The Natyashastra

by Bharata-muni | 1951 | 240,273 words | ISBN-13: 9789385005831

The English translation of the Natyashastra, a Sanskrit work on drama, performing arts, theater, dance, music and various other topics. The word natyashastra also refers to a global category of literature encompassing this ancient Indian tradition of dramatic performance. The authorship of this work dates back to as far as at least the 1st millenn...

Chapter XXXI - On the Time-measure (tāla)

1. The [instrument named] Tāla[1] is of the ‘solid’ class (ghana), and it relates to a division into Kalās (kalāpāta)[2] and to an observation of the tempo (laya).[3] Those who apply Tālas in a musical performance, should know Kalās to be the measure of time (tāla.)

2. The popular Kalā,[4] [together with] the Kāṣṭhā[5] and Nimeṣa[6], which has been accepted (lit. remembered) by the wise, is not the Kalā in [observing] the Tāla. The Kalā arising from the Tāla is different.

3. Five Nimeṣas will make one Mātrā[7], and the Kalā arises from the grouping of Mātrās. And five Nimeṣas are also to be known as [the period of] interval between [two] Kalās, at the time of singing. And from these again, the tempo is made according to the time of the Kalās [into which they (Mātrās) are divided].

4. The tempo (laya) is of three kinds: quick (druta), medium (madhya) and slow (vilambita)[8], and among these, the medium tempo determines the normal Kalā (pramāṇa-kalā).

5. This (i.e. the Kalā) is known to be of three kinds, and is determined, according to the wise, by the three Mārgas.[9] In the Citra [Style of Procedure] there should be three Mātrās, in the Vṛtti the twice of it, and in the Dakṣiṇa, its fourfold. These are the three [types of] Kalās. The Tāla is so called because it measures [time by a division] of [songs into] Kalās.

7. The Tāla is of two kinds: Caturasra[10] (lit. four-cornered) and Tryasra[11] (lit. three-cornered); but the origin of these two kinds, is the same.

8. Now listen about their twofold sources. They are the Cañcatpuṭaḥ[12] and the Cāpapuṭaḥ.[13]

9-10. From each of these, the Tāla of four or of two Kalās[14] proceeds. The Cañcatpuṭaḥ (Cañcatpuṭa) is known to be Caturasra, and the Cāpapuṭaḥ (Cāpapuṭa) is Tryasra. They consist of long and short syllables.

10-11. The Cañcatpuṭaḥ[15] will consist of two long syllables followed by one short syllable and the final Pluta syllable.[16]

11-12. The Cāpapuṭaḥ which is Tryasra, will consist of one long syllable followed by two short syllables and the final long syllable. A combination of these two, is called a mixed Tāla.

13-14. This (i.e. the mixed Tāla) includes the Ṣaṭpitāputrakaḥ[17] and the Pañcapāṇiḥ.[18] constituted according to long and short syllables occurring in their names. These in brief are the three kinds of Tāla.

14-15. [Their Pātakalā[19] will be as follows:] Sannipāta,[20] Śamyā,[21] Tāla, Śamyā; or Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla[22]; or Tāla Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā [in the Cañcatpuṭaḥ of one Kalā].

15-16. The Cañcatpuṭaḥ will, thus, be of three kinds: Sannipātādi,[23] Śamyādi[24] and Tālādi.[25]

16-17. The Sannipātādi will be Caturasra in the Nāṭya, and the Śamyādi will be applicable in the Āsāritas. And similarly the Tālādi in the Pāṇikā[26] and other [songs].

18. The three varieties of the Cañcatpuṭaḥ such as the Sannipātādi etc., will hold good in case of the Cāpapuṭaḥ [too].[27]

19. The Sannipātādi as well as the as other two, is strong in this (Cāpapuṭaḥ) and Tālas of six or of eight Kalās proceed from this (i.e. the Sannipātādi)[28].

20. Due to the Śamyā, Tāla and Praveśa, the another Tryasra is also produced. It is the Ṣaṭpitāputrakaḥ called the Pañcapāṇiḥ.[29]

21-22. [Its Pātakalā is as follows:] the first syllable is Pluta, the second short, the third and the fourth long, the fifth short and the final Pluta[30], and this is the Ṣaṭpitāputrakaḥ with its long and short syllables. It is also called the Pañcapāṇiḥ consisting of six Pātas and six syllables.

23. Its six Pātas are as follows: Sannipāta, Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā and Tāla.[31]

24. Another Tryasra variety of the Tālādi, is called the Saṃparkeṣṭākaḥ.[32] It consists of five long syllables including the initial and final Pluta syllables[33]. Its Pātas will be as follows: [Tāla][34], Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā and Tāla.

25. When the Tryasra will consist of all three heavy syllables and its Kalās will be as follows: Niṣkrāma, Śamyā and Śamyā, it will be called the Udghaṭṭaḥ.[35]

26-28. Thus, there should be the pure Cañcatpuṭaḥ etc. of one Kalā. Such Tālas have three varieties such as Yathākṣara,[36] Dvikala[37], and Catuṣkala,[38] each succeeding one being twice as long as its predecessor. The Caturasra Tāla is known to have three [special] varieties having respectively four, eight and sixteen Kalās.

28-29. The Tryasra Tāla has six [special] varieties having respectively three, six, twelve, twenty-four, forty-eight and ninety-six Kalās.

30-31. Thus, the Tryasra (ayugma) Tālas are of nine[39] kinds. And the Tāla [in general] is of two kinds: silent (lit. without sound) and audible (lit. having sound). Listen about the two uses[40] which they have. I am going to describe them.

31-32. [Of the two kinds], the silent Tāla has four varieties such as, Āvāpa, Niṣkrāma, Vikṣepa and Praveśaka.[41]

32-33. The audible Tāla is to be known as having four varieties such as Śamyā,[42] Tāla,[43] Dhruvā and Sannipāta[44].

33-34. I shall now speak in due order, of the movement of hands and fingers’ in relation to them, and their characteristics and measure.[45]

34-36. The Āvāpa is the curving of fingers pointing upwards[46], the Niṣkrāma is spreading out the fingers [of the palm] turned downwards[47]. Swiftly moving that (i.e. the palm turned downwards) to the right side is the Vikṣepa,[48] and the Praveśa[49] is the drawing away of the palm turned downwards.

36-37. After showing the Āvāpa (lit. the curving the fingers) one should be making the Niṣkrāma and then the Vikṣepa and next the Praveśana (Praveśa).

37-38. This is the rule when a combination [of Tālas] consists of four Kalās[50]. [For] the Niṣkrāma and the Praveśa [only will] make up two Kalās[51].

The alternate placing (lit. falling) of these, is known as the Pāta[52].

39-40. These are to be known Śamyā, Tāla and Sannipāta.[53] The Śamyā is of the right hand, the Tāla of the left hand, and the two hands coming together is the Sannipāta, and the Dhruvā is stopping (lit. falling) for a Mātrā, and it makes for the way of the Rāgas[54], and [moreover] the placing (lit. falling) of the three Kalās mentioned before, is also called Dhruvā.

41-42. In the Yathākṣara Tāla, it (the Dhruvā) will be a long syllable. The Tāla consisting of Yathākṣara Pātas is its ordinary (yathāsthita) type. With doubled long syllables it will consist of two Kalās. The doubling of two Kalās will make it consist of four Kalās.

43-44. I have [already finished] describing the Pāta arising in the Yathākṣara [Tāla]. Hence the Cañcatpuṭaḥ, the Cāpapuṭaḥ the Pañcapāṇiḥ[55] [types] have three varieties.

44-45. Apart from the Caturasra (yugma) and the Tryasra (ojas) types there are five kinds of Tālas. These are called the Udghaṭṭakaḥ[56] etc., and are of the mixed kind and they relate to the different limbs of songs.

45-46. These (i.e. the mixed Tālas etc.) may consist of five, seven, nine, ten or eleven Kalās[57], and are [hence] called miscellaneous Tālas.

46-47. These have no use in the seven kinds of songs[58] and in the Dhruvās.[59] And these are to be used by the singers in the Pravṛtta[60] etc.

47-48. I am [now] speaking about the theory that the Dhruvās will have the Caturasra and the Tryasra Tālas consisting [respectively] of eight and of six Kalās.[61]

48-51. [The Tāla of eight Kalās will be like this]: by the little finger[62] the Niṣkrāma and the Śamyā, by the little and the ring finger, the Niṣkrāma, the Tāla and the Śamyā, by the middle finger the Praveśa, and by the fore finger are shown the Niṣkrāma and the Sannipāta. This is the method of showing Kalās by fingers, in the Caturasra (yugma) Tāla.

51-53. [The Tāla of six Kalās will be like this]: by the little finger the Niṣkrāma, the Śamyā, the Tāla, and the Śamyā, and by the forefinger the Śamyā and the Sannipāta are to be shown. This is the method of showing Kalās by fingers in a Tryasra Tāla.

54-57. By the little finger the Niṣkrāma and the Praveśa, by the little and the ring fingers the Tāla and the Śamyā, by the middle finger the Niṣkrāma and the Tāla, by the forefinger the Niṣkrāma, the Śamyā and the Tāla, by the little finger the Praveśa, by the forefinger the Niṣkrāma and the Sannipāta.

58. This is the rule regarding the Tāla of four Kalās in terms of Āvāpa and Vikṣepa, shown by fingers mentioned above.

59. The Pādabhāgas consisting of two or four Kalās have been described [by me]. The four Pādabhāgas are technically called Mātrās[63].

60. These are the different varieties of the Cañcatpuṭaḥ, the Cāpapuṭaḥ and the Pañcapāṇiḥ Tālas.

61. Thus I have described in brief the Tālas which relate to the Āsārita[64] and the Vardhamāna[65] and to the body of other songs.

The Āsārita

62-63. Now I shall speak of the characteristics of the Āsāritas. In this, the master producer (lit. one who knows the art of production) first takes up the Cañcatpuṭaḥ with its long, short and Pluta syllables and then the twofold Pañcapāṇiḥ.

63-64. And in the preceding Tāla (i.e. the Cañcatpuṭaḥ) he puts the syllables as indicated by the latter [in it name].

Thus we get the same Pāta as follows: Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā., Tāla.

64-66. In the first syllable of the Pañcapāṇiḥ one should put in Sannipāta, then Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā and Tāla. And in the second syllable also, this is the rule in the Pañcapāṇiḥ. And the Sannipāta is to occur in case of the final Pluta. This is known by the wise as the short Yathākṣara Āsārita.

67-68. Now listen about the distribution of Pāta as described in the name of the Tālas. The ca (cañ) will indicate the Tāla, cat (lit. the second) the Tāla, pu again Śamyā, and the ṭa (ṭaḥ) the Tāla. Thus one should know the Cañcatpuṭaḥ, and the Pañcapāṇiḥ comes afterwards.

69-70. The ṣaṭ will indicate the Sannipāta, the pi the Tāla, the Śamyā, the pu the Tāla, the tra the Śamyā, ka (kaḥ) the Tāla. The same will hold good in case of the second, and then comes the Sannipāta.

The medium Āsārita

71. On combining here the long syllables this (the short Āsārita) will be the medium [Āsārita].[66]

71-73. The Kalā that will follow the doubling of the combined heavy syllables, should be applied in due order as before. And the medium [Āsārita] when doubled, is called the long Āsārita. In it, the Kalās will be double the number of that in the medium [Āsārita]. Their Vastu is characterised by the occurrence of Sannipātas.

The Layāntarita

74. I shall now speak of the characteristics of the Layāntarita. That which has the shortest Tāla, is called the Layāntarita. The Kāla differing on account of the time required for it, becomes a different Kalā.

75. The application of these Tālas gives special success, and in the Layāntarita, there occurs a difference there in words and in the tempo.

76. A combination of the Āsāritas, is called the Vardhamāna. Listen about its origin and characteristics as I am describing them.

77-78. After killing the terrible Dānavas, Rudra invented in the past the beautiful dance called the Tāṇḍava. Now the great-souled Bhūtas created at that time the Vardhamāna adorned with the Piṇḍībandhas.[67]

79. On seeing this, Śiva with his consort (Pārvatī) was much pleased, and he as well as the goddess gave them the best boon.

