Yogadrstisamuccaya of Haribhadra Suri (Study)

by Riddhi J. Shah | 2014 | 98,110 words

This page relates ‘From Hemacandracarya (Hemachandra) to Acarya Tulsi’ of the study on the Yogadrstisamuccaya: a 6th-century work on Jain Yoga authored by Haribhadra Suri consisting of 228 Sanskrit verses. The book draws from numerous sources on traditional Yoga. Three important topics are stipulated throughout this study: 1) nature of liberation, 2) a liberated soul, and 3) omniscience.—This section belongs to the series “The Jain Yoga Tradition—A Historical Review”.

Chapter 1.5 - From Hemacandrācārya (Hemachandra) to Ācārya Tulsi

Paṇḍita Āśādhara (13th century A.D.) composed a treatise namely Adhyātmarahasya. It is also known as Yogoddhīpanaśāstra.

This text contains the classification of a soul as follows:

  1. Svātmā
  2. Śuddhātmā
  3. Parabrahma.

These three categories though differ in name from the traditional classification viz. extrotvert introvert and supreme soul, no conceptual differences are found between two sets of classificiation of a soul.

The following verse of Adhyātmarahasya composed by Paṇḍita Āśādhara, contributes significantly to the Jain Yoga tradition. It says that once a yogin acquires four potentialities viz. śruti, mati, dhyāti and dṛṣṭi, he becomes an expert in yogic practices.

The verse is,

śuddhe śruti-mati-dhyāti-dṛṣṭayaḥsvātmani kramāt |
yasya sadgurūtaḥ siddhāḥ sa yogī yogapāragaḥ ||
3 ||

Munisundarasūri, who flourished in 15th century A.D.[1] , wrote a valuable treatise Adhyātmakalpadṛma. The following verses of it describe very precisely how to purify the activities of mind, speech and body.

The verse is,

parasya pīḍāparivarjanātte, tridhā triyogyapyamalā sadāstu |
sāmyaikālīnaṃ gatadurvikalpaṃ
, manovacaścāpyanaghapravṛttiḥ || 15.7 ||

The two following verses from this treatise state that it is inevitable for an aspirant to keep his mind free from defilement of attachment and aversion. It is so because only such type of mind turns to be a cause of yoga. It is also said that yama&niyama are performed with an aim to achieve poised state of mind. If that is gained then it does not make any difference whether one practices yama or niyama. On the contrary the one who practices yama and niyama but is unable to keep his mind stable and pure, then practicing of yama as well as niyama would yield no fruit to him.

The verses are as follow.

1. yogasya heturmanasaḥ samādhiḥ, paraṃ nidānaṃ tapasaśca yogaḥ |
tapaśca mūlaṃ śivaśamarvallyā
, manaḥ samādhiṃ bhaja tatkathañcit || 9.15 || 

2. vaśaṃ mano yasya samāhitaṃsyāt kiṃ tasya kāryaṃ niyamaiyarmaiśca |
hataṃ mano yasya ca durvikalpaiḥ
, kiṃ tasya kāryaṃ niyamairyamaiśca || 9.5 ||

Rājmalla, who flourished in V.S. 17th, in his treatise Ādhyātmakamalamārtaṇḍa[2] presents two types of a soul.

They are:

  1. Vimla ātmā[3] (pure soul)
  2. Samala ātmā[4] (impure soul).

Moreover, while discussing the three-fold classification of a soul,[5] the translator of Adhyātmakamalamārtaṇḍa mentions three stages of an introvert soul and two stages of a supreme soul. The minimum stage (jaghanya) of an introvert soul is to possess right faith (samyagdarśana). The medium type (madhyama) of an introvert soul is the one who follows all five vows partly (deśavirata). An aspirant, who practices complete abstinence, (sarvavirata) is also a medium type of an introvert soul. The highest type (utkṛṣṭa) of an introvert soul is the one who has abandoned all attachment towards materialistic world and practices meditation.

The two stages of a supreme soul are sakalaparamātmā and nikalaparamātmā. The first stage of a supreme soul is the one who has destroyed the four destructive karmans(ghāti karman). The second stage of a supreme soul is the one who has destroyed the destructive as well as non-destructive (aghāti karmans).[6]

In the Jñānasāra of Upādhyāya Yaśovijaya we find one verse which talks about introvert soul and a supreme soul.

The verse is,

dhyātā'ntarātmādhyeyastu paramātmā prakītirtaḥ |
dhyānaṃ caikāgryasaṃvitiḥ
, samāpattistadekatā || 30.2 ||

Nyāyavijaya (20th century) has composed a significant treatise on Jain Yoga namely Adhyātmatattvāloka. This treatise contains eight prakaraṇas (chapters). There are many verses in this treatise, which resemble with that of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya of Haribhadrasūri. The Adhyātmatattvāloka deals with eight yoga-limbs of Pātañjala Yoga. This text also contains a prakaraṇa namely pūrva-sevā. It reminds us of the pūrva-seva explained by Haribhadrasūri in his Yogabindu.

Ācārya Tulasi (20th century) composed a treatise namely ‘Manonuśāsanam [manonuśāsana]’ (1961) in Sanskrit language. Likewise Yogasūtra of sage Patañjali this treatise is also composed in aphoristic form. It is divided into seven prakaraṇas. It is considered to be an important contribution of Ācārya Tulasi to the Jain Yoga tradition. It is published by Jain Shvetambar Terapanthi Mahasabha, Gorakhpur in 1964.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Birth–1380 A.D., Death–1447 A.D.

[2]:

This treatise is divided into four pariccheda (chapters) and contains one hundred and one verses.

[3]:

3.10

[4]:

3.11

[5]:

3.12

[6]:

This description in extracted from the translator’s note on verse 3.12 of the treatise Adhyātmakamalamārtaṇḍa. it is translated by Darbarilal Kothia.

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