Uttarakuru, Uttara-kuru, Uttarākuru, Uttārakkūṟu: 25 definitions


Uttarakuru means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Uttarakuru in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु).—A part of the Jambūdvīpa (Island of Jambū). Mention is made in the Mahābhārata that during his conquest Arjuna had gone up to this place and carried away from there plenty of wealth. It is believed by common people that this place is inaccessible to human beings. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 28, Stanzas 7 to 20). The southern end of this place is the Nīlagiri and the Northern end Mount Meru. The inhabitants are gifted people, with trees bearing flowers and fruits, the flowers fragrant and the fruits sweet.

A particular type of tree known as Kṣīrī (milky) grows here from which milk will flow. There are also trees which will give you whatever you ask. It was the belief of ancient people that with the fruits of Kṣīrī, you could make garments and ornaments. The soil of this place contains gems and in the sand there is gold. Those who fall down from heaven live in this region. The average age of the inhabitants of this place is said to have been eleven thousand years. There is a kind of bird in this place called Bhāruṇḍa. These birds drag dead bodies away to caves. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 8, Stanzas 2 to 13).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु).—Traversed by the river Bhadrā; a continent adjoining Meru, in the hill of Suparśva north of Śṛngavat and south of the sea. Here Hari revealed himself as Varāha (matsya, vi.) and mother Earth praised him by Upaniṣad naming him yajña and kratu.1 Conquered by Parīkṣit.2 Full of milk trees; women-folk excel apsaras; people are born in pair (mithuna) and love each other as Cakravāka birds. Here Aila lived for some time with Urvaśī.3 A sacred tīrtha.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 17. 8; 18. 34, 39; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 15. 51, 71-80; Vāyu-purāṇa 34. 57; 35. 44, 47; 41. 85, 42. 77; 49. 120; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 2, 14, 38, 50.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 16. 13.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 124; III. 59. 46; 66. 7; Matsya-purāṇa 83. 34; 105. 20; 113. 44; 123. 25; Vāyu-purāṇa 91. 7.
  • 4) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 50.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Uttarakuru in Kavya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—In the Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata, Tibet and eastern Turkistan were included in this Uttarakuru. The Purāṇas consider this to be a varṣa surrounding the varṣa-parvata Śṛṅgvan, which is the third mountain range from the Mahāmeru in the north. YV Rājaśekhara also accepted this same view.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Uttarakuru in Hinduism glossary
Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु) play a mythical part in the Epic and later literature, are still a historical people in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, where they are located beyond the Himālaya (pareṇa Himavantam). In another passage, however, the country of the Uttara Kurus is stated by Vāsiṣṭha Sātyahavya to be a land of the gods (deva-kṣetra), but Jānaṃ-tapi Atyarāti was anxious to conquer it, so that it is still not wholly mythical. It is reasonable to accept Zimmer’s view that the northern Kurus were settled in Kaśmīr, especially as Kurukṣetra is the region where tribes advancing from Kaśmīr might naturally be found. Cf. Udīcyas.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Uttarakuru in Theravada glossary
Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A country often mentioned in the Nikayas and in later literature as a mythical region. A detailed description of it is given in the Atanatiya Sutta. (D.iii.199ff; here Uttarakuru is spoken of as a city, pura; see also Uttarakuru in Hopkins: Epic Mythology, especially p.186). The men who live there own no property nor have they wives of their own; they do not have to work for their living. The corn ripens by itself and sweet scented rice is found boiling on hot oven stoves. The inhabitants go about riding on cows, on men and women, on maids and youths. Their king rides on an elephant, on a horse, on celestial cars and in state palanquins. Their cities are built in the air, and among those mentioned are Atanata, Kusinata, Natapuriya, Parakusinata, Kapivanta, Janogha, Navanavatiya, Ambara Ambaravatiya and Alakamanda, the last being the chief city.

The king of Uttarakuru is Kuvera, also called Vessavana, because the name of his citadel (? rajadhani) is Visana. His proclamations are made known by Tatola, Tattala, Tatotala, Ojasi, Tejasi, Tetojasi, Sura, Raja, Arittha and Nemi. Mention is also made of a lake named Dharani and a hall named Bhagalavati where the Yakkhas, as the inhabitants of Uttarakuru are called, hold their assemblies.