80. Those who perform the Vardhamāna as defined by him according to the traditional rules and order, will attain the proximity of Śiva [after their death],

81. This was seen by me for the purpose of the Piṇḍībandhas. Listen now about their characteristics.

82. Performed in the three Mārgas, such as the Vṛtti, Dakṣiṇa and Citra, the Vardhamāna which is constructed according to its own measure, is of two kinds.

The Āsāritas

83. Its measure has two aspects: one with the Tāla and the other without the Tāla. There are four parts (kaṇḍikā) in all the Āsāritas.

84. [Each] part in the Dhruvā is composed of Kalās by gods. The Mārgas are available (lit. joined) in the Vardhamāna.

85-87. The first [group] is made up of nine Kalās, the second (lit. the next) of eight Kalās, the third of sixteen Kalās and the fourth of thirty-two Kalās. Thus in the Vardhamāna each part is made up of a fixed [number of] Kalās and it is born of the [proper] Mārga and is devoid of tempo which is its minor limb.[68]

87-88. [The parts (kaṇḍikā) are made up] of one, two, three and four [Kalās] and by them (i.e. the Kalās) are made the Āsāritas in the Vardhamāna observing the [proper] Mārga and limbs of Tālas.

The Short Āsārita

88-89. After finishing the first part combined with the short (bāla) Tāla, one should make up the short Āsārita, of which the second half will be deficient in one Kalā.

89-90. If after finishing the second part, one adds to the first part in all its Kalās in the previous Tāla, then it becomes the Layāntara (°tarita) [in the Vardhamāna]. And Vardhamāna at that time should be done in the Citra Mārga and not in the Vṛtti.

91-92. Whether in the Vardhamāna or in other songs (lit. outside it) there is no short Āsārita in the Dakṣiṇa Mārga. From the short Tāla, as it doubles the number of syllables and applies other Mārgas, and regulates the time of dance, the Layāntara (°tarita) proceeds.

The medium Āsārita

92-93. The Tāla which I have prescribed in case of the short Āsārita, is wholly to be observed in the first two parts. The third, the second and the first [parts] will have the same number of Kalās. Then this will be the medium Āsārita.

The Long Āsārita

94. If the fourth part is made the first i.e. the parts are taken in an inverted order, and the four parts have an addition of four Kaläs to them, then it is called the long Āsārita.

95. When their application is taken in connexion with the Piṇḍībandhas, then each of their limbs (minor parts) is to be made distinct (lit. separate).

96. Mukha, Pratimukha, Deha and Saṃharaṇa are the four limbs[69] in all the Āsāritas.

97-98. The Upohana is the Mukha, the Yugma is the Pratimukha, the Ojaḥ is the Śarīra (Deha) and the Saṃhāra (°haraṇa). This is the serial order of the limbs and thus the Āsāritas consist of four limbs.

98-99. A song composed of the four[70] Āsāritas, is called the Vardhamānaka. The Vardhamāna is so called because of the [gradual] increase in it of the syllable (varṇa), Tāla, tempo (laya), the instrumental music and gestures, which lead to the embellishment of the performance of the dancers.

100-101. The body of the Vardhamāna and the Āsārita being mutually related [respectively] as effect and cause constitute each other. Just as the seed grows from the tree, and the tree [in its turn] from the seed, [here too], the same [law of] mutual causal connexion is applicable.

The Layāntarita

102. One Kalā being added to the short [Asarita] it gives rise to the Layā (=Layāntarita); and two Kalās being added [it becomes] the medium [Āsārita], and four Kalās being added [it is] the long [Āsārita].

The Short Āsārita

103. The rule of the Pāta for the short [Āsārita] is as follows: Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla, (lit. one turn of the Cañcatpuṭaḥ beginning with Śamyā),. Sannipāta, Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla, Sannipāta, Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla, (lit. two Pañcapāṇiḥ beginning with Śamyā).

104. This is the scheme of Tāla in the Layāntarita, and its characteristic growth has been mentioned before, and there will be here a difference of words and tempo.

105-106. (The text is corrupt, but it is clear that the schemes of Tāla for the medium and the long Āsārita occur here).

107. Those who have the short (lit. young) [Āsārita] as consisting of nine Kalās, are not supported by the good authorities. The placing of the Sannipāta [in it] has been made [by them] according to the rule of the Kalā.

108. For them the two Tālas at the Mukha of it (i.e., the short Āsārita) are regulated by the Dhruvā Pāta. I shall [now] speak of its [full] measure (māna) and [sequence of] long and short syllables.

109. The Mukhas of the long and the medium Āsāritas, the Layāntarita and the short Āsārita, will respectively consist of eight, seven, six[71] and five Kalās.

110-111. In the Upavahanas of the Āsārita [of all kinds] Āsāraṇās[72] to be employed are of eight syllables two long, four short, two long [for the short Āsārita], of twelve syllables two long, eight short, two long [for the Layāntarita], of sixteen syllables two long, twelve short, two long [for the medium Āsārita] and of twenty syllables, two long, sixteen short, two long [for the long Āsārita][73]. I shall now speak about the syllables which were sung in the past by Brahman. Example, (the text here is corrupt).

112. This rule of the Upavahana, depending on the arrangement of syllables in Kalās and in the sequence of their being long and short, has been prescribed in case of the Mukhas of the Āsāritas.

113. Thus I have described the extent and measurement [of the Upavahana]. In the Caturasra (yugma) there are four gaṇas, and in the Tryasra (oja) there are six gaṇas.

The Short Āsārita

114. In the Pañcapāṇiḥ and the Cāpapuṭaḥ (lit. the second) [the number of gaṇas] will be six and a half. Thus will be the short [Āsārita] in its syllables measured by Tālas. Ex. Devaṃ devaiḥ saṃstutam īśaṃ

daityair yakṣaiḥ praṇamita-caraṇaṃ,
trailokyahitam Īśaṃ Haraṃ
rudraṃ śaraṇam upagataḥ.

Tr. I have come to take refuge with Hara (Śiva)[74] the terrible one, the benefactor of the three worlds, who is worshipped as the Lord God by the gods, and to whose feet Daityas and Yakṣas bow down.

The Medium Āsārita

115-116. In the Cañcatpuṭaḥ (lit. the first Tāla) there should be eight regular gaṇas, and the gaṇas in the Ṣaṭpitā-putrakaḥ should be twelve, and in the third part of the Vastu[75] there should be thirteen gaṇas and a half[76]. These is the arrangement of syllables in the medium Āsārita;

Ex. Bhūtadhipatiṃ Bhaganetraharaṇam Īśam devair vandyaṃ suramakhamathanaṃ raudraṃ bhayadaṃ gaja-carmapaṭaṃ. Śambhuṃ tryakṣam jvalananibhajaṭaṃ bhujaṅga-parikaraṃ. Tridaśagaṇavṛṭaṃ daityair nityaṃ paripaṭhita-caritam amarapatinamitam abhimatasukhadaṃ Rudraṃ pītaṃ pitṛvananilayaṃ Gaṅgāplāvita-śobhanajaṭaṃ taṃ śaraṇaṃ gato’smi varadaṃ ca Maheśvaram[77].

Tr. I have come to take refuge with Maheśvara, the giver of boons, the lord of creatures, who took out Bhaga’s eyes, who is adorable to the gods, who destroys the sacrifice of the gods, who is terrible and fearful, who wears the hide of an elephant, who is the source of bliss, who is three-eyed and has matted hairs shining like fire, and who has serpents as his girdle, who is surrounded by gods, whose exploits are always recited by the Daityas, who is bowed to by the lord of gods, who gives one pleasures of one’s own choice, who is terrible, yellow, and is a dweller of the cremation ground, and whose beautiful matted hairs are soaked in water of the Ganges.

117-118. There should be first the Cañcatpuṭaḥ (= yugma) Tāla of sixteen gaṇas, next the Cāpapuṭaḥ (oja) Tāla of twenty-four gaṇas, and in the third there should be twenty-four gaṇas and a half.[78] These is the arrangement of syllables in the long Āsārita.

Ex. Amarapravaraṃ Madanāṅgaharam bhuvanaika-nātham abhayapradaṃ Tripuranāśakaraṃ devaṃ tam aham praṇataḥ. Surapitṛmunigaṇa-praṇatacaraṇaṃ pṛthivīsalilā-nalapavana-yajñādhipati-sūrya-candra-vyomākhyāḥ aṣṭau munibhir yasya kāryā proktāḥ trailokyaguruṃ tam acintyam ajaṃ vidyānilayaṃ bhairavarūpaṃ khaṭvāṅgadharaṃ sthityut-pattipralayanimittaṃ sūkṣmākṣam acintyam candrārdhadharam tilakārdhadharaṃ netrārdhadharam kucārdhadharaṃ kāntārdhadharam bahulair vividhair vidhṛtair vikaṭair muṇḍair vimukhair viṣamair pramathaiḥ parivṛtam Īśaṃ satataṃ praṇataḥ.[79]

Tr. I bow to the god (Śiva) the greatest deity, the destroyer of Madana’s body, the supreme master of the world, the giver of immunity from fear, and the destroyer of Tripura. I always bow to the Lord (Śiva) who is worshipped at his feet by gods, fathers and sages, who, the sages say, has created the eight [forms] known as the earth, water, fire, air, the master of sacrifices, the sun, the moon, and the space (lit. the sky), who is the preceptor of the three worlds, is beyond the reach of thought, is eternal (lit. without birth), the abode of knowledge, terrible in form, holder of khaṭvāṅga, the cause of existence, origin and destruction [of the world], who has subtle vision, who is unthinkable, who bears [in his person] half of a crescent, of a tilaka, of an eye, of breasts and of the beloved wife, and who is surrounded by many and various, aweful, shaven-headed, ugly and strange Pramathas.

119. The three varieties of Āsārita, have been described, viz., literal (yathākṣara), double (dvisaṃkhyāta) and triple (trisaṃkhyāta).[80]

120. The literal Āsārita is known to be made up of gaṇas of equal Varṇas doubled in observing Tālas, and its syllable are not repeated.[81]

121. The literal Āsārita (lit. that) when it is [once] repeated, is called the double Āsārita[82] and when twice repeated it is called the triple Āsārita.

122. In [ the Tāla of ] the Āsārita songs, one should make its [ Kalā ] of four etc., consist of gaṇas made up of four mātrās, their long and short syllables being as prescribed before.[83]

123-124. That which is of four mātrās in akṣaras will be two mātrās in Varṇas.[84] The Kalās in the Vṛtti [ Mārga ] will be twice that in the Citra Mārga. Hence, that Kalā which is of four mātrās in the measure of Varṇa in the Vṛtti [Mārga], will be doubled in the Dakṣiṇa [ Mārga ].

125. No change of the Mārga, is available as regards the syllables [ indicated by the name of Tālas ].[85] It is only due to doubling the Mātrā that the variation of Varṇas has been described.

126. This is mostly the rule relating to the Varṇa and the Tāla in Āsārita songs of the literal class.

127. In the double Āsārita the repetition (nivṛtti) should be made by adding half [gaṇa] to [the literal Āsārita], and in the triple Āsārita, the double one should be augmented by half [a gaṇa],

128. The double Āsārita should not be performed in the Citra Mārga, and the Triple one in the Vārtika Mārga.[86]

129. The triple Āsārita should be in the Dakṣiṇa Mārga[87], the double Āsārita in Vārtika Mārga[88] and the literal Āsārita in the Citra Mārga.[89] This is the fixed rule relating to Mārgas.

130. The rule of observing the Mārga in the triple Āsārita is, that it should begin in the Dakṣiṇa, and in repetition the Vṛtti and the Citra [are to be adopted] serially.

131-132. The double Āsārita too should be performed (lit. desired) according to this principle. Its performance may be in the Vṛtti or Dakṣiṇa Mārga. After considering the relative strength (lit. strength and weakness) of the different limbs of a Vastu, the expert musician should observe the repetition at its beginning, middle or conclusion.

