Videha, Videhā: 25 definitions
Videha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Videha (विदेह).—Another name of emperor Nimi. (See under Janaka.
2) Videha (विदेह).—The kingdom of Mithilā. This country which lies on the North East part of India was ruled by Kṣatriya kings of the dynasty of Videha. It is stated in Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 29, that Bhīmasena had during his eastern regional conquest, conquered this country. About this kingdom which is the native country of Sītā, the following information is available in Mahābhārata.
2) (i) The hermitage of Paraśurāma was on the North of Videha. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 130, Stanza 13).
2) (ii) The army of Videha attacked Arjuna in the battle of Bhārata. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 117, Stanza 32).
2) (iii) Karṇa defeated the Kṣatriya princes of the country of Janaka. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 6).
2) (iv) Paraśurāma cut the Kṣatriyas of this country into pieces with his sharp arrows. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 70, Stanza 11).
2) (v) This country had been giving tribute to Karṇa. (Mahābhārata Karṇa Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 33).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Videha (विदेह).—(c) kingdom to which the Yadus migrated. Its king was stationed by Jarāsandha on the western gate during the siege of Gomanta. The capital went by the same name, and here lived a prostitute Piṅgalā (s.v.) by name.1 An eastern country;2 Parigha and Hari viceroys over.3
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 2. 3; 52. 11 ; 57. 24; 86. 14; XI. 8. 22; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 123.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 54; Matsya-purāṇa 114. 45.
- 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 95. 28.
1b) A name of Janaka. He had realised the Yoga power of Hari.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 2. 14; II. 7. 44.
1c) A name of Nimi.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 5. 8.
Videha (विदेह) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.26.4, II.27.12, V.72.15, VI.10.55, VI.112.108) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Videha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Videha (विदेह).—The kingdom of Mithilā in India ruled by King Nimi.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Videha (विदेह) is the name of a country pertaining to the Oḍramāgadhī local usage (pravṛtti) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. These pravṛttis provide information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. It is mentioned that this local usage (adopted by these countries) depends on the verbal style (bhāratī) and the graceful style (kaiśikī).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Videha (विदेह) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—It is Tirhut or Tirabhukti.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7
Videha (विदेह) is the name of a country classified as both Hādi and Kādi (both types of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Videha] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Videha was an ancient Indian kingdom, located in what is now southern Nepal and the northern Indian state of Bihar. During the late Vedic period (c.850-500 BCE), it became a dominant political and cultural centre of South Asia. The capital of Videha was Mithila, identified with the modern town of Janakpur in Southern Nepal.
Late Vedic literature such as the Shatapatha Brahmana and the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad both mention Janaka (c. 7th century BCE) as a great philosopher-king of Videha, renowned for his patronage of Vedic culture and philosophy, and whose court was an intellectual centre for Brahmin sages such as Yajnavalkya.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Videha. A setthi in the time of Padumuttara Buddha. He was a previous birth of Maha Kassapa. His wife was Bhadda Kapilani in this age. Ap.ii.578.
2. Videha, Videha. A country and its people. At the time of the Buddha, Videha formed one of the two important principalities of the Vajjian confederacy. Its capital was Mithila. The kingdom bordered on the Ganges, on one side of which was Magadha and on the other Videha (See, e.g., M.i.225; MA.i.448). Adjacent to it were Kasi and Kosala. In the Gandhara Jataka (J.iii.365; iv. 316) the kingdom of Videha is said to have been three hundred leagues in extent, with sixteen thousand villages, well filled storehouses and sixteen thousand dancing girls. Videha was a great trade centre, and mention is made (PvA.227) of merchants coming from Savatthi to sell their wares in Videha.
The Suruci Jataka seems to show that a close connection existed between Videha and Benares. In the Buddhas time, one of Bimbisaras queens was probably from Videha (see Vedehiputta). Mention is also made (MA.i.534) of a friendship existing between the kings of Gandhara and Videha. In earlier times Videha was evidently a kingdom, its best known kings being Mahajanaka and Nimi; but in the Buddhas time it was a republic, part of the Vajjian federation. According to the Mahagovinda Sutta (D.ii.235), it was King Renu who, with the help of Mahagovinda Jotipala, founded the Videha kingdom. The Commentaries (E.g., DA.ii.482; MA.i.184) state that Videha was colonized by the inhabitants, who were brought from Pubbavideha by King Mandhata.