The country is always spoken of as being to the north of Jambudipa. It is eight thousand leagues in extent and is surrounded by the sea (DA.ii.623; BuA.113). Sometimes it is spoken of (E.g., A.i.227; v.59; SnA.ii.443) as one of the four Mahadipa - the others being Aparagoyana, Pubbavideha and Jambudipa - each being surrounded by five hundred minor islands. These four make up a Cakkavala, with Mount Meru in their midst, a flat world system. A cakkavattis rule extends over all these four continents (D.ii.173; DA.ii.623) and his chief queen comes either from the race of King Madda or from Uttarakuru; in the latter case she appears before him of her own accord, urged on by her good fortune (DA.ii.626; KhA.173).

The trees in Uttarakuru bear perpetual fruit and foliage, and it also possesses a Kapparukkha which lasts for a whole kappa (A.i.264; MA.ii.948). There are no houses in Uttarakuru, the inhabitants sleep on the earth and are called, therefore, bhumisaya (ThagA.ii.187-8).

The men of Uttarakuru surpass even the gods of Tavatimsa in four things:

they have no greed (amama) (the people of Uttarakuru are acchandika, VibhA.461), no private property (apariggaha), they have a definite term of life (niyatayuka) (one thousand years, after which they are born in heaven, says Buddhaghosa, AA.ii.806) and they possess great elegance (visesabhuno).

They are, however, inferior to the men of Jambudipa in courage, mindfulness and in the religious life (A.iv.396; Kvu.99).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Uttarakuru in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु).—According to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV). Accordingly, “people born in the blissful abodes (sukha-sthānaja) often lack exertion (vīrya), intelligence (medhā) and wisdom (prajñā). This is why people of Yu yan lo wei (Uttarakuru) are so happy that among them there are no monks (pravrajita) or followers of the precepts (śīlamādana)”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु) is the name of a deity or entity to which is given homage to [i.e., oṃ vaṃ uttarakurave namaḥ], according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Uttarakuru in Jainism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु) is the name of a region situated between the mountains Gandhamādana and Mālyavat. These two mountains are located to the north of mount Meru and south of mount Nīla, which is one of the seven mountain ranges (varṣadharaparvata) of Jambūdvīpa according to Jaina cosmology. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु) refers to an ancient land, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Uttarakuru refers to one of the various Bhogabhūmis or Akarmabhūmis, which refers to worlds where the inhabitants are twins, and everything is supplied by wishing-trees.—(cf. Pravacanasāroddhāra 1054 f., P. 311.)

Accordingly, “[...] as a result of his gift to the Munis [Dhana] became a twin in the Uttarakurus, who have the period of pure happiness present, on the north bank of the river Sītā, to the east of the Jambū tree. There people wish to eat at the end of the fourth day, and have two hundred fifty-six ribs. They are born as twins, are three gavyūtis tall, live for three palyas, bear children toward the end of life, have slight passions, and are free from self-interest. After they have reared their twin-offspring for forty-nine days they die, and are reborn among the gods. Among the Utttarakuras the land is naturally beautiful, with sand as sweet as sugar and waters resembling autumn-moonlight”.

2) Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु) refers to one of the 32 mountains between the lotus-lakes situated near the four Añjana mountains, which are situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3.—Accordingly, “In the four directions from each of the Añjana Mountains there are lotus-lakes, 100,000 yojanas square: [...]. Between each two lotus-lakes there are 2 Ratikara Mountains so there are 32 Ratikara Mountains (e.g., Uttarakuru). On the Dadhimukha Mountains and on the Ratikara Mountains, there are eternal shrines of the Arhats, just as on the Añjana Mountains likewise at the intermediate points of the continent there are 4 Ratikara Mountains, having a length and width of 10,000 yojanas, and a height of 1,000 yojanas, made of all kinds of jewels, divine, the shape of a jhallarī. [...] In them (i.e., the 32 Ratikara Mountains, e.g., Uttarakuru) the gods with all their splendor together with their retinues make eight-day festivals in the shrines on the holy days of the holy Arhats”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु) refers to one of the two most most auspicious of bhogabhūmi (regions of enjoyment). These Bhogabhūmi apply to various regions situated within Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10. The five Uttarakuru regions in which inhabitants live have a happy-happy period (1st time period) always. There the inhabitants have a life span of three palya, height of their bodies is 6000 arrows, they take food once after an interval of three days, and their bodies are of golden colour which is similar to that in the Devakuru in southern region.