133. When due to the composition of the Vastu, a Kalā becomes wanting at the repetition, then [ the singer ] should prolong the Varṇa till this Kalā is completed.

134. The needs for repetition are as follows: enrichment of the Varṇas and Alaṃkāras, rest for the producing organs, and the application of the Tattva[90] etc.

135. Thus I have mentioned the [ mutual ] connexion between the Varṇas, Tālas and syllables in [course of performing ] the Āsārita and the Vardhamāna.

The four limbs of the Vardhamāna

136. There are four limbs of the Vardhamāna [song], viz. Viśālā, Saṃgatā, Sunandā and Sumukhī.[91]

137. Of these, the first [limb] consist of nine Kalās, the second of eight, the third of sixteen and the last of thirty-two Kalās.[92]

138-139. The Upohana of the Viśālā consists of five Kalās, that of Saṃgatā of six Kalās, that of Sunandā of seven Kalās, and the Upohana of the Sumukhī is always eight Kalās.[93] I shall now speak of their sequence of long and short syllables.

140. In the Upohana[94] of the Viśālā there should be two long syllables first, then fourteen short ones, and finally a long syllable.[94] Ex. (The passage is possibly corrupt).

141. The sages have said that four more short syllables, and the three long ones [being added to this i.e. to the Upohana of the Viśālā], will make the Upohana of the Saṃgatā[95]. Ex. (missing).

142. The learned are to know that the rule about the Upohana of the Sunandā, is that it will have four short syllable, and three long syllables [more than that of the Saṃgatā,][96] Ex. (The passage is possibly corrupt).

143. The rule of Upohana of the Sumukhī, is that it is to be known as consisting of twenty-eight short and [three] long syllables.[97] Ex. (The passage is possibly corrupt.)

144. Because, from this, the notes [in a song] are carried forward, and because from this, songs proceed, this consisting of unmeaning (lit. dry) syllables, is called the Upohana (=Upavahana).

145. Or, because a performance is carried forward by means of acts beginning with sūcanā[98] this song depending on the musical instruments, is called the Upohana.

146. The Tāla of the Upohana in the Viśālā is as follows: Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla, Sannipāta.[99]

147. The Tāla in [the Upohana of] the Saṃgatā is the Cañcatpuṭaḥ of two Kalās, and this in its Tālādi variety, preceded by the Tāla of three Kalās (i.e. Udghaṭṭa), will be the Tāla of the Upohana of the Sunandā.[100]

148. The Tāla of the Upohana of the Sumukhī, will be the Cañcaṭputaḥ of two Kalās. Upohanas twice repeated [in each case] will make up the Kaṇḍikā.

149. Thus I have spoken of the four Upohanas. Now listen about the performance of the limbs from the beginning.

150. The Tāla of the Viśālā is as follows: Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla and Sannipāta of three Kalās.[101]

151. The Tāla of the Saṃgatā is Cañcatpuṭaḥ of two Kalās and that of the Sunandā is the same (i.e., Cañcatpuṭaḥ) of the four Kalās.[102]

152. And the Tāla of the Sumukhī should be the double[103] Cañcatpuṭaḥ (=yugma) of four Kalās together with two Sannipātas.

153. I have thus spoken of the Tālas in the individual limbs of the Vardhamāna songs. Now listen about them collected together.

154. First there should be the Viśālā produced with the shortest (lit. young) Tāla. The Tāla which has its end consisting of three Kalās, is the short (lit. young) Āsārita.

155. When after taking up (lit. making the Graha of) the Saṃgatā, one applies Viśālā in all its Kalās and couples it with the previous Tāla, then it is the Layāntarita.

156. Then one should perform the Sunandā and again the Saṃgatā and again Viśālā and next the Sumukhī.

157. The Tāla that has been mentioned in the short Āsārita, is wholly to be applied first at the beginning (lit. the rise) of the Kaṇḍikā.

158. Then after taking up (lit. making) the Graha of Sunandā one should perform Sunandā, Saṃgatā and Viśālā.

159. The Tāla that has been prescribed by me in case of the medium Āsārita, should be observed in the three Śamyās in case of the Sunandā and what follows.

160. And again Sumukhī, Sunandā and Saṃgatā should be performed (lit. is desired), and they should be applied beginning from the Sumukhī etc.

161. Then one should know about the end of Viśālā and of the repetitions (nivṛtti). The Tāla in the long Āsārita is either silent or audible.

162. The same [Tāla] should be performed in all [the limbs]. These are four Tālas prescribed in the combination of limbs. From a combination of these limbs the Vardhmāna is made (lit. desired).

163. The short (lit. youngest) [Āsārita] consists of nine Kalās, the Layāntara (=Layantarita) of seventeen Kalās, the medium [Āsārita] of thirty-three, and the long of sixty-five Kalās.[104]

164. This is the rule about the Tāla in all the Āsāritas. The Vardhamānaka is so called because of a [gradual] increase of Kalās due to [gradual] increase (vardhana) of syllables, and because of an increase of the Laya (tempo) in its successive phases.

165. In all the Āsāritas and the Vardhamāna songs the law of the syllables relates to an application of double the [ordinary] Tāla.

166-167. The Sannipāta without an end (?) occurs at the end, then the final Kalā should known as being made up of two mātrās. This is the characteristics of the Vardhamāna as described by me. I shall now give a tabular view of the brief characteristics of the Āsārita.

168. The wise prescribe the Dhruva [Tāla] in a Kalā which is not deficient. The remaining and final [Tālas] should be conforming to the syllables of the Tālas (i.e. the names of the Tālas).

169. There is no (i.e. should be no) Sāmya (=Śamyā?) in the pluta and short syllables represented by Dhruva Tāla......Samatva is prescribed by means of three Pātas.[105]

170. The Āsāritas, short medium and long are to be furnished (lit. made) with Tālas, Sannipātas, Śamyās and Dhruvas.[106]

*                         *                         *                         *

171. By doubling afterwards the Kalās of this (i.e. of the short Āsārita) the medium Āsārita consisting of Śamyā in the intervals of Tālas should be made.

172. In the first Vastu of the medium Āsārita there should be the Uttaraḥ (=Ṣaṭpitāputrakaḥ) Tāla leaving out the three Kalās, and in it there should be two complete repetitions (parivṛtta).[107]

173-175. [The Pāta of the medium Āsārita will be as follows]: Śamyā, Tāla of two Kalās, Śamyā of two Kalās, Tāla of one Kalā, Sannipāta of three Kalās, Tāla of thee Kalās, Śamyā of one Kalā, Tāla of two Kalās, Śamyā of two Kalās, Tāla of two Kalās, Sannipāta of three Kalās again. In the third [Vastu] there are Sannipātas of twelve Kalās at the end.

176. The first part of the medium Āsārita is said to consist of eight Kalās, the second of twelve Kalās and the third should have a part [of twenty-four Kalās] ending in a Sannipāta.

177. The Praveśa, Vikṣepa and Niṣkrāma made with fingers, which have been mentioned before, should all be observed by the experts in the medium Āsārita.

178. Now in the long Āsārita the wise should make the body made up of Śamyā and Tāla with proper tempo (laya) and [this body] should consist of sixty-five Kalās.

179. In it the Āvāpa, Niṣkrāma, Vikṣepa and Praveśaka of the fingers should consist [of groups] of four Kalās.

180. The long Āsārita should have groups of four Kalās with its Āvāpas and Vikṣepas, and its Vastu in other places will consist of seventeen Kalās beginning with Śamyā.[108]

181-183. [The Pāta of this Āsārita will be as follows:] Śamyā and Tāla of four Kalās, Śamyā of four Kalās, Tāla of two Kalās, Sannipāta of six Kalās, Tāla of six Kalās, Śamyā of two Kalās, Tāla of two Kalās, and Sannipāta of six Kalās.

184. This is the entire rule [of Tālas] in the third Sannipāta, but at the end I shall speak of the throw of fingers [indicating them].

185-188. Āvāpa, Śamyā, Niṣkrāma, Vikṣepa, Tāla, Āvāpa, Niṣkrāma with the ring-finger, Vikṣepa, Śamyā, Āvāpa, Tāla, Vikeśepaṇa (Vikṣepa), Praveśa with the middle finger, Āvāpa and Niṣkrāma again Vikṣepa and Sannipāta, with the forefinger, these are the seventeen Kalās in the first Sannipāta.[109]

189-193.[110] Āvāpa, Nirgama (Niṣkrāma) with the little finger Vikṣepa, Praveśa, Āvāpa and Tāla with the ring and the little fingers, Tāla and Vikṣepa with the ring and the little fingers, Śamyā, Āvāpa and Niṣkrāma, Vikṣepa, and Śamyā with the forefinger, and these are the fifteen Kalās. and Āvāpa, Tāla, Viṣepa, Praveśa, Āvāpa, Niṣkrāma with the forefinger, Niṣkrāma, Vikṣepa, Sannipāta will make up the twenty-four Kalās [of the second Sannipāta].

194. This is the rule [of Tālas] in the third Sannipāta. This is the arrangement of fingers in showing the Tālas in the long Āsārita. There will be sixteen Kalās in the first Sannipāta, and twenty-four in the second and one more Kalā than this (i.e. the second) in the third Sannipāta. In each of these there should be ten or seven groups made up of Śamyā, Tāla as well as Sannipāta.

197-198.[111] In the first Vastu of the short and the medium Āsāritas, the other two are to be applied as [prescribed] before. The three Vastus [in them] will consist of six Śamyās, eight Tālas and three Sannipātas. One should know the Āsārita to consist of seventeen Pāta [Kalās].

198-200. Eight Tālas, six Śamyās and three Sannipātas are to be known [as used] in each of the Āsāritas. This is the description of the Āsārita spoken by me. [Now] I shall consider the application of the uses of the Vastus of songs. Next I shall speak about the characteristics of songs.

201-202. In the Vastus[112] and bodies of the songs there are limbs such as Vivadha,[113] Ekaka and Vṛtta.[114]

The Ekaka consists of one Vidārī, and the Vivadha of two and the Vṛtta not less than three and not more than six Vidārīs.

203. That which consists of Padas or Varṇas, is called a Vidārī.

And that which ends in the Nyāsa, Apanyāsa and Aṃśa is a Vastu.[115]

204. Because it splits (vidārayati) notes, it is called Vidārī[116] and it resembles heavy Varṇas.

205-206. The Vivadha and the Ekaka are generally used in the Madraka [song], in each half Vastu of the Prakarī, and in each quarter of the Rovindaka. But in the Rovindaka, Uttara, Ullopyaka, Pāṇikā, Bahirgītas and Lāsya, the Vṛtta is used.

207.[117] The Vṛtta is of two kinds: Pravṛtta and Avagāḍha. The Avagāḍha is due to being in an ascending scale and the Pravṛtta due to being in a descending scale.

208. Ascending as well as descending is of two kinds: one prescribed in connexion with the Nyāsa and the Apanyāsa [notes], and the other made in the Mārgāntara (=Āntaramārga? ).

209. Vidārīs in a song are said to be three[118] in the minimum and eleven in the maximum, [but] their highest number may [in rare cases] be twenty-four.

210. But in case of the Ullopyaka and the Vaihāyasa [the number of] Vidārīs will be half as much more in the third Sannipāta.

211. They are to be performed there with the Vivadha or the twofold Vṛtta, and the Aṅga will not come to a close in a half of the Sannipāta.

212. The Vivadha is said to have been of three kinds, viz. Sāmudga, Ardhasāmudga and Vivṛtta.

213. The Vivadha is always to be known as ending in the Nyāsa note except in the case of the Geyaka, and in the beginning of the Madraka the Sāmudga has been prescribed.

214. But the Geyaka in the Sāmudga should be applied like the short Varṇas. And applied at the end and in the third [Vidārī] it is called Geyaka.

216. When in application, one half of a Vidārīs is Similar to [one half of another Vidārī] and the other half is dissimilar [to the remaining half of it], it is called the Ardhasāmudga.

