Rajagriha, aka: Rājagṛha, Rajan-griha; 18 Definition(s)
Rajagriha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Rājagṛha can be transliterated into English as Rajagrha or Rajagriha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Rājagṛha (राजगृह):—Sanskrit name for one of the twenty-four sacred sites of the Sūryamaṇḍala, the first maṇḍala of the Khecarīcakra, according to the kubjikāmata-tantra. The Khecarīcakra is the fifth and final cakra located just above the head. Each one of these holy sites (pītha) is presided over by a particular Khecarī (‘sky-goddess’). This Rājagṛha-pītha is connected with the goddess Bhagnanāsā.Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Rājagṛha (राजगृह).—(girivraja) An ancient city in India, capital of Magadha. Dīrgha King of Girivraja was killed by King Pāṇḍu. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 112, Verse 27) Another King, Ambuvīca, had for a time ruled over the city. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 203, Verse 17). Afterwards Jarāsandha became its King. Girivraja is a holy place as well. He who bathes here will become as pleasantlooking as King Kakṣīvān. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 104).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
Rājagṛha (राजगृह).—A sacred place in Kīkaṭa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 108. 73.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
General definition (in Hinduism)
The city of Rajgir (ancient Rājagṛha; Pali: Rājagaha) was the first capital of the kingdom of Magadha, a state that would eventually evolve into the Mauryan Empire. Rajgir is famous for its hot water springs, locally known as Brahmakund, a sacred place for Hindus.
The epic Mahabharata calls it Girivraja and recount the story of its king, Jarasandha, and his battle with the Pandava brothers and their allies Krishna. Jarasandha who hailed from this place, had been defeated by Krishna 17 times. The 18th time Krishna left the battlefield without fighting. Because of this Krishna is also called “ranachorh” (one who has left the battlefield). Mahabharata recounts a wrestling match between Bhima (one of the Pandavas) and Jarasandha, the then king of Magadha. Jarasandha was invincible as his body could rejoin any dismembered limbs.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
Rājagṛha (राजगृह) refers to one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18). These districts are not divided into subgroups, nor are explained their internal locations. They [viz., Rājagṛha] are external holy places, where the Tantric meting is held with native women who are identified as a native goddess. A similar system appears in the tradition of Hindu Tantrims, i.e., in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22), which belongs to the Śākta sect or Śaivism.
Rājagṛha is presided over by the Goddess (Devī) named Vipannā accompanied by the Field-protector (Kṣetrapāla) named Mahākarṇa or Jhillīrava. Their weapon possibly corresponds to the vajra and aṅkuśa.Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Rājagṛha (राजगृह) is the name of a sacred city where the Buddha was dwelling at the beginning of the discourse in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter V. Accordingly, “the Buddha was dwelling in the city of Rājagṛha”. Question: Why is it said that the Buddha was dwelling at Rājagṛha instead of describing the teachings of the Prajñāpāramitā directly? Answer: The author mentions the place (deśa), the time (kāla) and the individuals (pudgala) so that people will trust (śraddhā) his story.
Note: Rājagṛha was the capital of Magadha (Bihar), the present Rajgir south of Patna. Its location has been definitively identified and excavated by Marshall, AR Arch. Survey, 1905–1906, 1925–1926. See B. C. Law, Rājagṛha in Ancient Literature, M. Arch. Survey, no. 58, Delhi, 1938. – The Buddha stayed there during the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 17th and 20th varṣa of his ministry (Buddhavaṃsa Comm., p. 3).Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Rājagṛha (राजगृह) is modern Rajgir, about 14 miles north west of the town of Bihar Sharif in the Bihar Subdivision of Patna district. It is a little over 40 miles, as the crow flies, southeast of Patna, and about 6 miles south of ancient site of Nālandā. The antiquity of Rājagṛha is born out by Pāli and Prākrit literatures and by the accounts of the classical writers (Hiuen-tsang and Fa-hien) and corroborated by the archaeological sources.
The power, prosperity and magnificence of Rajgir in the life time of Buddha and Mahāvīra are spoken of in the Divyāvadāna. Rājagṛha was the early captial of the Magadha janapada, however, later on it had been subjugated by the Aṅgas. Out of various names such as Vasumatī, Magadhapura, Bārhadrathapura, and Rājagṛha etc., Girivraja seems to be the earliest name of Rajgir. The site of the old city was encricled by five hills which are now crowded with Jain temples built of old material.