Jambūdvīpa (where Uttarakuru is situated) is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre. Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans. Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु) refers to the “northern Kurus” and is the name of a locality mentioned in the Gupta inscription No. 22. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Uttarakuru or the country of the Northern Kurus, is supposed to be a region beyond the most northern range of the Himālaya mountains, and is described as a country of everlasing happiness.

Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism

1) Uttarākuru (उत्तराकुरु) or “Northern Kuru” refers to one of the two districts of Kuru: one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas of the Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—In the ancient literature mention is made of two Kuru countries, Uttarākuru and Dakkhiṇakuru. The Kuru country mentioned in the Ṛg-veda is probably the Uttarākuru of later times which is alluded to in Pāli literature as a mythical region. Its extent is, however, given as 8,000 yojanas. References to the southern Kuru country are frequent in Buddhist literature. The Papañcasūdanī says that there was a Janapada named Kuru and its kings used to be called Kurus.

2) Uttarākuru (उत्तराकुरु) is also the name of a locality situated in Uttarāpatha (Northern District) of ancient India.—Uttarakuru is often mentioned in Pāli literature as a mythical region. It has also been mentioned in Vedic and later Brahmanical literature as a country situated somewhere north of Kashmīr.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Uttarakuru in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु).—m n (S) One of the nine divisions of the globe, the country around the north-pole; the arctic circle.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Uttarakuru in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु).—(m. pl.) one of the nine divisions of the world, the country of the northern Kurus (said to be a country of eternal beatitude).

Uttarakuru is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms uttara and kuru (कुरु).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु).—if Senart's text is right, in Mahāvastu i.103.10 designates an inferior region or people in which successful Bodhisattvas are not reborn: °ruṣu nopapadyanti (along with pretas, asuras, and animals). But mss. all vary: utte ca kuruṣu, uttame ca kuleṣu, (one only) uttara ca kuruṣu. Doubtful. As name of one of the dvīpas, see dvīpa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु).—mn. (-ruḥ-ru) Uttarakuru, the country about the north pole. E. uttara northern, and kuru the nothern part of the globe.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु).—[masculine] [plural] the northern Kurus.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु):—[=uttara-kuru] [from uttara > ut-tama] m. n. one of the nine divisions of the world (the country of the northern Kurus, situated in the north of India, and described as the country of eternal beatitude).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु):—[uttara-kuru] (ruḥ-ru) 1. m. n. Country about the North-pole.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Uttarakuru.

[Sanskrit to German]

Uttarakuru in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Uttarakuru in Prakrit glossary
Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Uttarakuru (उत्तरकुरु) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Uttarakuru.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Uttarakuru in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Uttarakuru (ಉತ್ತರಕುರು):—[noun] one of the nine divisions of the world, in mythological era (said to have been to the north of Himalayas).

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Tamil dictionary

[«previous next»] — Uttarakuru in Tamil glossary
Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Uttarakuru (உத்தரகுரு) [uttara-kuru] noun < idem. + kuru. One of six blissful regions of beatitude or pōka-pūmi, q.v., where the fruits of good karma are enjoyed; போகபூமிவகை. உத்தரகுருவி னொப்பத் தோன்றிய [pogapumivagai. utharaguruvi noppath thonriya] (சிலப்பதிகாரம் அரும்பதவுரை [silappathigaram arumbathavurai] 2, 10).

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Uttarakuru (உத்தரகுரு) [uttara-kuru] noun < idem. +. (அகராதி நிகண்டு [agarathi nigandu])

1. Arundhatī, wife of Vasiṣṭha; அருந் ததி. [arun thathi.]

2. The Pāṇḍavas; பாண்டவர். [pandavar.]

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Uttārakkūṟu (உத்தாரக்கூறு) [uttāra-kūṟu] noun < uddhāra +. Partition of ancestral property; பாகப்பிரிவினை. [pagappirivinai.] (சுக்கிர நீதி [sukkira nithi], 12.)

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Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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