216. The Vidārī is uneven in the Nyāsa and the Apanyāsa, and its copious use is called the Vivṛtta.

217. The Vivadha, Ekaka and Vṛtta are respectively to end in the Nyāsa, the Apanyāsa and the Aṃśa [notes].

218. The Sannyāsa and the Vinyāsa notes occur in the middle of the Aṅga, and the Vinyāsa is known to occur in the middle of the Vidārī.

219. The Vinyāsa may rarely be at the end of a word in a Vidārī; but too much of it has not been prescribed by the experts.

The Seven Types of Songs

220. The Seven [traditional Types of] songs are the Madraka, Ullopyaka, Aparāntaka, Prakarī, Oveṇaka, Rovindaka and Uttara.[119]

The Madraka

221. [Among these] the Madraka[120] is of two kinds: one consisting of four Vastus and the other consisting of three Vastus[121], and that which consists of three Vastus, includes a Śīrṣaka.[122]

The Aparāntaka

222. In the Aparāntaka, Śīrṣakas should be five, six or seven in number, and in the Prakarī they should be four, three and a half and (i.e. seven and a half in all).[123]

The Rovindaka

223. The Rovindaka consists of seven limbs [in the minimum] and sixteen limbs in the maximum, and Ekakas in them should consist of two [consecutive] pādas[124] consisting of equal Varṇas.

224. And in that (i.e. Rovindaka) one is to apply in the beginning the Pravṛtta and Vivadha and then the body and the limbs are to be placed in their proper position.

225. In its middle should occur Ākāra (i.e. the syllable ā) and in the end too the same, and in its end should come a clear Śīrṣaka.

The Oveṇaka

226. The Oveṇaka is known to be consisting of seven or twelve limbs. And that with seven limbs ends in two (?) and that with twelve limbs ends in three (?).

227-228. The twelve limbs of the Oveṇaka are Pāda, Sandhi, Māṣaghāta, Vajra, Saṃpiṣṭaka, Śīrṣaka, Caturasra, Upavartana, Upapāta, two Praveṇīs and Saṃharaṇa having two limbs.

229. When Saṃpiṣṭaka, Upapāta, two Praveṇīs and Upavartana are left out from among the twelve limbs, the Oveṇaka is called a seven-limbed one.

230. The seven limbs common to the both [Oveṇakas] having similar Varṇas and Padas are called Vivartana, and in the twelved-limbed [Oveṇaka], Padas [in other limbs] are to be different.

The Ullopyaka

231-234. The rule about the limbs of the Ullopyaka is this.[125] Its three limbs are Avagāḍha, Pravṛtta and Mahājanika. It becomes two-limbed when the Mahājanika is left out.

[126]And when Sthita is combined with Pravṛtta, it (the Ullopyaka) is also called one-limbed, and the Mahājanika also may constitute the one-limbed Ullopyaka. And the Sthita and the Pravṛttaka may constitute a two-limbed Ullopyaka or an one-limbed one (separately).

In the two-limbed (Ullopyaka) the rule of the Dhruvās and the Dhātus [hold good] separately, and in a combined manner.

234-236. The three limbs [of the Ullopyaka] is the Sthita, Pravṛtta and the Mahājanika. And the two-limbed [Ullopyaka] will exclude the Mahājanika, and the Mahājanika [only] will constitute the one-limbed [Ullopyaka],

These are, separately and in combination the rules about the many limbs [of the Ullopyaka] which may be Caturasa, Tryasra and Visra (Dvisra=Dvyasra?).

237. The Saṃhāra (=Saṃharṇa) of the Oveṇaka is made up of two limbs or one. And this (Saṃhāra) should not be used at the beginning or in the middle.[127]

238. The Ekaka or the Vivadha should always be used in the end, and the Ullopyaka should not have less than six and more than twenty limbs.[128]

239-240. Of these [limbs] the Saṃharaṇa will have the Mukha and the Pratimukha [as its two parts], and it may be with the Vaihāyasaka or without it. And it will not have less than three and more than twelve limbs. And the Vaihāyasaka will consist [even] of one limb and not more than six limbs.

241-242. Three limbs having been sung the performance it is to begin. The limbs Mukha and Pratimukha have been prescribed for the Ullopyaka and the Uttara. Then the other limbs may be compressed or extended.

243-244. The Mukha and the Pratimukha are to be known as the Vivadha.

The Vṛtta occurs in the Pratimukha and may shortly be in other [limbs] as well, and the Sākhā (Śākhā?) in the Ullopyaka, the Uttara and the Aparāntaka as well as the Pratiśākha will have same kinds of Varṇas and Padas [as the Mukha and the Pratimukha have.]

244-245. The Uttara will not have legs than six and more than twelve limbs * * * Its Śīrṣaka should specially be placed at the end.

246. This is the rule of limbs to be observed in case of Songs of Seven Forms. Next I shall speak of the measurement of Vastus in the songs.

The Madraka

247. In all the Vastus, Kalās should consist of sixteen Mātrās. And each quarter of it is a Pādabhāga.

248-249.[129] First eight in the beginning are long and the next eight short, and one is to make Upohana (Upavahana) with two long Mātrās in the beginning, and than the third will be long to make the Pratyupohana and in the fourth and the fifth long syllables there will be [two] Śamyās.

250. The sixth and the seventh will be Tāla and then the eighth will be Śamyā, [all these] in the heavy syllables. Then a pāda of eight Kalās is to be made with short syllables.[130]

251-253. In Tālas of heavy syllables pādas will consist of one [entire] Kalā.[131] [The Pātakalā will be as follows:] Śamyā, Tāla, Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla and Sannipāta.

Thus the Śīrṣaka is to be constructed with the Cañcatpuṭaḥ, and this will be the system of Tālas of one Kalā in the Madraka [song]. When heavy syllables are separated in a pāda they will be considered as consisting of two Kalās.

254-255. After separating them the Kalās are to be arranged as was done previously. And in the Madraka of two Kalās, the Upohana will consist of three Kalās and the Pretyupahana of one or two Kalās.[132]

256. Four [Kalās] will make one Mātrā[133] and the Vastu will consist of three Mātrās. [Each of] these three Vastus will consist of two Kalās. This is the rule of Pāda in Pāta.

257. The Pātas such as Śamyā and Tāla etc., which have been prescribed in case of heavy syllables, should be used in the Padabhāga of two Kalās.

258. The eighth the tenth and the sixteenth will have Śamyā and in the twelfth and the fourteenth will have Tāla.[134]

259. The rule of Pāta in case of eight light [syllables] has been mentioned before. In three Vastus of two Kalās too, these Pātas should be applied. And the Śīrṣaka of six Kalās should be made with Pañacapāṇiḥ.[135]

Kraṃḍaṃ kraṃḍaṃ śailendra-rāja-saṃsthitam īśaṃ
          śāntaṃ Śivaṃ pannagendra-paribaddhajaṭaṃ.
Munigaṇa-namitaṃ dhyānābhirataṃ jñānamayaṃ
          madanāṃgaharaṃ vibhuṃ prabhuṃ.
Śaraṇāgato’haṃ daityair nāgaiḥ saṃstutam Īśaṃ
          tvāṃ vedamayaṃ tvāṃ kartāraṃ bhavanapatiṃ
Ṛgyajuḥ-paripaṭhitaṃ gaṃgādharaṃ śūladharaṃ bhuja-
          gendradharaṃ praṇato’smi Śīvaṃ mṛgarāja-carma-
Vipulagatiṃ vṛṣabhagatiṃ jvalanaśikhisadṛśa-kapila-
          jaṭaṃ tam ahaṃ namāmi Śivaṃ śīrasā.

(Here ends the Madraka of two Kalās)

Devaṃ praṇatārtiparaṃ māyādharaṃ
          māyārūpaṃ jaṭilaṃ namāmi Śīvaṃ śirasā.

(Here ends the Śīrṣaka of six Kalās)

Tr. I seek shelter with Thee, the peaceful lord Śiva whose matted hairs have been tied up with the king of serpents, who is bowed to by the Munis, who is constantly engaged in meditation, and is full of wisdom and who has destroyed the body of Madana (Kāma) and who is supreme and all-powerful, who is adored by the Daityas, and Serpents and who is the creator and the lord of the world and is bowed to by all the people.

To Thee who is praised by the Ṛk and Yajur Veda, who carries, Gaṃgā [on his head], the spike [in his hands], the lord of Serpents [in his matted hairs], I bow my head to Thee who is bliss, and is clad in the skin of the lord of beasts, whose gait is prodigious and is comparable to that of a bull, and his twany matted hairs are like the burning fire. (The end of the Madraka of two Kalās).

I bend my head to Śiva, the pure god who removes the affliction of persons bowing to him, who is the container of the Māyā, and is himself the Māyā in form, and who wears matted hairs (The end of the Śīrṣaka of the Madraka of two Kalās).

260. I shall now speak properly of the Catuṣkala [Madraka which will be characterised] in terms of Pādabhāgas of four Kalās.

261. Four [Kalās] will make one Mātrā and three Mātrās will make one Vastu[136]. In giving the Pādabhāgas I shall speak of the Pāta in due order. [This is as follows].

262. [In the first Vastu] there will be Śamyā at the end of the fourth, fifth, eighth, tenth, the eleventh Kalās and in the beginning[137] (lit. not second) of the ninth Kalā.[138]

263. [And in it] at the end of the sixth, seventh and ninth and in the beginning (lit. not second)[139] of the tenth and seventh there will be Tālas.

264. And at the end of the twelfth, first of all there will be Sannipāta. Thus there will be the rule of Pāta and thus one should apply all the Vastus.

265.[140] In the first Vastu, the eight Kalās in the beginning will constitute the Upohana, and the Pratyupohana in the second Vastu will be of two Kalās.

266. In the third [Vastu] there will be three Kalās and in the fourth four Kalās, and the Śīrṣaka at its end will be made up of Ṣaṭpitāputrakaḥ.

267. In [the Vastu of] two Kalās there should apply a time-measure consisting of four Yathākṣara Pañcapāṇiḥ, and in the third and the fourth [Vastu] there should be Dvigeyaka[141] in due order.

268-269. And in the fourth [Vastu] the Parivarta should come to an end. And the first and the second Vastus will be the Upohana and parts of the Madra[ka] and they will include three Vastus of three [different] lengths arising out the Tryasra Tāla.[142]

269-270. The double of a Vastu of two Kalās will make up a Vastu of four Kalās. In it the seventh and the final [syllables] will be light and the doubling has been prescribed here. So the four Kalās are regular here, and the Upohana [will then] consist of eight Kalās, and Pratyupohana will consist of one, two or four Kalās.

271-272. Śīrṣaka of the [ordinary] Madraka should be in the Yathāksara[143] Pañcapāṇiḥ. But in the Divkala [Madraka] of two Kalās, the same (Pañcapāṇiḥ) will consist of two Kalās and in [the Madraka of] four Kalās the same will consist of four Kalās.

273. It will consist of three Vastus of three different measures and they will arise from the Tryasra Tāla. Thus the Madraka will have thirteen Pātas.

274. It will have four heavy syllables and four light syllables.

In the second [syllable] which is heavy there will be Śamyā, in the third, Tāla[144].

275. In the third and the fourth there will be Śamyā and Tāla for the light syllables and Tāla, Śamyā, two Tālas and Sannipāta are to be applied to these, and in the light syllables there will be Pātas consisting of eight Kalās.

276. The Aparāntaka is to be known as originating in the Tryasra Tāla [represented by] Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla and Sannipāta.

277. After separating the long syllables one should apply [the Tālas of] two Kalās. These Tālas of two Kalās and of four Kaläs are [to be represented] by six Pādabhāgas [as follows].

278. [Śamyā, Tāla, two Tālas], Śamyā, and Tāla. Arrangement of the Pāta will be as before in case of the fifth and the sixth [Kalā].

279. The Tāla of four Kalās includes Āvāpa and Vikṣepa. And it is furnished with the Pādabhāgas of four or six Kalās.

280. One is to apply here Vastus five six or seven in number[145]. In the end of the second, fifth [Kalās] there should be two Saṃyās.

281. And in the end of the third, the second and the fifth and at the beginning the sixth there should be Tāla and then the Sannipāta will be at the end.

