Jangala, Jāṅgala, Jaṅgala: 23 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Jangala means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Jāṅgala (देश, “forest”):—One of the six types of habitats (deśa).—These geographical habitats are divided according to their bhūtas. Jāṅgala has a predominance of Vāta. Skilled physicians should account for the nature of the habitat when treating a patient. The word is used throughout Ayurvedic (India medicine) literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल) refers to “(water from) the jungle”, as mentioned in verse 5.13-14 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] as concerns (water from) wells, ponds [viz., jāṅgala: jāṅgalānūpaśailataḥ], etc., one should know (if it comes) from jungle, swamp, or rock. No water or, in case of incapability, little (is) to be drunk by those suffering from weak digestion and visceral induration (and) by those suffering from jaundice, abdominal swellings, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, dysentery, and cutaneous swellings. Except in autumn and summer, even a healthy man shall drink only little”.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल, “dry”) or Jāṅgaladeśa refers to “dry land” and represents one of the three classifications of “land” (deśa), as defined in the first chapter (ānūpādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “contrary to ānūpa, the dry land [jāṅgala-deśa] is fertile for Mudga (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) or Leguminous grains and rice and barley type of grains. It is a warm and good land capable of increasing pitta-doṣa and the adaptability of its inhabitants, who may be free from passion. The cows and goats of such a a land yield more milk. Its wells contain sufficient water”.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल) refers to “forest water” and is classified as terrestial type of water (jala) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Different types of water (jala) and their properties are mentioned here [viz., in jala-prakaraṇa]. The water is classified into two as celestial and terrestrial ones. Terrestrial waters are classified into three [viz., forest originated (jāṅgala)].

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल).—A country in ancient India. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 56).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल).—(c) a kingdom of Madhyadeśa and a tribe.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 40; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 109; Matsya-purāṇa 114. 34.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. V.53.7) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Jāṅgala) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Jāṅgala (त्रिसन्धि) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Jāṅgala) is named Kapardi. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल) (distinguished by the city Ahicchatra) refers to one of the 25½ countries of the Kṣetrāryas, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. The Āryas have sub-divisions [e.g., kṣetra (country)]. [...] The kṣetrāryas are born in the 15 Karmabhumis. Here in Bharata they have 25½ places of origin (e.g., Jāṅgala), distinguishable by cities (e.g., Ahicchatra) in which the birth of Tīrthakṛts, Cakrabhṛts, Kṛṣṇas, and Balas takes place”.

2) Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल) is the name of an ancient kingdom, according to chapter 4.2 [vāsupūjya-caritra].—Accordingly, as Vasupūjya and Jayā spoke to Vāsupūjya, “All the existing kings, among men and the Vidyādharas, who are of good family, capable, heroic, wealthy, famous, possessing the fourfold army, known for guarding their subjects, free from blemish, faithful to engagements, always devoted to dharma, in Madhyadeśa, Vatsadeśa, [...] and also [... the Jāṅgalas, ...] and other realms in the north. [...] These now, son, beg us constantly through messengers, who are sent bearing valuable gifts, to give their daughters to you. [...]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Jāṅgala.—(IA 18), cf. s-ānūpa-jāṅgala, an epithet of the gift land; either ‘arid’ or ‘covered with jungle’. Note: jāṅgala is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Jangala in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

jaṅgala : (nt.) jungle; a sandy and waterless place.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Jaṅgala, (nt.) a rough, sandy & waterless place, jungle A. V, 21; J. IV, 71; VvA. 338. Cp. ujjaṅgala. (Page 277)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jaṅgala (जंगल).—m ( P) Verdigrise.

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jaṅgala (जंगल).—n (S) A forest or wood: also a waste, wild, drear, desert place gen. Pr.jaṅgalacā vārā gharacā bhārā. jaṃ0 phiraṇēṃ To go amongst the bushes (to ease nature), i. e. to go anywhere for this purpose.

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jaṅgala (जंगल).—a C Wasted and worn with age--man or animal.

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jaṅgala (जंगल).—f A ploughshare.

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jaṅgalā (जंगला).—m A particular rāgiṇī. See rāga.

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jaṅgalā (जंगला).—m ( P) Verdigrise.

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jaṅgāla (जंगाल).—m () Verdigrise.

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jāṅgala (जांगल).—f Linking together &c. See jāṅgaḍa Sig. III.

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jāṅgalā (जांगला) [or जांगळा, jāṅgaḷā].—a (jaṅgala) A contemptuous or careless epithet for an European.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

jaṅgala (जंगल).—n A forest or wood; also a waste wild, desert place. m Verdigris. p Wasted and worn with age.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jaṅgala (जङ्गल).—a. [gal-yaṅ-ac pṛṣo°] Desert, waste.

-laḥ, -lam Flesh, meat.

-lam 1 A desert, dreary ground, waste land.

2) A thicket, forest.

3) A secluded or unfrequented place.

