Manushottara, Mānuṣottara: 6 definitions


Manushottara means something in Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Mānuṣottara can be transliterated into English as Manusottara or Manushottara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Manushottara in Jainism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Mānuṣottara (मानुषोत्तर) is the name of a mountain range enclosing the Puṣkaradvīpa region, which is partly inhabited by humans, according to Jain cosmological texts, such as the Tiloyapannatti. Puṣkaradvīpa is situated next to the Kāloda ocean, which is situated next to Dhātakikhaṇḍa, which is next to the Lavaṇoda ocean which is next to Jambūdvīpa. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Mānuṣottara (मानुषोत्तर) is the name of a mountain-range situated beyond Puṣkara-dvīpa, the continent surrounding the Kāloda ocean which is situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“Beyond it is the mountain-range, Mānuṣottara, round like a city-wall, surrounding the Human World. It is situated half-way in Puṣkara, golden, 1721 yojanas high, buried in the ground 430¼ yojanas, 1022 yojanas in diameter at the bottom, 723 at the middle, and 424 at the top. On the other side of it, mortals are not born, nor do they die. Even animals, etc., do not die, if they have gone to the other side of it. For that reason it is named ‘Mānuṣottara’. Beyond it there is no coarse fire, no clouds, lightning, rivers, time, etc.”.

Source: Shodhganga: A cultural study on the jain western Indian illustrated manuscripts

Mānuṣottara (मानुषोत्तर).—The circular mountain barrier called “Beyond humankind” (mānuṣottara) to signify that it serves as a limit to the normal human domain.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Mānuṣottara (मानुषोत्तर) mountain, of the form of a bangle, is in the middle of Puṣkara continent (puṣkaradvīpa): the third continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.7. Human beings are found up to the Mānuṣottara Mountain. The human beings are found in Two-and-half continents (dhāi-dvīpa) only. This whole region is called Manuṣyaloka (the region where human beings can exist).

How did Mānuṣottara Mountain get its name? The location of the Mānuṣottara Mountain, that marks the boundaries of the region of Manuṣyaloka, gave its name as Mānuṣottara Mountain. What is the expanse of Mānuṣottara Mountain? Mānuṣottara Mountain (the mountain up to where the human beings can go) is 1721 yojana high and 430 yojana down inside the earth. It is 1022 yojana at the surface of the earth, 723 yojana in the middle and 420 yojana at the top.

How many Jina temples are there on the Mānuṣottara Mountain? There are four Jina temples in the four directions on the Mānuṣottara Mountain. Can ascetics with high spiritual purification (i.e. with supernatural powers) and vidyādharas (human beings who live on Mānuṣottara Mountain and are always busy in auspicious activities) go beyond Mānuṣottara Mountain? No, they cannot go beyond Mānuṣottara Mountain.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Prakrit-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Manushottara in Prakrit glossary
Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Māṇusottara (माणुसोत्तर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Mānuṣottara.

Māṇusottara has the following synonyms: Māṇusuttara.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Manushottara in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mānuṣottara (मानुषोत्तर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Māṇusuttara, Māṇusottara.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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