282-283. These are the Pātas relating to the previous Vastus in case of [the Aparāntaka of] four Kalās.

This is the application [of Tālas] in the Aparāntaka of four Kalās. This is to be known as the Aparāntaka in Pātas of literal Tālas.

283-285. In the beginning, the Upavahanas of the Kalā will be doubled in grouping (?)[146]. In [the Aparāntaka of] two Kalās the Upohana will consist of one or of two Kalās, and similarly in [the Aparāntaka of] one Kalā the Upohana will be of one Kalā. This (i.e., the Aparāntaka of two Kalās) being doubled, is to be known as the Aparāntaka of four Kalās. In this third [Aparāntaka] of light syllables the last Kalā will be doubled.

286. This is the Aparāntaka in which the Vastu[147] arising from the Tryasra Tāla represented (lit. adorned) with six Kalās, is called the Śākhā.[148]

287. Its Pratiśākhā[149] is similar to its Śākhā. It is like its latter (paścima) half and consists of different words?[150] Its Śīrṣaka (śiras) is to be made with the Pañcapāṇiḥ of one Kalā.

288. In course of performing the four Vastus it should apply the Nivṛttā in the Vṛtti [Mārga]. This is the special rule in the following [half].

289-290. Then there will be two Tālikās of six Kalāpātas. And by means of the literal Pañcapāṇiḥ of one Kalā there will be an Upavartana of these two[151].

290-291. Its (i.e., of the Aparāntaka of four Kalās) Upohana will consist of half [the number of Kalās in] the Vastu and its Pratyupohana will be of two Kalās.

[The Aparāntaka of] two Kalās is to be performed in the Dakṣiṇa [Mārga] and that of four Kalās in the Vṛtti [Mārga]. And in case of the remaining ones[152], there should be no Upohana here[153].

292. This is the time-measure prescribed by me for the Aparāntaka.

The Ullopyaka

[The Vastu of] the Ullopyaka will consist of two long syllables, two short syllables and a long syllable.

293. Its Kalās will be as follows. Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā Tāla and Sannipāta and these representing the five Pātas indicated by the syllables of the literal Caturasra [Tāla].

294. According to the aforesaid rules there will be the [Ullopyaka of] two and of four Kalās. After its three limbs have been sung there should be the Vaihāyasika.

295-297. It will have one limb in the minimum and twelve limbs in the maximum. It will consist of twelve Kalās, or seven Pātas [which are as follows:] Śamyā of two Kalās. Tāla of two Kalās, the Śāmyā, Tāla and Sannipāta [each of one Kalā one after another]. This is the Śākhā; the Pratiśākhā [will be like this, but it] will consist of different Padas (words).[154]

298-299. When it will come to a close then will take place the Antāharaṇa.[155] The Saṃhārya is regularly to be made up of the literal Pañcapāṇiḥ. The Saṃhāra of the endless (?) is to be carried on in its own Tāla. The Nivṛtta of two kinds consists of three Aṃśas and are [again] of three kinds.

300-301. The three kinds [of Nivṛtta] are Tryasra, Caturasra and mixed. The three limbs of it are Sthita, Pravṛtta and Mahājanika. There should be Antāharaṇa with the Pañcapāṇiḥ Tāla and similarly Sthita with the Yugma Tāla. Its rule of Pāta will be as follows:

302-303. Śamyā of two Kalās, Tāla of two Kalās, Sannipāta of four Kalās. Then comes Pravṛtta. It has Śamyās of two Kalās, Tāla of one Kalā, Cañcatpuṭaḥ of Talādi class, and Sannipāta.

304. Mahājanika should be performed with the Sthita Tāla, and Nivṛtta should truly be in the Nivṛtta Tāla.[156]

305. Of Sthita and Mahājanika, there should be mostly Upavartana and before it Udghaṭṭakaḥ and Parivartaka should be performed.

306. Yugma being of mixed Tāla, should be applied in the Anta [Tāla].[157] Vivadha with Ekaka is the entire rule in Anta [Tāla].

307. Thus I have described properly the Anta Tāla which is Yugma as well as mixed. Now I shall describe the Tryasra Tāla.

308. [It is as follows:] Śamyā of two Kalās, Tāla, Sannipāta of three Kalās. Then comes Pravṛtta.

309. Here Pravṛtta should be properly made Parivartana with Pañcapāṇiḥ of the literal (yathākṣara) class.

310. Its Mahājanika should be in the Sthitā Tāla, and Nivṛttā Tāla should be observed in its Anta-nivartana.

311. Mixed Tāla being [a combination of] Yugma and Ayugma (ojaḥ) Tālas, should be the Antaḥpravartana. Vivadha with Ekaka is the entire rule of Anta Tāla.

312. Sthita should briefly be made up of two limbs or one. That with Yugma [Tāla] should be of two limbs, and that with Tryasra of one limb.

313. Pravṛtta also will be of two limbs or one. Mahājanika will be of one limb and Saṃharana of two limbs.

314. In the Ullopyaka this is the Anta beginning from Sthita ending with Pravṛtta.

The Prakarī

315. The Vastu of the Prakarī, consists of six Mātrās and nineteen Pātas, and it (Vastu) should be of four Kalās in length[158].

316-317. There should be no literal (yathākṣara) Tāla or Tāla of two Kalās. After the initial three Mātrās there should be Śamyā and Tāla[159]. Then the Vastu should be serially made of Pātas consisting of six Mātrās. And the Upohana will be in the first half of the Vastu.

318-321. Its second Mātrā will be Śamyā with Tāla and Śamyā again will be at the end of the three Mātrās. In the fourth Mātrā there should be twelve Tālas and in the fifth eighth[160] Tālas. In the sixth there should be Śamyā of two Kalās, Tāla of two Kalās, again Tāla of two Kalās and Śamyā of two Kalās and Śamyā, Tāla, Tāla, Śamyā and Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla and Sannipāta[161].

321-322. When four and a half Vastus will constitute the Prakarī, it will be the latter half of the Pada and its half should be placed before. Its Saṃharaṇa should be made with the short Āśarita.[162]

The Oveṇaka

323-328. The first Pāda of the Oveṇaka is to be made equal to that of the Śākhā of the Aparāntaka, and its second Pāda is to be made equal to that of its Pratiśākhā. And the same will be its Pātakalā and Māṣaghāta afterwords. The rule of its Pāta, will be six Pātas of twelve Kalās, [They will be as follows:] Śamyā of two Kalās, Tāla of two Kalās, Tāla of two Kalās, Śamyā of two Kalās, Tāla of one Kalā, Sannipāta of three Kalās, and its Māṣaghāta generally will be a limb of Vivadha. At its end should be Sandhi and sometimes Upavartana, and its Ogha will be made up of Pañcapāṇiḥ of one Kalā, and the Sandhi should be made of literal Pañcapāṇiḥ, and Ekaka and Vivadha are its limbs.

329-330. Its rule like of that of Upavartana, is different. The rule which is applicable at the beginning of the final Caturasra, is to be wished [as] the Caturasraka according to the same limb of Vivadha.[163]

330-333. The Saṃpiṣṭaka will be of two kinds: Sandhivat and Vajratāla.[164] They will consist respectively of seven limbs of twelve Kalās, and of twelve limbs of ten Kalās. One should use here Kiṣkrāma, three Śamyās, three Tālas, and a Śamyā and a Tāla, a Śamyā a and Tāla, then a Sannipāta. This is the Saṃpiṣṭaka in the Oveṇaka of seven limbs.

333-334. This, after adding to it two Śamyās and a Tāla, is desired in the [Saṃpiṣṭaka of] twelve limbs. Nine or eleven Pātas are called the Saṃpiṣṭaka, and the Upavartana is to be applied like Vajra.[165]

335-338. Combined with Vivadha and Vṛtta, the Praveṇī is of two kinds. The application of the Praveṇī should be made the literal Pañcapāṇiḥ, and it should consist of two Kalās or mixed [Kalās] according to the limbs, and sometimes Upavartana should be made at its end, and the same should be according to the prescribed use of the Pañcapāṇiḥ. The second Tāla falling from it, is called Apapāta. Its Antāharaṇa should be made in the Vajratāla.

The Rovindaka

338-341. In the Rovindaka, there should be six Mātrās with the Pādabhāga of four Kalās. Here the Pāta is desired after the half of the five Mātrās. [This Pāta will be as follows:] Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā. This is the rule of five Mātrās in due order. Fourteen are the Tālas desired in the Mātrās of the fifth.[166] Similarly the sixth will have four Kaläs as in the Madraka.

342-313. In the beginning there should the Upohana consisting of eight Kalās. Then there should be the Pratyupohana of two Kalās. The Pātas should end in a Sannipāta and include Vivadha and Ekaka. In the end its collection of Varṇas, will consist of eight Kalās, This the tabular view [of the first Pāda of the Rovindaka].

344-345. The second Pāda will also have similar Varṇas in its Upohana. Its tabular view should give the Tālas in its body. This should be represented by Pañcapāṇiḥ of two Kalās, and its total length will be twelve Kalās only.

346-349. In the body of the Rovindaka, there should be the Upohana of six Kalās, and in its beginning there should be Vivadha and Pravṛtta. And it should begin with Āvāpa (ā-kāra)[167] and is to consist of four or of three Kalās according to one’s option, and joining of limbs is to come afterwards. Its Śirṣaka should not be of any special kind, and it should be made up of literal Pañcpāṇiḥ. In its beginning there should be Ekaka, and at the end Pravṛtta. This is the Rovindaka. The Uttara comes afterwards.

The Uttara

350. I shall speak of the Uttara having characteristics according to rules. It should have Mukha and Pratimukha.

351. As in the Ullopyaka, it should have in the beginning a Mātrā made up of four Kalās, and as in the Rovindaka it should use at the beginning a group[168] with Āvāpa (ākāra).[169]

352-354. It should have six limbs in the minimum and twelve limbs in the maximum, and its Śākhā should have six Pātas consisting twelve Kalās. [They (i.e. the Pātas) will be as follows:] Tāla of two Kalās, Śamyā of one Kalā, Tāla of two Kalās, Śamyā of two Kalās, Tāla of one Kalā, Sannipāta of three Kalās[170]. The Pratiśākhā will be just like the Śākhā, and only it will have a different Pada.

355. Though it is performed without any speciality it should have some rule at the end. At its end, the Śīrṣaka should be observed with the [literal] Pañcapāṇiḥ.

356. The Pratiśakhā should also be performed with the Pañcapāṇih of two Kalās having Pātas mentioned above.

357. This is the Tāla of the Dakṣiṇa Mārga in the Seven Types of song. The time which is suitable in the Dakṣiṇa [Mārga] will be used also in the Vārtika [Mārga].

358-359. And the same [rule will hold good] in the Citra [Mārga] when there is nothing special. This is the rule of time in dance[171] due to Ardhayoga[172], except in the two Mukhas of the Ullopyaka and of the Uttara. The Ardhoyoga[173] at that time will consist of two Kalās

360. And similarly in the case of the Rovindaka and of the Ullopyaka as well as of the Madraka and of the Uttara, the second syllable will consist of four or of two Kalās.

361-362. The is the rule in the bodies [of songs] and in the remaining [case] there should be Prakṛti, and in the Prakṛti too, four Kalās should be used along with two Kalās.[174] In case of the Vṛtti (Vārtika) Mārga, the Ardhayoga in time, will consist of groups of four Kalās. The combination (Yoga) of four Kalās available in the Vṛtti Mārga, will also occur sometimes in the Dakṣiṇa Mārga.

363. The rule of Tāla in the Dakṣiṇa [Mārga] mentioned in case of the Mukha and the Upavahana of the Madraka and Ullopyaka, will also be available in the Vṛtti (Vārtika) Mārga.

364. In the Citra [Mārga] whether it is used by itself or along with another[175], both these (i.e. rules of Kalā) have been prescribed. In the Citra, the rule about the Śākhās may end in any of the three Mārgas.[176]

365-366. These are the [songs of] Seven Types [sung] in the three Mārgas, and they are of two kinds:[177] Kulaka and Chedyāka. [A song of] one sentence (lit. meaning) is Kulaka[178] and that of] different sentences, is Chedyaka.[179]

366-367. The songs of Seven Types are [again] of three kinds[180]: Niryukta, Pada-niryukta and Aniryukta.