The Satapatha Brahmana (I.iv.1), however, ascribes the kingdom to Mathava the Videgha, and gives as its boundaries Kausiki in the east, the Ganges to the south, the Sadarura in the west, and the Himalaya in the north. In the centre of Videha was Pabbatarattha, in which was the city Dhammakonda, the residence of Dhaniya. (SNA.i.26).
The strainer used by the Buddha was honoured, after his death, by the people of Videha (Bu.xxviii.11).
Uruvela Kassapa was, in a previous birth, king of Videha (Ap.ii.483).
3. Videha. The name of a king of Videha, the father of the Bodhisatta in the Vinilaka Jataka (q.v.). v.l. Vedeha.
4. Videha. A king of Videha who later became an ascetic. For his story see the Gandhara Jataka. He is identified with Ananda. v.l. Vedeha. J.iii.369.
5. Videha. See Vedeha.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
1) Videha (विदेह).—One of the seven regions (kṣetra) of Jambūdvīpa according to Jaina cosmology. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside. In Videha flows the twin rivers Sitā and Sitodā.
2) Videha (विदेह) refers to a class of piśāca deities according to the Śvetāmbara tradition of Jainism, while Digambara does not recognize this class. The piśācas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas).
The deities such as the Videhas are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
1) Videha (विदेह) (or Mahāvideha, Videhakṣetra, Videhavarṣa) refers to one of the seven zones of Jambūdvīpa which is situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.2 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly:—“Now, there are 7 zones here in Jambūdvīpa: Bhārata, Haimavata, Harivarṣa, Videha, Ramyaka, Hairaṇyavata, and Airāvata from south to north. Making the division between these there are 7 mountain-ranges, bounding the zones: Himavat, Mahāhimavat, Niṣadha, Nīla, Rukmin, and Śikharin with equal diameter at the base and top. [...] In the zone named Videha there are the great rivers, Śītā and Śītodā; [...] The first of each pair flows to the east and the second to the west. [...]”.
2) Videha (विदेह) (distinguished by the city Mithilā) refers to one of the 25½ countries of the Kṣetrāryas, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3.—Accordingly, “In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. The Āryas have sub-divisions [e.g., kṣetra (country)]. [...] The kṣetrāryas are born in the 15 Karmabhumis. Here in Bharata they have 25½ places of origin (e.g., Videha), distinguishable by cities (e.g., Mithilā) in which the birth of Tīrthakṛts, Cakrabhṛts, Kṛṣṇas, and Balas takes place”.
3) Videha (विदेह) also refers to a sub-division of the Jātyārya class of Āryas (one of the two types of human beings), taking birth in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3.—Accordingly, “[...] The Jātyāryas are the Ikṣvākus, Jñātas, Haris, Videhas, Kurus, Ugras, Bhojas, and Rājanyas”.Source: HereNow4u: Lord Śrī Mahāvīra
Videha (विदेह) is the name of a country visited by Mahāvīra during his 2nd Year as Kevalī.—Completing the rainy period stay at Rājagṛha, the Lord moved towards Videha. He arrived at ‘Brāhmaṇakuṇḍa’ and stayed at Bahuśāla-caitya. Scholar Ṛṣabhadatta had come to pay respects with his wife Devānandā. Seeing the Lord, Devānandā’s heart was filled with love.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds
Videha (विदेह) or Videhavarṣa refers to a region of Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10. The human beings from this region can attain the relm of siddha (without body or videha). Hence it is called Videhakṣetra. It is possible as the region always has the time of 4th time epoch existent. The mountain chain Niṣadha separates the Harivarṣa and Videha regions. The mountain chain Nīla separates the Videha and Ramyaka regions. Sītā and Sītodā rivers divide Videha-kṣetra. The life span of inhabitants in Videha region is numerable years. There height is 500 bows and they take food once a day.
Bharata, Airāvata and Videha except Uttarakuru and Devakuru are the regions of labour i.e. where spiritual effort is possible also. There are 15 regions of labour in the Two-and-half continents (dhāi-dvīpa) namely; five in Bharata, five in Airāvata and five in Videha regions. The region where the inhabitants engage themselves in the six activities /occupations are called region of labour. The Human beings living in the regions of labour are called inhabitants of the region of labour (karmabhūmija).