The Buddhist traditions claim that Aśoka erected a stūpa and a pillar with elephant captial but in none of the excavations so far undertaken, any Mauryan ruins have been discovered.Source: Google Books: Geography from Ancient Indian Coins & Seals (buddhism)
The city of Rajgir (ancient Rājagṛha; Pali: Rājagaha) was the first capital of the kingdom of Magadha, a state that would eventually evolve into the Mauryan Empire. This area is also notable in Jainism and Buddhism as one of the favorite places for Lord Mahavira and Gautama Buddha and the well known “Atanatiya” conference was held at Vulture’s Peak mountain. New Rajgir is defined by another, larger, embankment outside the northern entrance of the valley and next to the modern town. It was here that Gautama Buddha spent several months meditating, and preaching at Gridhra-kuta, ('Hill of the Vultures'). He also delivered some of his famous sermons and initiated king Bimbisara of Magadha and countless others to Buddhism. On one of the hills is the Saptparni cave where the First Buddhist Council was held under the leadership of Maha Kassapa.Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism
General definition (in Jainism)
Rājagṛha (राजगृह).—According to Jinaprabhasūri, the city which eventually came to he called Rājagṛha was known from time to time by such earlier names as Kṣitipratiṣṭha, Caṇakapura, Ṛṣabhapura, Vṛṣabhapura and Kuśāgrapura, the first three of which are not met wilh elsewhere, in Buddhist or Brahmanical literature. This capital of Magadha might be viewed from a distance from the Gorathagiri (modena Barābar hills) in Bihar.
The Jaina Vividha-tīrtha-kalpa speaks of Rājagṛha as the residence of kings and princes such as Jarāsandha, Śreṇika, Kunika, Abhaya, Megha, Halla, Vihalla, and Nandiṣeṇa. Jarāsandha was no other than King Jarāsandha of Epic fame. Śreṇika rvas king Seṇiya Bimbisāra of Pāli literature, Kūṇika was King Ajātaśatru, son and successor of Bimbisāra. Abliaya was Ahhayarājakumāra, and Megha, Halla, Vihalla, and Nandiṣeṇa were like Kūṇika and Abhaya, sons of Bimbisāra, presumably by different queens.Source: archive.org: Jaina Monuments And Places First Class Importance
Rājagṛha (राजगृह) or Rājagṛhapura stands in the valley of the Vaibhāragiri mountain. In later times it was known by such names as Kṣitipratiṣṭha, Caṇakapura, Ṛṣabhapura, Kuśāgrapura and Rājagṛha. Here was a lovely temple called Guṇaśila. Metāryya built here the rampart of Śātakaumbha. Here were born wealthy bankers like Śālibhadra. Here existed thirty-six thousand houses of merchants. Jina Suvrata performed his religious vow at the shrine of Aśvāvabodha. Jarāsandha, Śreṇika, Kūṇika, Abhaya, Megha, Halla, Vihalla and Nandisena hallowed the place by their noble birth. Eminent ascetics like Jambusvāmin, Kṛtapuṇya and Sejjambhava, and devoted wives like Nadā were born here.Source: archive.org: Sum Jaina Canonical Sutras (vividhatirthakalpa)
The city of Rajgir (ancient Rājagṛha; Pali: Rājagaha) was the first capital of the kingdom of Magadha, a state that would eventually evolve into the Mauryan Empire. Lord Mahavira, 24th Tirthankara spent fourteen years of his life at Rajgir and Nalanda, spending Chaturmas (i.e. 4 months of the rainy season) at a single place in Rajgir (Rajgruhi) and the rest in the places in the vicinity. It was the capital of one of his shravaks (follower) King Shrenik. Thus Rajgir is a very important religious place for Jains. The twentieth Jain tirthankara, Munisuvrata is supposed to have been born here. An ancient temple (about 1200 years old) dedicated to Munisuvrat bhagwan is also present here along with many other jain temples. This temple is also a place for four kalyanakas of Bhagwan Munisuvratnath.Source: WikiPedia: Jainism
Rājagṛha (राजगृह) is the name of a village visited by Mahāvīra during his eighth year of spiritual-exertion.—From Śakaṭamukha, passing through ‘Unnāga’ and ‘Gobhūmi’, he arrived at Rājagṛha. There he spent the eighth monsoon retreat and observed fasts of four months and due austerities and completion of the cāturmāsa fast, broke his fast outside the city and moved ahead. After leaving Rājagṛha, the Lord thought again that truly, it is possible to annhilate karmas only in Anārya region. Thinking thus, he again left for the Anārya Lāḍha and Śubhrabhūmi.Source: HereNow4u: Lord Śrī Mahāvīra
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
The capital city of the powerful kingdom of Magadha. Located in Bihar Province, India.Source: Wisdom Library: India History
Rājagṛha (राजगृह) is another name of Rājagaha, the ancient name for Rajgir.—Hathīgumpha Inscription of Khāravela mentions the city Rājagaha, modern Rajgir, about fourteen miles south-west of the town of Bihar Sharif in the Bihar sub-division of Patna district.Source: archive.org: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions
Rājagṛha (Rajgir) is an archaeologically important site dating to the Ganges civilization (1000 BCE).—Nearly a millennium after the Indus civilization had collapsed, the Ganges civilization arose in the first millennium BCE. Among the first cities were, for example, Rājagṛha in Bihar.