367-368. The Niryukta[181] is that which has Śākhā from outside the body of the song. The Padaniryukta[182] is that which is partially free from such elements outside the song, and the Aniryukta[183] is quite free from such elements.

369. These are the two classes of songs of Seven Types. These Seven Types of songs uttered by Brahman, have come out of the Sāmaveda.[184]

370. Songs and instrumental music [performed in] the worship of gods, [bring] limitless merit, and at the conclusion of all such songs, Chandaka (Chedyaka?) has been prescribed.

371-372. This is the rule of the Ṛk, Gāthā and Pāṇikā having forms consisting of two four, three or nine Caturasra, Tālas. According to this rule, one should prescribe Caturasra and Tryasra Tālas.

372-374. The group (gaṇa) mentioned before[185], should have one Kalā at its beginning. And this Kalā should consist of four Mātrās. The Madraka (mādrikī), the Pāṇikā and the Catuṣpādā songs connected with the praise [of a deity], should be made up of eight or of six limbs, in Tālas of Caturasra or Tryasra forms. Such songs with one, two, or three limbs are to be made up of four Pādas.

375. Caturasra and Tryasra forms [of Tāla] are prescribed separately or jointly in these limbs. This is [all about] the Tāla of songs of the Seven Types prescribed by me.

376. Dhruvās are to be known as Caturasra and Tryasra. The rule of their Tālas [relate] briefly to six kinds.

377. [Of these] the Aḍḍitā[186] and Utthitā[187] are Caturasra in form consisting of four Sannipātās in the Cañcatpuṭaḥ.

378-379. At the end of the Supratiṣṭhā[188], there should be Sannipāta. Apakṛṣṭa should be in Tryasra [Tāla] depending on Cāpapuṭah. It is combined with four Sannipātas at the end of the Pāda. The ākāśagraha of all these will be the Cañcatpuṭaḥ.[189]

380. The Vilambitā [Dhrūva] will be Tryasra, and it will be followed by these two, and it is to be joined with the Cañcatpuṭaḥ beginning with Niṣkrāma.

381. The two Pādas known as the pair, at the end of the Pādas (?) in the Sannipāta, are to be regularly connected with the Cañcatpuṭaḥ of two Kalās. Śīrṣakas are to be applied with the Pañcapāṇiḥ (i.e. Caturasra) Tāla in two different manners.[190]

382. Along with four Sannipātas quite at the end of the Pāda, one should apply two final Mātrās of the Tāla.

383-384. The two Mātrās in their time, are to be made equal to Jhaṃkāras.[191] When there will be a Kalā [in Dhrūvās] without any excess, an expert in [dramatic] production should make it of equal Mātrās by reduction or prolongation.

384-385. Along with the increase of Varṇas, there should be an increase of [the form of] Tālas. A new Kalā in the syllables of the Niryukta [songs], will be Jhaṃkāra. This, due to a connection with Kalā and Tāla, is [called] Śuṣka Kuṭṭana.

386-387. A [proper] Kalā and Tāla are to be observed in all the Dhruvās. The principal[192] Tāla should be regularly observed in the case of Natkuṭas. In its Kalāpāta it will be in the Cañcatpuṭaḥ Tāla. This Tāla will be Tyrasra in the Khañjaka Dhrūvā.

388-389. This limb[193] will be Ākrīḍita. The limbs which are [applied] in the Dhruvās, are to be made up of eight or of six Kalās. This is all about the Tāla prescribed by me.

The Catuṣpadā

390-391. I shall now speak of its rules (lit. charateristics), at the end[194] of a [discussion] on the Catuṣpadā (quatrain).[195]

The Tāla of the dance which begins with delicate [movements] and relates to the Erotic Sentiment, and which has been created by the goddess[196] [Pārvatī], will now be described.

391-392. [The song known as] the Catuṣpadā, should be performed by women, and it is of two kinds, viz. Tryasra and Caturasra.

392-393. The Catuṣpadā according as it relates to the speech of one, of two or of many, will be of three kinds, and will abound in the Erotic Sentiment.

393-394. It will again be of three kinds, viz. Sthitā, Pravṛttā and Sthita-pravṛttā.

394-395. [Its Tāla will be as follows:] Niṣkrāma, Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā being preceded by Niṣkrāma and followed by Sannipāta.

395-396. There will be twenty-eight varieties of Catuṣpadā. I shall speak of these varieties in due order.

396-398. The Catuṣpadā of the Sthitā class will have a quick tempo, and that of the Pravṛttā class a slow tempo and the Catuṣpadā of the Sthita-pravṛttā class will have a medium tempo, and the Tāla there, will be the Cañcatpuṭaḥ as well as the Cāpapuṭaḥ, and their Pātas will be in double Kalās.

398-402. [The Catuṣpadā has the following varieties:] Bahvakṣarā, Vipulā (Pṛthulā) Māgadhī, Ardhamāgadhī, Samākṣarapadā, Viṣamākṣarā, Ādyāntāpaharaṇā[197], Anīkinī, Avasānāpaharaṇā, Antāpaharaṇā, Abhyantarāpaharaṇā, Ardhanatkuṭā, Ardhakhañjā, Miśrā, Śīrṣakā, Ekāvasānā, Niyatākṣarā and Ardhapravṛttā.

402-403. Now listen about their characteristics.

That song which has its words fully expressed, and consists mostly of short [syllables], is uttered quickly and is sung in a quick tempo, is called Bahvakṣarā.

403-404. The song which consists mostly of long and prolated syllables, and includes short sentences and words, and observes successively three different tempos, is called Pṛthulā in connection with the practice of delicate [dance].

404-405. That song which observes three tempos and three Yatis, and includes three kinds of syllables [in equal measure], and requires a Tāla of thirtyone [Kalās], is called Māgadhī.[198]

405-406. The song which consists of long and short syllables only, and observes quick and medium tempos and has half the number of Kalās required for the Māgadhī, is called the Ardhamāgadhī.[199]

406-407. The song which has a regular number of short and long Mātrās in its Padas, and its Padas, Varṇas, tempo and Tāla are regular, it is called Samākṣarapada.

407-408. The song which has an irregular number of syllables and Mātrās [in its feet], and has its feet irregular in number, and which observes no regular tempo and Tāla, is called Viṣamākṣarā (Viṣamākṣarapadā.)

408-409. That[200] song which requires the final Sannipāta and the final Anusvāra is called Ādyantāpaharaṇā made of Anusvāra.

409-410. The song which has in its middle, beginning and end, syllables with Anusvāra, and the remaining Pādas are without any such restriction, is called Anīkinī.

410-411. The song with no fixed number of syllables in its Pādas, is always called Avasānāpaharaṇā,

Such a song which has Anusvāra, and is quick in tempo, is called Antāpaharaṇā.

411-412. The song which has its second Kalā in Sannipāta, and has syllables in its middle, is called Abhyantarāpaharaṇā with Anusvāras[201].

412-413. The song which is divided into halves, is called Ardhanatkuṭa. And when followed by Tryasra Tāla, it is called Ardhakhañja[202].

413-414. When in a song, the Khañja and the Natkuṭa have been mixed up, and it is sung in the Tryasra or the Caturasra Tāla, it is called Miśra (the mixed one).

414-415. The song of which the half is suddenly [commenced and] finished, and is adorned with Śīrṣa, is called the Śīrṣaka.

415-416. The Catuṣpadā song, of which one Pāda ends with half of the Varṇas, is called Ekāvasānā[203]. It should have only long and short syllables in the previous Pāda.

416-417. The Ekapādāvasānā song which is furnished with a Śīrṣaka in each of its Pāda, is called Niyatākṣarā.

417-418. The song in which the Sthitā or the Pravṛttā is half applied, is called Ardhapravṛttā, and it is created by both of these two.

418-419. Its (i.e. of the Catuṣpadā) Tāla is as follows: Niṣkrāma, Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā, Āvāpa, and Sannipāta.

There are three kinds of Upohana in the delicate [kinds of dance].

420. Its Pratyupohana consists of two Kalās in the minimum, and three Kalās in the maximum. Its final Kalā being called a double one, will end in Sannipāta.

421. This song will have Sannipātāpaharaṇa, in its middle and end, and it may be completed in two or in many sentences.

422. It may consist of one, two, three or four pādas, and of not more than four.

423. For, making it full of numerous pādas, does not create beauty and kills[204] the nature of the Varṇas and obstructs the expression of limbs.

424. Hence the Sthīta is always to contain two pādas, and it[205] should be also performed in one pāda, and the Pravṛtta is to consist of four pādas.

425. The Pādapātas there, will have one form and will consist of one pāda, and its Kalās will be twenty-two in the maximum, and shall contain a Sannipāta in its pāda.[206]

426. In its medium size it is known as having three pādas. And on account of the Sannipāta it should be sung in a medium tempo.

The Lāsyas

427. I shall now describe for you in due order, the characteristics and application of the Lāsya, of which I spoke to you before.[207]

428. It is said that the Lāsya is so called because of its shining (lāsana). It relates to mutual attraction of men and women, and like the Bhāṇa[208] it is to be performed by one person, and its subject-matter also should be suitable.

429. That (i.e. its subject-matter) having one topic or many topics, has been mentioned in connexion with its [different] types (aṅga).[209] It has ten[210] such types and I am going to define them.

430-432. The types of Lāsya,[211] are Geyapada, Sthitapāṭhya, Āsīna[pāṭhya], Puṣpagaṇḍikā, Pracchedaka, Trimūḍhaka, Saindhava[ka], Dvimūḍhaka, Uttamottamaka, Vicitrapada, Uktapratyukta and Bhāva (Bhāvita).

432-433. The Āsīna[212] should be performed carefully by a woman while she is seated. And the Sthitapāṭhya should however include the earthly Cārīs,[213] at the time of dance and of playing of instruments, and at the beginning and the closing of songs.

433-434. The rules which hold good at the time of [ordinary] dance and of the playing of instruments, should generally be followed in the Lāsya.

434-435. Types of the Lāsya, are briefly ten in number, I shall [now] speak of their application and characteristics.

The Geyapada

435-437. After[214] the musical instruments have been placed in proper order and the screen has been drawn away[215] and the flower offerings have been made, to the seat assumed to have been taken [by Brahman,[216]] and the drums have been tuned, and the Trisāman,[217] has been chanted, [the wise] should perform the Śuṣka Āsārita in accompaniment of three flutes. Then the Āsārita should be performed in the Tāla prescribed for the Mārgāsārita.

438. Then there should be the Upohana in the Tryasra Tāla of two Kalās, and afterwards the three Parivṛttis; and this should be the conclusion [of the Preliminaries]. The experts should [then] observe the conclusion with Parivṛttis (Parivartas).

439-440. During the Parivarta a male sentence should be uttered first. An aggregate of three sentences, is ‘male,’ whereas that of four sentences, is ‘female’. This should be done for attaining the Nirvahaṇa at the conclusion.

441-444. This is what is known as the first type of Lāsya called the Geyapada.

The Sthitapāṭhya

I shall [now] speak of the Sthitapāṭhya. One or two Vṛttas (Parivartas) should be sung in the Pañcapāṇiḥ Tāla, and the two Khañjakas are to be sung in the Cañcatpuṭaḥ Tāla of two Kalās. [This Tāla should be] of the literal (yathākṣara) class, and should include eight Sannipātas, and it should end in the Cañcatpuṭaḥ of two Kalās in a quick [tempo].

The Āsīnapāṭhya

445. After adopting the Tryasra Tāla the Āsīnapāṭhya should properly be performed with a song composed in metres of long feet, expressing wholly manly feelings.

446. Thus the Āsīnapāṭhya should be performed in the four feet [of its song] expressing the meaning sung in the Pañcapāṇiḥ Tāla.

447-448. In the Āsīnapāṭhya one should employ a Śīrṣaka consisting of eight Sannipātas and of Tālas etc. And this should be in the literal Pañcapāñiḥ Tāla.