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Jaṅgāla (जङ्गाल).—A ridge of earth running along the edge of a field to collect water and to form a passage over it, land-mark.

Derivable forms: jaṅgālaḥ (जङ्गालः).

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Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल).—a., (- f.) [जङ्गले भवः जङ्गलप्रायो वा अण् (jaṅgale bhavaḥ jaṅgalaprāyo vā aṇ)]

1) Rural, picturesque.

2) Wild.

3) Savage, barbarous.

4) Arid, desert.

-laḥ The francoline partridge.

-lam Flesh, flesh of deer &c.; Māl.5.5.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Jaṅgala (जङ्गल).—m. (Sanskrit Lex. and Pali id., according to [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary] nt., which its citations do not prove; jaṅgalāni Jātaka (Pali) iv.71.1 is an adj.), wild place, jungle: khānayet kūpa jaṅgale Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 235.11 (verse); ujjaṅgalo ca jaṅgalo Mahāvastu ii.207.5, 8 (treated as n. pr. (proper name) by Senart, Index).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jaṅgala (जङ्गल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) Desert, solitary, waste, jungle, wild, &c. n.

(-laṃ) Flesh. E. jaṅga for jaṅgama moveable, and la what brings, or takes, i. e. appertaining to moveable beings, as beasts birds, &c. gala-yaṅ-ac pṛṣodarāditvāt .

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Jaṅgāla (जङ्गाल).—m.

(-laḥ) A land mark, a limit, a boundary, a ridge of earth running along the edge of a field for collecting water and forming a passage over it. E. jaṅga locomotion, and la what makes, āṅ prefixed, with the sense of limitation. gama-yaṅ luk vā ḍa . jaṅgaṃ kuṭilagatiṃ alati vārayati al aṇ .

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Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lī-laṃ) 1. Rural, picturesque, diversified with hill, vale, wood, and water, (country) 2. Wild, jangali, barbarous, savage. 3. Wild, (not tame, as an animal, &c.) m.

(-laḥ) The francoline partridge. f. (-lī) Cowach, (Carpopogon pruriens.) n.

(-laṃ) 1. Flesh 2. Game, the flesh of deer, &c. E. jaṅgala a wilderness, and aṇ aff. jaṅgale bhavaḥ jaṅgalaprāyo vā .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jaṅgala (जङ्गल).—[jaṅgal + a] (frequentat. of gal? cf. glai), adj. Dry, desert.

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Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल).—i. e. jaṅgala + a, I. adj. 1. Dry, even and productive (country), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 69. 2. Existing in such a country, [Suśruta] 1, 184, 12. 3. Belonging to game which lives in such a country, [Suśruta] 1, 72, 2. Ii. n. Game, [Suśruta] 2, 342, 21. Iii. m. pl. The name of a people, Mahābhārata 5, 2127.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल).—[adjective] arid, level, fertile (land); living in such a country. [masculine] a kind of partridge; [neuter] deer, game.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jaṅgala (जङ्गल):—mfn. arid, sterile, desert, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) m. = -patha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) meat, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) n. idem

5) = gula, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) cf. dīrgha-, jāṅg.

7) Jaṅgāla (जङ्गाल):—m. a dyke, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल):—mfn. ([from] jaṅg) arid, sparingly grown with trees and plants (though not unfertile; covered with jungle, [Horace H. Wilson]), [Manu-smṛti vii, 69; Yājñavalkya i, 320; Suśruta] etc.

9) found or existing in a jungly district (water, wood, deer), [Suśruta]

10) made of arid wood, coming from wild deer[, i, iii; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi i, 5, 375]

11) wild, not tame, [Horace H. Wilson]

12) savage, [Horace H. Wilson]

13) m. the francoline partridge, [Siṃhāsana-dvātriṃśikā or vikramāditya-caritra, jaina recension xxvi, 2]

14) Name of a man, [Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya x, 138 ff.]

15) [plural] Name of a people, [Mahābhārata v, 2127; vi, 346 and 364] (cf. kuru-)

16) n. venison, [Suśruta]

17) meat, [Bālarāmāyaṇa iii, 3]

18) for gula q.v.

19) cf. ṛṣi-jāṅgalikī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jaṅgala (जङ्गल):—[(laḥ-lā-laṃ) a.] Desert. n. Flesh.

2) Jaṅgāla (जङ्गाल):—(laḥ) 1. m. A landmark, a boundary; a mound.

3) Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल):—[(laḥ-lī-laṃ) a.] Rural, picturesque, wild, woody. m. Francoline partridge. f. Cowach. n. Flesh.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Jaṅgala (जङ्गल):—

1) adj. subst. m. wasserarm, eine wasserarme Gegend [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 953.] [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] eine menschenleere, unbewohnte Gegend [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 392.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 651.] [Medinīkoṣa l. 92.] Die zweite Bed. ist offenbar aus der ersten hervorgegangen, da nirjala und nirjana leicht mit einander verwechselt werden können. Jungle, welches aus jaṅgala entstanden ist, bezeichnet heut zu Tage in Indien ein Dickicht, einen niedrigen Wald. jaṅgalapathenāhṛtam = jāṅgalapathika [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 5, 1, 77], Vārtt. In compositis, welche auf jaṅgala ausgehen, kann nach [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 7, 3, 25] bei Ableitungen, welche eine Steigerung des ersten Vocals erfordern, auch der erste Vocal von jaṅgala zu ā gesteigert werden: kaurujaṅgala oder kaurujāṅgala von kurujaṅgala [Scholiast] —

2) Fleisch, m. [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] n. [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 622.] m. n. [Medinīkoṣa] — Vgl. jāṅgala, jaṅgula .

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Jaṅgāla (जङ्गाल):—m. Damm [Jaṭādhara im Śabdakalpadruma]

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Jaṅgala (जङ्गल):—n. Gift [Śabdakalpadruma] und [WILSON] nach [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 1, 2, 5.] Die gedr. Ausg. hat jaṅgala; vgl. jedoch jāṅgulika, aber auch jaṅgama am Ende.

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Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल):—(von jaṅgala)

1) adj. trocken, eben, spätlich bewachsen aber dabei fruchtbar (von Gegenden: Gegens. ānūpa und maru), = nirjala [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 953, v. l.] [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] alpodakatṛṇo yastu pravātaḥ pracurātapaḥ . sa jñeyo jāṅgalo deśo bahudhānyādisaṃyutaḥ .. [Kullūka] zu [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 69.] [Suśruta 1, 130, 10. 15.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 53, 86. 89.] jāṅgalaṃ sasyasaṃpannamāryaprāyamanāvilam . ramyamānatasāmantaṃ svājīvyaṃ deśamāvaset .. [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 69.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 1, 320.] ajāṅgala n. nicht trockenes Flachland, eine feuchte Gegend [Suśruta 2, 135, 11.] —

2) adj. in einer solchen Gegend sich vorfindend, lebend: udaka [Suśruta 1, 174, 1.] Thiere, Wild [184, 12. 200, 6. 204, 4.] —

3) vom Wilde, das in einer solchen Gegend lebt, kommend: māṃsa Wildpret [Suśruta 1, 72, 2. 367, 10.] n. Wildpret: śākunajāṅgalaṃ ca [2, 342, 21.] sajāṅgala [6. 436, 2] (?). jāṅgalarasa und jāṅgalo rasaḥ Brühe von Wildpret [41, 2. 56, 19. 91, 4. 228, 7. 462, 5.] jāṅgala n. Fleisch [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 622, v. l.] —

4) m. Haselhuhn [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 651.] [Medinīkoṣa l. 94.] —

5) m. pl. Nomen proprium eines Volkes: kuravaste sajāṅgalāḥ [Mahābhārata 5, 2127.] kurupāñcālāḥ śālvā mādreyajāṅgalāḥ [6, 346.] kakṣā gopālakakṣāśca jāṅgalāḥ kuruvarṇakāḥ [364.] [Viṣṇupurāṇa 185. 192.] kuru = śrīkaṇṭhajāṅgala [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 405.] Vgl. kurujāṅgala . —

6) m. Nomen proprium eines Mannes [Śatruṃjayamāhātmya 10, 138. fgg.] —

7) f. ī Name einer Pflanze, Mucuna pruritus Hook., [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — Vgl. jaṅgala, jāṅgula .

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Jaṅgala (जङ्गल):—vgl. dīrgha .

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Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल):—

3) n. Fleisch [Halāyudha 3, 9.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Jaṅgala (जङ्गल):——

1) Adj. wasserarm oder menschenleer ; m. ein solche Gegend.

2) m. n. Fleisch.

3) n. Gift [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 1,2,5] (wohl jaṅgamaṃ viṣam zu lesen).

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Jaṅgāla (जङ्गाल):—m. Damm.

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Jāṅgala (जाङ्गल):——

1) Adj. — a) trocken , eben spärlich bewachsen aber dabei fruchtbar (Gegend). — b) ein einer solchen Gegend sich vorfindend , — lebend. — c) vom Wilde , das in einer solchen Gegend lebt , kommend. — d) aus trockenem Holze gemacht ( = kāṣṭhaja) [Hemādri’s Caturvargacintāmaṇi 1,215,18.19.] —

2) m. — a) Haselhuhn [Indische studien von Weber 15,412.] — b) Nomen proprium — α) Pl. eines Volkes. — β) eines Mannes. —

3) *f. ī — a) Mucuna pruritus. — b) = jāṅgula 3)a). — c) Beiname der Gaurī [Galano's Wörterbuch] ; vgl. jāṅgula 3)b). —

4) n. — a) Wildpret. — b) Fleisch [Bālarāmāyaṇa 54,3.] — c) fehlerhaft für jāṅgula 1)b) [Medinikośa. 1.94.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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