Kulakara, Kula-kara: 6 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Kulakara means something in Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Google Books: Jaina Iconography

Kulakara (कुलकर) represent the first law-givers in Jainism;—In course of time, the Wishing Trees (kalpa-vṛkṣa) failed to give proper service and man was obliged to protect himself against wild animals etc., and quarrels over properties arose. In difficulties such as these, man could approach the Kulakaras of his times for proper guidance, protection and dispensation of justice. Kulakaras were thus the first law-givers in Jainism.

Śvetāmbara list of Kulakaras and names of their wives (Bhagavatī-sūtra, Sthānāṅga-sūtra, Samavāyāṅga-sūtra, Āvaśyaka-niryukti):

  1. Vimalavāhana (wife Candrayaśā),
  2. Cakṣuṣmān (wife Candrakāntā),
  3. Yaśomān or Yaśasvin (wife Surūpā),
  4. Abhicandra (wife Pratirūpā),
  5. Prasenajit (wife Cakṣuḥkāntā),
  6. Marudeva (wife Śrīkāntā),
  7. Nābhi (wife Marudevī)

But the Jambūdvīpaprajñapti (another Śvetāmbara text) differs from other Āgama texts:

  1. Sumati,
  2. Pratiśruti,
  3. Sīmaṅkara,
  4. Sīmandhara,
  5. Kṣemaṅkara,
  6. Kṣemandhara,
  7. Vimalavāhana,
  8. Cakṣuṣmān,
  9. Yaśasvin,
  10. Abhicandra,
  11. Candrābha,
  12. Prasenajit,
  13. Marudeva,
  14. Nābhi,
  15. Ṛṣabha.

The Tiloyapaṇṇatti (a Digambara text) gives the following details:

  1. Pratiśruti (wife Svayamprabhā),
  2. Sanmati (wife Yaśasvatī),
  3. Kṣemaṅkara (wife Sunandā),
  4. Kṣemandhara (wife Vimalā),
  5. Sīmaṅkara (wife Manohārī),
  6. Sīmandhara (wife Yaśodharā)
  7. Vimalavāhana (wife Sumati),
  8. Cakṣuṣmān (wife Dhāriṇī),
  9. Yaśasvin (wife Kāntamālā),
  10. Abhicandra (wife Śrīmati),
  11. Candrābha (wife Prabhāvati),
  12. Marudeva (wife Satyā),
  13. Prasenajit (wife Amitamati),
  14. Nābhirāja (wife Marudevi).

The Ādipurāṇa however adds that Ṛṣabha, the son of Nābhi, was both a Jina and a Kulakara, and that Bharata, the son of Ṛṣabhanātha, was both a Cakradhṛt and a Kuladhṛt. It would thus seem that the author wants to raise the number of Kulakaras from 14 to 16. Varāṅgacarita explicitly says that there were sixteen Manus, and gives a similar list. They are called Vaṃśakaras or propagators of race and Bhūmipālas or Kings and law-givers.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kulakara (कुलकर) refers to a sub-division of the Kulārya class of Āryas (one of the two types of human beings), taking birth in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—(cf. Commentary to Tattvārthādhigamasūtra 3.15)

Accordingly:—“In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. The Āryas have sub-divisions: kṣetra (country), jāti (caste), kula (family), karma (work), śilpa (craft), and bhāṣā (language). [...] Kulāryas are the Kulakaras, Cakrins, Viṣṇus, and Balas, or those who are born in a pure family from the third, fifth, or seventh generation”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kulakara (कुलकर).—m. the founder of a family.

Derivable forms: kulakaraḥ (कुलकरः).

Kulakara is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms kula and kara (कर). See also (synonyms): kulakartṛ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kulakara (कुलकर):—[=kula-kara] [from kula] m. the founder of a family, ancestor, [Mahābhārata]

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Kulakara (कुलकर):—(kula + kara) adj. subst. ein Geschlecht gründend, Gründer eines Geschlechts, Stammvater: kurūṇāṃ kulakaram (saṃvaraṇam) [Mahābhārata 1, 6562.] haihayānāṃ kulakaraḥ [3, 12654.] — Vgl. kulakartar .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Kulakara (कुलकर):—Adj. ein Geschlecht gründend , Stammvater von.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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