448-449. In its second Parivarta when the eighth Sannipāta is over, one should then sing a śloka in the Caturasra (yugma) Tāla.

449-450. The playing of drums performed in the Āsīnapāṭhya should agree with (lit. be similar to) the movement of limbs made in it.

450 - 451. One should then sing eighteen or twelve Padas, and the Nirvahaṇa should afterwards be performed in the Uttaraḥ Tāla. This is the rule regarding the Āsīnapāṭhya.

The Puṣpagaṇḍikā

452-453. Now listen about the type of Lāsya called the Puṣpagaṇḍikā which is adorned with various kinds of metres, and in which singing and playing of instruments are done alternately, and during [the singing of] every foot of songs, there should be appropriate Aṅgahāras and the playing of instruments.

454-455. One should sing (lit. use) there a song in a male metre of the Samavṛtta class. At the time of singing each foot, there should be a suitable dance and the playing of instruments in the Cañcatpuṭaḥ Tāla with four Sannipātas.

455-456. Then the two [songs of] metres of the Khañja-Natkuṭa class should be sung, and at the end of their Nirvahaṇa there should be a Śīrṣaka in the Pañcapāṇiḥ Tāla, and the dance in it should be performed in the Āviddha Cārī and with expressive Aṅgahāras.

The Pracchedaka

457-459 An expert in the performance of Lāsyas should know that the Pracchedaka consists of three limbs and two Dhātus. When the theme of the Lāsya relates to the joy [of a heroine] on seeing the face of the lover in moonlight, in a temple or in a mirror, the expert should know that it is the Pracchedaka in which, dance predominates and which is rich in games, and is besides adorned with [different] expressions of Passion (helā).

459-461. Its games should be performed in the Cāñcatpuṭaḥ Tāla and with a song of regular (lit. equal) feet in the Mātrāvṛtta (moric) metre and with eight Sannipātas, or it should include a song in the Toṭaka metre of many syllables and meanings, and should be performed in the Pañcapāṇiḥ Tāla of two Kalās or of one Kalā, or the both mixed with each other. [Its] Śīrṣaka should be made up mostly of heavy syllables, and it should be performed in the Tryasra Tāla of the literal kind including eight Sannipātas.

462-463. The Lāsyāṅga called the Pracchedaka should include games and be performed with songs combined with Vivadha and Ekaka, and these should relate to the the Kaiśikī Jāti.

The Trimūdhaka

463-467. The Trimūḍha[ka] consisting of soft words devoid of harshness, sung in the Gāndhārî Jāti, should be performed in the Cañcatpuṭaḥ Tāla of two Kalās. Thus performed in the proper Mārga and with proper number of Kalās [in its Tāla] and with [such] Vidāris, and Vivadha, it should have in it sixty-four Sannipātas. But there should not be in it any Aṅgahāra and Viṣkambha. The recitative here connected with the play, should be delivered in the attitude of a male person, and the Natkuṭaka and Khañjakas are to be performed in this way. Thus has been described the Trimūḍhaka which has in it many Sentiments.

The Saindhavaka

467-468. The Saindhavaka[218] should be known as a performance without very clear Aṅgahāras and without many Recakas, and it should be in the dialect of Sindh (Sindhu)[219] Accompanied with instrumental music, it should be in an energetic metre.

469-471. The recitative in it should not be short, and the instrumental music in it, should be rich in Vitasta and Ālapti, and it should mostly include heavy syllables and be followed by many mild Aṅgahāras. The Saindhavaka should be performed in the Caturasra (yugma) Tāla with Ākrīḍitā Bhāgas (?).

471-473. The Dvimūḍha[ka] should have the Mukha and the Pratimukha in the Cāpapuṭaḥ Tāla which should contain twelve Sannipātas. It should have a theme with more than one set of events and with many meanings, and it should relate to manly feelings and should consist of one limb or of a limb called Śīrṣaka.

The Uttamottamaka

473-475. In the Uttamottamaka, one should first of all sing the Natkuṭa and then a Śloka with various meanings. And then the theme of the song should be in the Aparāntaka Śākhā, and the Śīrṣaka in it should be in the literal Pañcapāṇiḥ Tāla, and the performance should be adorned with the expression of Passion (helā).[220]

The Uktapratyukta

476-479. The Uktapratyukta is always described as abounding in references to anger and its pacification, and it is always characterised by beautiful dialogues and censuring actions. Its Tāla should be in the half-measure of the Vastu of the Prakarī, And afterwards it should perform the Śīrṣaka in the Pañcapāṇiḥ Tāla. The Vastu (?) and Saṃpiṣṭaka of these should be in the Tryasra Tāla. Thus the Uktapratyukta should end in pacification[221]. This is the Lāsya of ten[222] types which I have finished describing, and these ten types may occur in the same manner in a Prakaraṇa.

Importance of the Tāla

480-483. A break in the Lāsya is known as the Saṃcāra, because of its inversion.[223] These are the schemes of Tālas of songs [in the Lāsyas]. In observing these, one ought to make great efforts; for a dramatic performance (nāṭya) is based on the Tāla.[224] And the same rule holds good in case of playing all the musical instruments in a dramatic performance, for the Tāla relating to the timing, always gives it proper measure. For a song deficient [in a Varṇa] or having a superfluous Varṇa is held [within measure] by the Tāla. Hence this should be carefully studied by the producers [of plays].

483-484. The Seven Types of traditional songs such as the Ṛk, Gāthā and Pāṇikā etc., and the Prakīrṇaka, Catuṣpadā and Vardhamāna, are all recognised by their Tāla. Hence one should, with every effort learn (lit ascertain) their Tālas.

485-486. One cannot be a singer or player of instruments, unless one knows the Tāla. Hence one should observe the rules given above.

The Three Layas

486-487. There are three kinds of Laya (tempo) such as quick (druta), medium (madhya), and slow (vilambita).[225] This tempo is made manifest in different Mārgas[226] of songs and playing of instruments, and it is an essential aspect (lit. the soul) of these two (i.e. singing, and playing of musical instruments). In these Mārgas there are, besides, three Yatis related to the tempo.

488. That which is known as completion of metres, syllables and words, is called the Laya[227] or Māna (measure) depending on the variation of timing in Kalās [in its Tāla].

489-490. The Yati which is of three kinds such as, Even (samā), Current-like (srotogatā) and Cow’s-tail (go-pucchā)[228] is the regulating of the duration (lit. increase) of words, Varṇas or of syllables in relation to songs and to playing of instruments.

490. The Yati, when it has the same tempo in the beginning, in the middle and in the end, for Varṇas and words, is called Even[229]. It is used in the Citra Mārga, and it predominates generally in the playing of instruments.

491-492. The Yati which in traversing the path of musical sounds, is sometimes staid and sometimes running, is called Current-like[230], and it is used in the Vṛtti Mārga.

492-493. When syllables are thus indistinguishable as long and short[231] * * * *

The Cow’s-tail Yati is a prolonged one and is generally used in songs (geya-bhūyiṣṭhā).

The Three Pāṇis

493-494. The Pāṇis relating to songs and playing of instruments, are of three[232] kinds: Samapāṇi, Avapāṇi and Uparipāṇi. The playing of instruments which is simultaneous with the start of Laya is called the Samapāṇi.

495. That (i.e. playing of instruments) which precedes the start of Laya, is called the Avapāṇi. And the playing of instruments which follows the start of Laya, is called the Uparipāṇi[233].

496. The totality of syllables penultimate to the Yati, will indicate the tempo, and from the tempo the measure of these will change.

497-498. A decrease of Kalās should be made in other Pāṇis. In the slow tempo, there should be one Sannipāta, in the medium tempo two Sannipātas, and in the quick tempo the number of Sannipātas should be four.

499. That which is indicated by this difference, is called the quick and the medium tempo, and the Avapāṇi is dependent on a medium tempo.

500. When [the Tālas of one Kalā] become the Antarakalā played in quick tempo, then it is called the Uparyuparipāṇi.[234]

501-502. There is no provision for Kalās bigger than this.[235] Yātis, Pāṇis and Layas should be observed[236] in due manner by experts after considering the application of songs. This is the rule of Tāla for the Dhruvās, when the Tāla is to be observed in their cases. I shall hereafter speak about the limbs of the Dhruvās.

Here ends the Chapter XXXI of Bharata’s Nāṭyaśāstra, which treats of the Time-Measure.

Footnotes and references:


This word comes from tala (the palm of the hand), and primarily refers to the beating of time by the clapping of hands, e.g. tālaiḥ śiñjāvalaya-subhagaiḥ nartito kāntayā me (Megh. 79). But generally it is used in the sense of ‘time-measure.’ Śd.’s explanation of this word (SR. VI. 2) seems to be fanciful. The word is also used as a variety of audible Tāla which is of four kinds. See below 32.


By following Śd. (SR. V. 5-6) one will probably see in this compound two words kalā and pāta. But such a view will be misleading.


See below 4 and 486.


According to Amara. (I. 3. 11), 18 Nimeṣas = 1 Kāṣṭhā, and 30 Kāṣṭhās = 1 Kalā (“aṣṭādaśa nimeṣāstu kāṣṭhā triṃśattu tāḥ kalāḥ”). From this we have one Kalā equivalent to eight seconds. In other systems of computation, it may be equal to forty-eight seconds and even to one minute. See Apte sub voce and also SM. II. 3. 53.


See note 1 above.


Kśīrasvāmin defines Nimeṣa as the time required for a twinkling of eyelids (nimeṣo’kṣispanda-kālaḥ) and see also SM. II. 3. 53.


According to Śd., Mātrā is the time required to pronounce five short syllables (pañca-laghvakṣaroccāra-mitā mātrā, SR. V. 16).


See below 468.


See above note 6 to XXIX. 103 prose, and also 487 below. The Mārgas are equivalent to the Pāṇis (XXXI. 493-495).


This term is significant when the Tālas mentioned below are made up of two or four Kalās.




This and similar other terms are probably mnemonics, and have no special significance. The variants of this term are Cañcūpuṭaḥ (NŚ., KM ed.) and Caccatpuṭaḥ (SR.)


The variants of this term are Cāyapuṭaḥ (NŚ., KM. ed.) and Cācapuṭaḥ (SR).


Each of these two Tālas have three varieties: yathākṣara (literal), dvi-kala consisting of two Kalās, and catuṣ-kala (consisting of four Kalās).


This is called the yathākṣara variety of it. Yathākṣara (according to the syllables) means that the syllables (short and long) in the name (e.g. C añcatpuṭaḥ) indicate the syllables that this Tāla contains. See SR. V. 18.


This is to modify here the term yathākṣara, for according to the last akṣara the final syllable was to be long and not Pluta.


See above note 1 to 8.




This term has been explained by Kn. (on SR. V. 27) as follows

“pātāḥ maśabdā dhruvādayaḥ, kalā niḥśabdā āvāpādayaḥ | tābhiḥ pātakalābhiryogaḥ sa?vandhaḥ.”


Absence of mumerical adjectives before these names means that they are single, i.e. one Sannipāta, one Śamyā etc.


See below note 1 to 32-33.


See SR. V. 28. 29.


It means the variety ‘beginning with the Sannipāta’, or Sannipāta, Śamyā and Tāla Śamyā. See above 14-15.


Beginning with the Śamyā’, of Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā and Tāla. See above 14-15.


‘Beginning with the Tāla’, or Tāla, Śamyā, Tāla and Śamyā. See above 14-15,


This is only a variety of very primitive songs.


Śd. curiously enough on the authority of the NŚ. recognizes only two of them in case of the Cāpapuṭaḥ (his Cācapuṭaḥ). See SR. V. 30.


The translation is tentative.


The translation is tentative.


Cf. SR. V. 31.


See SR. V. 31.


Its variants are Saṃpatkeṣṭākaḥ (NŚ. KM. ed.) and Saṃpakkeṣṭākaḥ (SR.), Sampadveṣṭikaḥ (SM.)


See SR. V. 4?.


SR. V. 41. Read 24 a as “ādau tālastataḥ” etc.