Jambūdvīpa (containing the Videha region) is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre. Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans. Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
Videha (विदेह) is the name of an ancient country situated in Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—At the time of the Buddha the Videha country was one of the eight constituent principalities of the Vajjian confederacy. Of these eight principalities the Licchavis of Vesālī and the Videhas of Mithilā were, however, the most important. In one of the Jātakas we read that the kingdom of Videha had 15,000 villages, 16,000 storehouses filled, and 16,000 dancing girls.
It is clear from Dhammapāla’s Paramatthadīpanī on the Theragāthā (pp. 277 278) that at the time of the Buddha, Videha was a centre of trade. We are told of people coming from Sāvatthī to Videha to sell their wares. It is also stated that the route passed through a desert. Videha is identical with ancient Tīrabhukti, that is modern Tirhut. According to the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa Videha was so named after Māthava the Videgha who colonized it. It was bounded by the Kausikī (Kosi) in the east, the Ganges in the south, the Sadānīrā (the Gandak or the Rāpti) in the west and the Himalayas in the north.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vidēha (विदेह).—a S Incorporeal. 2 Disembodied.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
vidēha (विदेह).—a Incorporeal; disembodied.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Bodiless, incorporeal.
-hāḥ (m. pl.) Name of a country, the ancient Mithilā; तौ विदेहनगरीनिवासिनां गां गताविव दिवः पुनर्वसू (tau videhanagarīnivāsināṃ gāṃ gatāviva divaḥ punarvasū) R.11. 36;12.26.
2) The natives of this country.
-haḥ 1 The district Videha.
2) Name of Janaka.
-hā The same as विदेह (videha).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-haḥ-hā-haṃ) Incorporeal, without body. m.
(-haḥ) A sovereign of the family of Janaka, king of Mithila. f.
(-hā) A district in the province of Behar, the same as the ancient Mithila, or the modern Tirhut. E. vi privative, and deha the body.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Videha (विदेह).—[vi-deha], I. adj. Without body. Ii. m. The king of Videhā. Iii. f. hā, The name of a district.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Videha (विदेह).—1. [masculine] [plural] [Name] of a people; [masculine] the country or a king of the V.
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Videha (विदेह).—2. [adjective] bodiless, dead, [abstract] tva [neuter]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
Videha (विदेह) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—or rather videhapati a medical author. Quoted by Vāgbhaṭa in Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā 6, 40, in Rugviniścaya Oxf. 314^b, by Candraṭa Oxf. 358^a, in Ṭoḍarānanda W. p. 290.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Videha (विदेह):—[=vi-deha] [from vi] a See sub voce
2) [=vi-deha] b mfn. bodiless, incorporeal
3) [v.s. ...] deceased, dead (also videha-prāpta), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa] etc.
4) [v.s. ...] m. (a) (cf. vi-degha) Name of a country (= the modern Tirhut), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.
5) [v.s. ...] a king of V° ([especially] applied to Janaka), [Upaniṣad; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Rājataraṅgiṇī]
6) [v.s. ...] Name of a medical author (also called -pati, or hādhipa), [Catalogue(s)]
7) Videhā (विदेहा):—[=vi-dehā] [from vi-deha] f. the capital city of V° id est. Mithilā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) Videha (विदेह):—[=vi-deha] m. [plural] the people of V°Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Videha (विदेह):—[vi-deha] (haḥ-hā-haṃ) a. Incorporeal. m. King of Mithilā. f. Mithilā.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Videha (विदेह):—1. (2. vi + deha) adj. körperlos, vom Körper befreit, verstorben [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 769.] [Medinīkoṣa Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 24.] [Mahābhārata 3, 8874. 6, 3445.] śirogaṇāḥ [11,432.] [Rāmāyaṇa 7,55,21. 57,20.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 9,13,11. 13.] [Yogasūtra 1,19.] [Oxforder Handschriften 42,a,35.] kaivalyaprāpti [Madhusūdanasarasvatī’s Prasthānabheda] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 20, 17.] mukti (Gegens. jīvanmukti) [WEBER, Rāmatāpanīya Upaniṣad 337.] [Colebrooke] [?I,370. Oxforder Handschriften 123,a,28.] muktyādikathana Titel einer Abhandlung [237,a, No. 568.] [HALL 13.] — Vgl. mahā 2).
