ruled by these asterisms) causes adversity.

35. An employer should not be attended upon in (the asterisms of bharaṇī, the three pūrvas (see verse 33 above), ārdrā, āśleṣā, maghā, svātī, kṛttikā, jyeṣṭhā and viśākhā.

36. Money is deposited or articles are given or taken back in (the asterisms of) uttara, śravaṇa and śākra (jyeṣṭha). The coronation of a king should be done (in these asterisms).

37. Entering a house (for the first time) is auspicious in the months other than Caitra (April-May), Jyeṣṭha (June-July), Bhādra (Bhādrapada) (September-October), Āśvina (October-November), Pauṣa (January-February) and Māgha (February-March).

38. The commencement (of the construction) of a house in (the asterisms of) aśvinī, rohiṇī, mūla, the three uttaras (uttaraphalguni [=uttarāphalgunī?], uttarabhādrapada, and uttarāṣāḍha), mṛgaśīrṣa, svātī, hasta and anurādhā is commendable.

39-40. Sundays and Tuesdays should be avoided for (the excavation of) a tank or (the construction of) a palace. So also the building of a house should be avoided when Jupiter is in Leo or in (the conjunction of) Jupiter and Sun or in an intercalary month or when Venus is in the transit ascension or descension or has set. (It would cause) burning by fire, fear, disease, affliction from the sovereign or loss of wealth.

41. Hay should be gathered in the five (asterisms of śravaṇa etc.). One should enter the (new) house in the asterisms of dhaniṣṭhā, uttarā and vāruṇa (śatabhiṣak).

42. The second, third, fifth, seventh and thirteenth days (of a fortnight are commendable) for the construction of a boat. A sovereign should be seen in (the asterisms of) hasta, revatī and aśvinī.

43. Pilgrimage undertaken in (the asterisms of) the three uttara (uttarāṣāḍha, uttaraphālgunī, and uttarabhādrapada), dhaniṣṭhā, ārdrā, kṛttikā, saumya (mṛgaśīrṣa), viśākhā, āśleṣā and aśvinī accomplishes prosperity.

44-47. One should not graze the cows in the three (asterisms of) uttarā, rohiṇī or on sinīvālī caturdaśī (day prior to new moon) or in (the asterisms of) śravaṇa, hasta, citrā and vaiṣṇavī (śravaṇa). One should not enter (the cow-pen) in (the asterisms of) anila (svātī), uttarā, rohiṇī, mṛga (śīrṣa), punarvasa, śravaṇa and hasta. One should do agriculture in (the asterisms of) punarvasu, uttarā, svātī, Bhaga (pūrvaphālgunī), mūla, Indra (pūrvāṣāḍha) and vāruṇa (śatabhiṣak) or on Thursday or Friday or Monday or Sunday or in (the zodiacal signs of) Taurus, Virgo and Gemini.

48-51. One who desires fortune should sow seeds except that of the mandāra (coral) on the second, third, fifth, seventh, tenth and thirteenth (days of the fortnight) and in (the asterisms of) revatī, rohiṇī, Indra (pūrvāṣāḍha), Agni (kṛttikā), hasta, maitra (anurādha) and uttarā. Harvest of grains should be done in (the asterisms of) revatī, hasta, mūla, śravaṇa. Bhaga (pūrvaphālguni [=pūrvaphālgunī?]), maitra (anurādhā), pitṛdaiva (maghā) and saumya (mṛgaśīrṣa). One should take them into the house at the time of the rise of (the asterism) mṛgaśīrṣa or in (the asterisms of) hasta, citrā, Aditi (punarvasu), svātī, revatī or in the three stars (commencing with) śravaṇa or in a fixed sign or on Thursdays, Fridays and Wednesdays or in (the asterisms of) yāmya (bharaṇī) Aditi (punarvasu), maghā, jyeṣṭhā and uttara.

52. (The following mantras) written on a leaf and placed amidst the heap of grains in (the asterisms of) the three pūrvas (pūrvāṣāḍha, pūrvaphālgunī and pūrvabhādrapada), viśākhā, dhaniṣṭhā and vāruṇa (śatabhiṣak) increases the grains “Oṃ, (salutation) to the bestower of wealth and the lord of all wealth. Give me wealth. Oblations. O goddess Ilā (Lakṣmī)! One who makes the world thrive! The desire incarnate! Grant me wealth in the new year! Oblations.

53. Wisemen know that grains should be taken out in the (above) six asterisms. Tanks, gardens and (images of) gods should be consecrated when the Sun is in the Cancer. (Lord) Cakrapāṇi (the wielder of the disc) (Viṣṇu) should always be laid down when the Sun is in the (sign of) Gemini and it is the twelfth day after the new moon.

54. When the Sun is in the (sign of) Leo and in Libra and the two twelfth days after the new-moon, the first is the day of getting up of (lord) Indra and (the second one) is the waking up of (lord) Hari.