In Rajagṛha, a huge fortification called ‘Cyclopean Wall’, running over several kilometres around the city, consists of unhewn stones being piled one on top of the other; it was constructed in the 6th or 5th century BCE.Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Architecture (1): Early and Classical Architecture (h)
Rājagriha is the name of the ancient capital of Magadha, one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas of the Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—Early Pāli literature abounds in information about the Magadha country, its people, and its ancient capital Giribbaja. Magadha roughly corresponds to the modern Patna and Gayā districts of Bihar. Its earliest capital was Girivraja, or old Rājagriha, near Rājgir among the hills near Gayā. The Mahāvagga calls it Giribbaja of the Magadhas in order to distinguish it from other cities of the same name (Cf. Girivraja in Kekaya).
From the Mahāvastu we know also of Buddha’s journey from Rājagriha to Vesālī. We are told that King Bimbisāra had the road all the way from Rājagaha to the Ganges decorated with flags and garlands, and that the Licchavis too had decorated the road from the Ganges to Vesālī.Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
Rāja-gṛha.—cf. Tamil rāja-karam (SITI); palace (cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 107) or government; officers or autho- rities; also the taxes due to the same. Cf. rājakaraṅ-kāṇikkai, ‘customary presents to be made to the palace’; rājakara-upādi, ‘tax payable to the palace or to the government officers’. Note: rāja-gṛha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
1) a royal dwelling, royal palace.
2) Name of a chief city in Magadha (about 75 or 8 miles from Pāṭaliputra).
Derivable forms: rājagṛham (राजगृहम्).
Rājagṛha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms rājan and gṛha (गृह).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 25 books and stories containing Rajagriha, Rājagṛha, Rajagrha, Rajan-griha, Rājan-gṛha, Rajan-grha, Raja-griha, Rāja-gṛha, Raja-grha; (plurals include: Rajagrihas, Rājagṛhas, Rajagrhas, grihas, gṛhas, grhas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 6: Story of Śrīmatī < [Chapter VII - The stories of Celaṇā’s one-pillared palace]
Part 29: Jarasāndha’s hostility < [Chapter II - Marriages of Vasudeva with maidens]
Part 5: Founding of Rājagṛha < [Chapter VI - Adoption of right-belief by Śreṇika]
A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms (by Fa-Hien)
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)
Chapter XXVIII-b - The Jātaka of the Bull < [Volume I]
Chapter VI - A visit to the Śuddhāvāsa Devas < [Volume I]
Chapter XLV - The conversion of Bimbisāra < [Volume III]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Part 5 - Buddha’s preferences for Rājagṛha < [Chapter V - Rājagṛha]
Introduction (the city of Rājagṛha) < [Chapter V - Rājagṛha]
Part 3 - Why is it called Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata (vulture peak mountain) < [Chapter V - Rājagṛha]
Chapter XXXVI - On Bodhisattva Lion's Roar (d) < [Section Seven]
Chapter XXIV - On Pure Actions (d) < [Section Four]
Chapter XLIII - On Bodhisattva Kasyapa (d) < [Section Nine]
The travels of Fa-Hian (400 A.D.) (by Samuel Beal)