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Videha (विदेह):—2. (= videgha)
1) m. a) pl. Nomen proprium eines Volkes, nördlich vom Ganges im heutigen Tirhut mit der Hauptstadt Mithilā, [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 1, 8.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 946.] antarā niṣadhaṃ nīlaṃ ca videhāḥ [1538, Scholiast] kosalavidehānāṃ maryādāḥ [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 1, 4, 1, 17. 14, 6, 11, 6. 7, 2, 30.] kāśivideheṣu [Kauṣītakyupaniṣad.4,1.] [Pariśiṣṭa des Atharvaveda] in [Weber’s Verzeichniss No. 93 (56).] [Mahābhārata.1,4452.2,1062.6,353] ([Viṣṇupurāṇa 188]). [Harivaṃśa 1980. 12832.] [Rāmāyaṇa.1,68,14 (70,16] [Gorresio).] [Rāmāyaṇa Gorresio.1,71,7.4,40,25.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S.5,41. 71.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 57,44.] [Oxforder Handschriften 258,b,27.] [Daśakumāracarita 95,8.] gaṇa dhūmādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 2, 127.] [Burnouf 421.] [TĀRAN. 14.] rāja [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 88, 7.] videhādhipati [Harivaṃśa 4968.] [Raghuvaṃśa 12, 26.] videhādhipa ein Mediciner (vgl. u. b) [Suśruta 2, 302, 8.] nagarī = mithilā [Raghuvaṃśa 11, 36.] nagara [HALL 46.] videhāḥ pañca te ca dvividhāḥ pūrve cāpare ca [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 946, Scholiast] pūrva [Vyutpatti oder Mahāvyutpatti 81.] pūrvavidehe (das Land) [Rgva tch’er rol pa ed. Calc. 21, 9.] pūrvavideho nava yojanasahasrāṇi [170, 15.] pūrvavidehalipi [144, 5.] — b) ein Fürst der Videha (vgl. vaideha) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] janaka [WEBER, Rāmatāpanīya Upaniṣad 331.] als Nomen proprium [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 2, 7, 44.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 8, 612.] ein Mediciner (vgl. videhādhipa unter a) [Weber’s Verzeichniss 290,1.] [Oxforder Handschriften 314,b, No. 746. 358,a,6.] —
3) f. ā Bez. der Stadt Mithilā [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 1, 15.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 975.] [Halāyudha 2, 132.] [Lebensbeschreibung Śākyamuni’s 235 5]). — Vgl. apara, mahā und vaideha .
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Videha (विदेह):—(a) incorporeal; beyond physical bonds; ~[tva] bodilessness; the state of being beyond physical bonds.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Videhadhipa, Videhadhipati, Videhaja, Videhaka, Videhakaivalyaprapti, Videhakshetra, Videhamukti, Videhamuktikathana, Videhamuktyadikathana, Videhanagara, Videhanagari, Videhapati, Videhapura, Videhapuri, Videharaja, Videhasthiti, Videhatva, Videhavarsha.
Full-text (+274): Vaideha, Mithila, Mahavideha, Kosalavideha, Pratindhaka, Udavasu, Videhamuktyadikathana, Videhamuktikathana, Purvavideha, Aparavideha, Videgha, Vaidehi, Kirtirata, Vedeha, Videhapati, Videhanagari, Videharaja, Videhanagara, Shitoda, Videhaja.
Search found 60 books and stories containing Videha, Videhā, Vidēha, Vi-deha, Vi-dehā; (plurals include: Videhas, Videhās, Vidēhas, dehas, dehās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 23: Description of Jambūdvīpa < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Part 1: Incarnation as Padmasena < [Chapter III - Vimalanāthacaritra]
Part 18: Incarnation as god < [Chapter I - Previous births of Mahāvīra]
The Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Section XXIX < [Digvijaya Parva]
Section XXVIII < [Digvijaya Parva]
Section CCLXXVII < [Draupadi-harana Parva]
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
The Ramayana of Valmiki (by Hari Prasad Shastri)
Chapter 40 - Sugriva sends his Monkeys to the East in search of Sita < [Book 4 - Kishkindha-kanda]
Chapter 67 - Rama encounters Jatayu < [Book 3 - Aranya-kanda]
Chapter 66 - Rama’s Grief < [Book 5 - Sundara-kanda]
Brihat Samhita (by N. Chidambaram Iyer)
The Jataka tales [English], Volume 1-6 (by Robert Chalmers)