55-57. Similarly, (the goddess) Durgā is made to get up when the Sun enters (the sign of) Virgo. When a bhadrātithi (the second, seventh and twelfth days of a lunar fortnight) occurs on a Tuesday, Sunday or Saturday and is marked by three fourth of a constellation that (combination) is known as tripuṣkara. All ceremonies should be done when the moon and star are pure.

58. One has to forecast prosperity for those in whose (chart), the Moon is situated in the sixth, seventh, tenth or eleventh house from the ascendant.

59-60. The second, fifth and ninth in the bright fortnight brings good. The asterisms are (known to be) friendly, extremely friendly, accomplisher of riches and welfare etc. (The one known as friendly) causes death by its ascendancy. That which is calamitous (causes) destruction of wealth. One should know that which is pratyari (enemy) (causes) death. One gets death in that which is (known as) destruction.

61. The period from the eighth day of the dark (fortnight) till the eighth day of the bright (fortnight), the moon is known to be waning and is known to be full thereafter.

62. It is known to be mahājyaiṣṭhī if the Sun is in (the signs of) Taurus or Gemini and Jupiter is in (the asterisms of) mṛgaśīrṣa or jyeṣṭhā and the full moon (occurs) on a Thursday.

63. It is also called mahājyaiṣṭhī when Jupiter and Moon are in (the asterism of) jyeṣṭhā and the Sun is in (the asterism of) rohiṇī on the full moon day in the month of jyeṣṭhā (June-July).

64. The banner of (lord) Indra fastened to the support should be hoisted in (the asterism of) svāti. It should be lowered down after a week in (the asterism of) aśvinī and in the sign of Leo.

65. When the Sun is eclipsed by Rāhu (the ascending node) any gift is deemed to be gold, all the brahmins are equal to (lord) Brahmā and all the waters are equal to Gaṅgā.

66. O Brahmins! The entry of the Sun in the different signs is known by the names of dhvāṅkṣī, mahodarī, ghorā, mandā, mandākinī and rājasī.

67. If the Sun passes (from one sign to the other) in the karaṇas (divisions of a day) bālava, kaulava and taitila, then the people would be happy.

68. People would suffer from poverty and harassment by the sovereign if (the Sun) enters (the astral combinations known as) gara, vava, vaṇik, viṣṭi, kintughna and śakuna.

69. If the Sun makes a transit in lying position in catuṣpada, viṣṭi or vāṇijya (karaṇas[6] or divisions of the day), it would cause famine or war between sovereigns or quarrel among husbands and wives.

70. If (the Sun) stays in one’s birth-star it would cause disease or mental aṅguish, while (its presence) in the asterisms of kṛttikā and rohiṇī would cause misery for nine nights and three nights respectively.

71-76. It is said that the transit in (the asterism of) mṛgaśira (causes misery) for five nights, in iirdrā (causes) death, and in punarvasu or puṣya (causes) (misery) for seven nights. Its entry in (the asterism of) āśleṣā (causes misery) for nine nights, in maghā (causes misery) until one’s death, in pūrvaphālgunī (causes misery) for two months and in uttarā (causes misery) for fifteen (days). While the sun is in (the asterism of) hasta, the (asterisms) citrā, svāti and viśākhā would bring misery for a fortnight, two months and twenty days respectively. Its transit in (the asterisms of) anurādhā, jyeṣṭhā, mūla and pūrvāṣāḍha (would cause misery) for ten days, a fortnight, no relief (from misery) or fifteen days respectively. (The Sun’s transit) in (the asterisms of) uttarā, śravaṇa, dhaniṣṭā and śatabhiṣak (would cause misery) for twenty days, two months, fifteen days or ten days respectively. There will not be relief (from misery) if it enters (the asterism) bhādrapada. (The Sun’s transit) in (the asterisms of) uttarā, revatī and aśvinī would (cause misery) for fifteen days or ten days or a single day respectively.

77. Its transit in (the asterism) bharaṇī causes danger to life and it becomes auspicious by doing oblations with the gāyatrī (mantra). Making a gift of a cow with five kinds of grains, sesamum, clarified butter to a brahmin compensates (the evil influences).

78-79. The periods of influence of the Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Saturn, Jupiter, Rāhu and Venus are six, fifteen, eight, seventeen, ten, nineteen, twelve and twentyone years respectively.

Footnotes and references:


The sixth and eighth; counting from the ascendant in the horoscope of the proposed life partners the ascendant in the other person’s horoscope gives sixth or eighth.


The second and twelfth; counting as before which gets the second or twelfth.


The trine, Leo, Taurus, Virgo, Sagittarius, Libra and Aquarious are the trines for the planets sun etc.


Certain asterisms said to be opposed to certain other asterisms.


Counting from the birth asterism to the asterism of that day that number should be divided by nine, the remainder indicates the tārābala as shown above.


These are different karaṇas or eleven divisions of the day.

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