See SR. V. 40.


See above note 1 to 9-10 and note 1 to 10-11.






The three general varieties (26-28) and the six special varieties (28-29) make up the nine varieties mentioned here.


The purpose of having two such different sets of gesture for Tālas, is not quite clear. It seems that the two different primitive methods of observing simple time-measures which included very few Kalās, originated independently. But these were subsequently brought together for the facility of indicating developed time-measures which included more complex schemes of very numerous Kalās. Two different varieties of gestures in all likelihood helped the musicians to avoid confusion which was possible in case of using only one kind of them.


Also called Kalās by Kn. (on SR. V. 5).


Sd. has this term as Śampā.


This is different from the word standing for the time-measure in general.


Also called Pātas and Kalās by Kn. (on SR. V. 5).


These were possibly required to guide the players of instruments for observing time-measure.


See SR. V. 7.








‘Kalās’ here means syllables and not the component parts of a Tāla, which itself may consist of more than one syllable as in the Dvikala or the Catuṣkala Tālas.


Significance of this rules is not clear.


The translation is tentative. Kn. applies this term to the audible Tālas. See above note 3 to 32-33.


It seems that one hemistich is missing here.


This use of the word ‘Rāga’ is likely to have some connexion with the melodic types of the same name in the later Indian Music.


Another name for the Ṣaṭpitāputrakaḥ. See SR. V. 23.


Udghaṭṭakaḥ and Saṃparkeṣṭākaḥ.


Śd. seems to ignore these.


See below 220.




See XXX. 207.


The Dhruvās used in connexion with the performance of the Nāṭakas, were probably very early types of Indian songs, for their schemes of time-measure consisted of six or eight Kalās only, while in the later songs, the number of Kalās was much greater.


It is not clear why individual fingers were substituted for the hand-gestues which were conventionally used to indicate the time-measure. This may be compared with practice of indicating by fingers, different notes in the chanting of the Sāma-veda (see MH. p. 259).


But according to Kn. the Kalā is ordinarily identical with Mātra; but in the Ekakala Dvikala and Catuṣkala Tālas) it means the long syllables

“atraikakalahikalacatupkalaśabdeṣu kalāśabdena gururucyate ityarthaḥ |” (on SR. V. 19).


See below.


See below 79ff.


The translation is tentative. The text is possibly corrupt here.


The group-dances, See V.


The text is possibly corrupt here in 86.


See SR. V. 183-184.


Short, Layāntarita, medium and long. See below 102.


Read ṣaḍ eva for ṣaṣṭhi. See. SR. V. 182.


The term is probably synonymous with Āsārita.


The transl. is tentative, for the text seems to be corrupt.


This and similar examples below perhaps show the originial connexion of dance and drama with Śiva.


The Vastu (thing) is a technical word meaning principal parts of songs. See below XXX II. 7. This is probably equivalent to what the singers of North India call tuk in connexion with Dhrupada songs. See GS. I. p. 78. This word (Vastu) has been used by Kālidāsa (Mālavi. II. 0. 5; 3.1; 4.1.) It also means a song, and is equivalent to the term. cīj. (lit. thing) used by the modern North Indian singers. See SR. V. 6; V. 61ff.


See below 127.


This very exhaustively describes Śiva’s mythological character.


See below 127.


See above note 3 to 115-116.


See SR. V. 190.




See SR. V. 191.


The transl. is tentative.


The meaning is not clear.


Akṣareṣu here means yathāksareṣu. See SR. V. 192.


See SR. V. 192.


SR. V. 192.


Cf. SR. V. 192.


Cf. 125 above.


See XXIX. 109.


See SR. V. 195.


See SR. V. 196.


From Kn. (on SR. V. 196-197) we learn that the Upohanas of the four parts of the Vardhamāna consist respectively of five, six, seven and eight Kalās.


See SR. V. 197.


Cf. Kn. on SR. V. 197.


Here evaṃ guru-samyutaiḥ means that there will be three more long (guru) syllables as in the preceding Kaṇḍikā of the Vardhamāna. Also cf. Kn. on SR. V. 177.


Kn. on SR. V. 197.


Kn. (bn SR. V. 92-93) reads stavanādikaḥ for sūcanādibhiḥ. The original reading probably was stavanādibhiḥ (=by means of praises etc.).


See SR. V. 202.


The Tāla of the Saṃgatā is Niṣkrāma, Śamyā, Tāla, Śamyā, Niṣkrāma, Sannipāta, and in the Tāla of the Sunandā these will be added to the preceding Tāla.


Cf. SR. V. 202.


Cf. SR. V. 202.


The reading divicitrastu is probably corrupt. It seems to have been something like dviḥ citras tu. Cf. SR. V. 202.


See SR. V. 195.


The text seems to be corrupt.


Cf. SR. V. 179.


See SR. V. 180.


It seems that a portion of the text, has been lost after this.


The text dealing with the medium Āsārita seems to be lost from here.


The text here seems to have some lacuna. Cf. SR. 181.


See SR. V. 197.


Defined below in 203-204.


Dattila, (144) and SR. (V. 70) have this as ‘Vividha’.


Defined below in 204.


See Dattila, 140.


See Dattila, 142.


See above note 3 on 202.


See SR. V. 77. The text of SR. is corrupt here. Avaraikādaśaparā should be emended into Tryavaraikādaśaparā. Kn.’s Comm. too requires emendation. It should begin as tryavarāś ca etc; otherwise the next sentence which supports the emended text, becomes meaningless.


See SR. V. 58. The later Indian music seems to completely ignore these Seven Types of Songs.


See SR. V. 77ff.


See above note 1 on 115-116.


A part of the song with a particular kind of time-measure.


See SR. V. 92.


Pada=one quarter of a couplet in a song.


The original of this sentence seems to be corrupt and superfluous.


The original of this passage seems to be a variant of 234-236.


This passage seems to have belonged to the discussion on the Oveṇaka (226-230 above).


See Dattila, 194-195.


See Kn, on SR. V. 79.


Tato’rdhakalikaṃ in the text should be emended into tato’sta-kalikaṃ; see above note 1 on 248-249.


The text here seems to be corrupt.


See SR. V. 80 ff. and Kn. on it


See SR. V. 21, and notes on 254-254 above.


See Kn. on SR. V. 84 (asya prastāraḥ etc.) The fourth foot should be read as tālaṃ vai etc.


See Kn. on SR. V. 79 (asya prastāraḥ etc.).


See 256 above and its notes.


Read “śamyā’hitīyā” for “śamyā hitīyā”.


See notes on 259 above.


Read “caivā hitīyaḥ (=caiva ahitīyaḥ)” for “caiva hitīyaḥ”.


See SR. V. 86.


“hai?geyakaḥ | aṃśādiraṅgasvara eva graho yaseti sa tathoktaḥ | aṃśānta iti | aṃśasvara eva nyāso yaseti sa tathoktaḥ | padāvṛttiyuta ityanena haigeyakasaṃjñāyā anvarthatā darśitā bhavati |” Kn. on SR. V. 87.


Read trivastu tripramāṇaṃ for caturthas tu tripramāṇaṃ.


Read [ yathākṣara stu ] for yathākṣarasya.


See SR. V. 91. This passage in its second hemistich seems to be corrupt.


The passage seems to be corrupt.


The passage seems to be corrupt.


Read Vastu śākhā for vastuśākhā.


“śākheti? gītāṅgasya saṃjñā | kiṃ tvanyapadanirmiteti pratiśākhāyā viśeṣakathanam |” Kn. on SR. V. 92.


See note 2 above.


See note 2 above.


cf SR. V. 98. Read “tathaikakalayukte[ne]” for “tathaikakala yukte'sti”.


Read “?dā tvasya bhavedantastadantā°”.


See SR. V. 104-105.


See SR. V. 119.


The text here seems to be corrupt.


The text here seems to be corrupt.


Read yugmopy antaḥ for yugme hyantaḥ.


See SR. V. 136-137.


See SR. V. 137-138.


Read cāṣṭa [ kaḥ ] smṛtaḥ for cāṣṭamaḥ smṛtaḥ.


cf. SR. 141-142.


Read kāryaṃ saṃharaṇam for kāyaṃ saṃharaṇam. See SR. V. 139.


The text here seems to be corrupt.


The text here seems to be corrupt.


The text here seems to be corrupt.


The text here seems to be corrupt.


The reading here is probably corrupt.


Read gaṇam ādyan in the text.


See note 1 on 346-349 above.


The passage seems to be corrupt.


Read nṛtte for vṛtte in the text.


Read ardhayoga in the text. This term has not been explained before.




The text here seems to be corrupt.


Read citre vyaste in the text.


Read trayamārgikam. The trans. is tentative.


See S. R. V. 60.


Śd. gives clearer definitions. According to him, the Kulaka is a song in which different limbs constitute a single sentence (SR. V. 61.) and when such limbs are different sentences, the song is called the Chedyaka (ibid). For the limbs see 223, 236, 231-234, 244-245 above.


See note 2 above.


See SR. V. 61.


Śd. seems to define this differently. Cf. SR. V. 62.


See note 2 above.


See note 2 above and also cf. SR. V. 63.


See I. 17-18.


It is not clear where this has been mentioned.


Not defined anywhere.


Not defined anywhere.


See below XXXII. 55.


The trans. is tentative.


This passage seems to be corrupt, and the trans. is tentative.


This term has not been mentioned before.


Read aṅgatāla for bhaṅgatāla.


See note 1 to 386-387 above.


The passage seems to be corrupt.


This seems to be the term used by Kālidāsa (devaḥ, Śarmiṣṭhāyāḥ kṛtir layamadhyā Catuṣpadā, Mālavi. II, 0.5).


See AD. (text) 5. p. 1.


Read ādyāntyāpaharaṇā for tasyāntyāpaharaṇā.


See XXIX, 76-77 and also XXXII. 488-489.


See XXIX, 78 and also XXXII. 481.


Read yaḥ syāt for yat syāt.


The text is evidently corrupt.


Read hy ardhakhañjeva for °khañjena.


Read ekāvasānā for ekāvasānā.


The passage is corrupt. Emend “hyanyadaṅga°” etc. as “prakṛtiṃ hyanyadaṅgavyaktiṃ nirasyati”


This passage also seems to be corrupt. Emend “ekenaiva padā smṛtā” as “ekenaiva padā sthitā”.


This passage is also possibly corrupt. The trans. is tentative.


See XX. 132ff.


See XX. 107-109.


Ch. XX. 132 footnote.


See the note on 476-478 below.


See XX. 132 f. n.


The fuller form of the Āsīna is Āsīnapāṭhya.


See XI. 13-28.


See V. 17. Emend as “sthāpitairbh?āṇḍavinyāsaiḥ” as “sthāpite bhāṇḍavinyāse”


SeeV. 11-12.


See V. 74.


This term has not been defined anywhere. Does it mean ‘the three Sāman chants’ in the Vedic manner? See XXXI. 369.


See note 2 below.


May this not be considered as an evidence of the inhabitants of Sindh, who descended from the Indus people, having dramatic dances in a very remote antiquity ?


The description of the Vicitrapada the tenth Lāsyāṅga expected after this, is missing.


The description of the Bhāva (Bhāvita) the twelfth Lāsyāṅga, expected here, is missing. It should be remembered in this connexion that Viśvanātha does not consider the Vicitrapada and the Bhāva to be among the Lāsyāṅgas (See SD. ed. Jivānanda. p. 393).


See Viśvanātha’s view quoted above in the note to 476-478.


The reading here in probably corrupt.


See SR. V. 2.


See SR. V. 48.


See SR. V. 51-53.


See SR. V. 50ff.


See SR. V. 51-53.


See SR. V. 51.


See SR. I. 52.


It seems that a portion of this definition has been lost. For Śārṅgadeva’s definition see SR. V. 52-53.


Śārṅgadeva defines the three Grahas and in the same connexion defines Pāṇis also. See SR. V. 54-55.


See the note on 493-494 above.


The passage is probably corrupt.


This perhaps refers to Sannipātas in 497-498 above.


The word kartavyaṃ should be emended as kartavyā.

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