Murchana, Mūrchana, Mūrchanā: 14 definitions


Murchana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Murchhana.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Mūrchana (मूर्छन) refers to the process of “swooning”, a specific processes used for rendering mercury fit for internal use. It is used throughout Rasaśāstra literature, such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara.

Source: History of Indian Science Technology (rasashastra)

Mūrchana (मूर्छन, “swooning”) refers to “swooning or making mercury lose its form” and represents to the third of eighteen alchemical purification processes of mercury (mahārasa, rasendra or pārada). A religio-philosophic base was given to mercury-based alchemy in India. Mercury was looked upon as the essence of God Śiva, and sulphur as that of Goddess Pārvatī.

Mercury had to undergo 18 processes (e.g., mūrchana) before it could be used for transforming either metals or the human body. A combination of male and female principles (i.e. mercury and sulphur) forming cinnabar or mercuric sulphide or even of mercury and mica, was supposed to be highly potent and was therefore consumed as a Rasāyana or medicine for increasing body fluids or vitality. The earliest mention of Rasāyana was found in Āyurveda which was probably composed by 8th or 9th century BC, since it was a part of Atharvaveda, the last of the four Vedas.

Source: Ayurveda and Pharmaceutics (rasashastra)

Mūrchana (swooning).—One of the eight Aṣṭasamskāra, or, processes that render mercury fit for internal use. These Aṣṭasamskāra of pārada (eight detoxification techniques for mercury) are mandatory before mercury is used in the pharmaceutical preparations. In the Mūrchana, mercury mixed with jaggery, rock salt etc. is rubbed for three days in khalva (crucible) and then washed with warm water. In the process of mūrchana mercury is mixed with three myrobalans (triphala), aloe etc. is rubbed for another three days before taking it to utpātana process. In this ensuing process distillation apparatus (tiryakpātana) is used.

Source: CCRAS: Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, Appendix I

Mūrchana (मूर्छन):—The third of the eight purification steps of Pārada (mercury), also known as the Aṣṭasaṃskāra.—Take the ingredients numbered [iii] to [vi], dry, powder and pass through sieve number 85. Add ingredient number [ii] and grind with sufficient quantity of water to prepare kalka. Add Pārada to the kalka and triturate for three days. (see the Rasahṛdayatantra 2.6: a 10th-century Sanskrit alchemical treatise by Govinda Bhagavatpāda).


  1. Pārada [Mercury] (1 part),
  2. Gṛhakanyā [Kumārī] (1/16th part of the Leaves),
  3. Harītakī (1/16th part of the Pericarp),
  4. Bibhītaka (1/16th part of the Pericarp),
  5. Āmalakī (1/16th part of the Pericarp),
  6. Citraka (1/16th part of the Roots),
Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Mūrchanā (मूर्छना) refers to “modulation” or “melody”: it is a regulated rise or fall of sounds through the grāma (or ‘musical scale’), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 28. Mūrchanā represents an aspect of musical notes (svara) arising from the vīṇā. These svaras (notes) represent an aspect of ‘musical performance’ (gāndharva), together with tāla (time-measure) and pada (verbal theme). Gāndharva is a combination of vocal music and the music of instruments (ātodya) employed in dramatic performance (nāṭya/ nāṭaka).

Source: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style (natya)

Mūrchanā (मूर्छना).—The recitation in ascending and in the descending of the seven svaras (musical notes) is called mūrchanā. These are seven in each of the three grāmas (scales). Mūrchanās are twenty-one in all.

The names of twenty-one mūrchanās are:

  1. uttarā,
  2. uttaramandrā,
  3. aśvakrāntā,
  4. sauvirā,
  5. nṛhṛṣyakā,
  6. uttarāyatā,
  7. rañjanī,
  8. hṛṣyakā,
  9. āpyāyinī,
  10. viśvabhṛtā,
  11. cāndrī,
  12. hemā,
  13. kapardinī,
  14. maitrī,
  15. candrāvatī,
  16. priyasandhani,
  17. naṭṭi,
  18. nandī,
  19. viśālā,
  20. sumukhī,
  21. citrāvatī,
Source: Natya Shastra

Mūrchanā (मूर्छना, “mode”) are of fourteen kinds in the two Grāmas.

Based on the ṣaḍja-grāma there are seven mūrchanās:

  1. Uttaramandrā,
  2. Rajanī,
  3. Uttarāyatā,
  4. Śuddhaṣaḍjā,
  5. Matsarīkṛta,
  6. Aśvakrāntā,
  7. Abhirudgatā.

The first notes of these are respectively: ṣaḍja, niṣāda, dhaivata, pañcama, madhyama, gāndhāra and ṛṣabha in the ṣaḍja-grāma.

Based on the madhyama-grāma there are seven mūrchanās:

  1. Sauvīrī,
  2. Hariṇāśvā,
  3. Kalopanatā,
  4. Śuddhamadhyā,
  5. Mārgavī,
  6. Pauravī,
  7. Hṛṣyakā.

The first notes of these are respectively madhyama, gāndhāra, ṛṣabha, ṣaḍja, niṣāda, dhaivata and pañcama.

Thus combined in different orders, the notes constitute fourteen mūrchanās of four classes, such as heptatonic (pūrṇa, lit. full), hexatonic (ṣaḍavakṛta), pentatonic (auḍavitīkṛta) and that including the overlapping note (sādhāraṇakṛta).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Google Books: Ayurveda Materia Medica

Mūrchanā (मूर्छना).—According to ayurvedic texts, raw oil has to be processed before it is used for the preparation of medicated oil. This processing is known as mūrchanā.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mūrchana (मूर्छन).—i. e. murch + ana, I. n. Modulation, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 4, 11. Ii. f. . 1. A melody, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 84. 2. A tone as placed in its scale, the seventh part of a scale, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 39, 9; [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 43.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mūrchana (मूर्छन).—[adjective] stunning; strengthening (—°). [neuter] increase, growth; [feminine] ā fainting, swooning; swelling or rising of sounds, intonation, note, tone or semitone (in the scale), melody.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mūrchana (मूर्छन):—[from mūrch] a mfn. stupefying, causing insensibility (applied to one of the 5 arrows of Kāma-deva), [Rāmāyaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) strengthening, augmenting, confirming, [Pañcarātra]

3) [v.s. ...] n. (mc.) and f(ā). fainting, swooning. syncope, [Suśruta; Kirātārjunīya [Scholiast or Commentator]]

4) [v.s. ...] n. (in music) modulation, melody, a regulated rise or fall of sounds through the Grāma or musical scale (ifc. f(ā). ), [Kāvya literature; Purāṇa; Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

5) [v.s. ...] n. vehemence, violence, prevalence, growth, increase (of diseases, fire etc.), [Mahābhārata]

6) [v.s. ...] n. (also f(ā). ) a [particular] process in metallic preparations, calcining quicksilver with sulphur, [Bhāvaprakāśa; Rasaratnākara]

7) b See p. 823, col. 3.

[Sanskrit to German]

Murchana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mūrchana (ಮೂರ್ಛನ):—[noun] = ಮೂರ್ಛನೆ [murchane].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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