Yam, Yaṃ: 8 definitions

Introduction

Yam means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Yam (यम्).—A short term (प्रत्याहार (pratyāhāra)) for the consonants which begin with य् (y) (in हयवरट् (hayavaraṭ)) and end (in ञमङ्णनम् (ñamaṅṇanam)) before the mute म् (m) i.e all semivowels, and fifth constants of the of the five classes; c.f. हलो यमां यमि लोपः (halo yamāṃ yami lopaḥ) Paan VIII.4.64

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

1) Yaṃ is the bīja-mantra of the Anahata Chakra (heart).

2) “Yaṃ” is the bīja-mantra for vāyu, (“air”).

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

yaṃ : ((nt. sing. of ya), adv.) which; whatever thing. adv. because of.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Yaṃ (यं).—= yat, see yac ca, yat khalu; yaṃ velaṃ, see velā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yam (यम्).—[(au) yamau] r. 1st cl (yamati) To copulate.

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Yam (यम्).—r. 1st cl. (au, u) auyamu (yacchvati) To stop, to cease, to refrain. With ni prefixed, 1. To remove, to dispel. 2. To observe as a vow or religious rite. 3. To regulate, to restrain. With ut, 1. To rise, to mount on. 2. To make effort or exertion. 3. To lift up, to raise. With vi and āṅ, To exercise. With sam and ni, To restrain. In some senses it takes the deponent form, as with āṅ prefix, (āyacchate) To put forth, to use or employ any part of one’s own body as the hand, &c. (āyacchati) 1. To size. 2. To go to, to proceed to, With sam, (saṃyacchate) To heap together any thing that is one’s own. (saṃyacchati) To associate with. With upa, (upayacchate) 1. To marry. 2. To agree or accede to. 3. To master by learning. r. 10th cl. (yamayati-te yāmayati) 1. To feed, to give food to. 2. To restrain.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yam (यम्).— (akin to dam), i. 1, yaccha, [Parasmaipada.] (in epic poetry also [Ātmanepada.], Mahābhārata 1, 5704). 1. To tame, to restrain. 2. To govern (as horses), Mahābhārata 3, 751. 3. To give, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 55. Ptcple. of the pf. pass. yata, Restrained, governed, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 130; in epic poetry also yatta, Mahābhārata 2, 2011 (maintained by the metre). Comp. Vāgyata, i. e. vāc-, adj. silent, taciturn, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 236. [Causal.], and i. 10, yāmaya. 1. To restrain. 2. † To give food. Ptcple. pf. pass. yamita, Restrained, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 29. Comp. A-, adj. not pared (as nails), [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 89.

— With the prep. adhi adhi, To give, Chr. 292, 12 = [Rigveda.] i. 85, 12.

— With ā ā, 1. To stop, [Bhaṭṭikāvya, (ed. Calc.)] 6, 119. 2. To suppress, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 149. 3. To draw, to bend (as a bow), [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 50, 9; [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 50, 101. 4. [Ātmanepada.] To extend, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 73, 4, C. 5. [Ātmanepada.] To possess, [Bhaṭṭikāvya, (ed. Calc.)] 8, 46. āyata, Long, [Pañcatantra] ii. 8. Comp. Pūrṇa-āyata, adj. completely drawn (as a bow), [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 13413. Comp. ptcple. of the fut. pass. an-āyamya, Not to be drawn, unpliant, Mahābhārata 1, 6953.

— With nirā nis-ā, nirāyata, Contracted, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 8.

— With vyā vi-ā, 1. [Ātmanepada.] To exert one’s power, Mahābhārata 3, 12740. 2. To fight, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 202, 7; [Ātmanepada.], [Bhaṭṭikāvya, (ed. Calc.)] 6, 119. 3. To open wide one’s eyes, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 47. 76. vyāyata, Long. 2. Excessive. 3. Busy. 4. Hard, firm. [Causal.] yāmaya, To use exercise, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 216.

— With ud ud, 1. To rise, [Hitopadeśa] 81, 4 (with infin., in order to kill). 2. To lift up, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 64. 3. To brandish, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 58. 4. To govern (as horses), Chr. 36, 19. 5. To offer, Mahābhārata 1, 1853. 6. To endeavour, Mahābhārata 2, 2357. 7. To study. udyata, 1. Raised, Chr. 3, 1. 2. Ready, [Hitopadeśa] 41, 4, M.M. 3. Intending, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 237. 4. Trained. 5. Active. Comp. Samara-, adj. ready for the combat.

— With abhyud abhi-ud, 1. To raise, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 171, 20. 2. To offer, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 247. abhyudyata, 1. Lifted up, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 327, 5 (Calc.). 2. Rising, proceeding to act, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 302.

— With prod pra-ud, 1. To lift up. prodyata, lifted, [Pañcatantra] 105, 19. 2. To cast, [Bhaṭṭikāvya, (ed. Calc.)] 15, 60.

— With samud sam-ud, 1. To incite, to urge (as horses), Mahābhārata 3, 756. 2. To lift up, 1, 6278. 3. To endeavour, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 14, 8. samudyata, Ready.

— With upa upa, 1. [Ātmanepada.] To marry, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 11 ([Parasmaipada.], [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 172, v.r., see Lois.). 2. To seize, [Ātmanepada.], [Bhaṭṭikāvya, (ed. Calc.)] 1, 16; with bhayam, To fear, [Bhaṭṭikāvya, (ed. Calc.)] 7, 101.

— With ni ni, 1. To stop, to govern, Mahābhārata 4, 1953. 2. To direct, Chr. 295, 16 = [Rigveda.] i. 92, 16. 3. To curb, to restrain, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 122, 22, to hold in (the breath), [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 1. 4. To punish, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 213. 5. To bind, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 87, 23. 6. To attain, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 93. 7. To assume, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 93. 8. To conceal, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 59. niyata, 1. Subdued, self-goyerned. 2. Submissive, [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 4, 11. 3. Abstemious, Chr. 50, 9. 4. Attentive. 5. Fixed, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 44. 6. Certain, destined, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 43, M.M.; right, i. [distich] 202, M.M. 7. Constant, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 44. 8. Inevitable, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 419; [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 52, 12. ºtam, adv. 1. Forcibly, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 6, 20. 2. Inevitably, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 41. 3. Constantly, always. 4. Surely, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 199. n. Eiementary matter. [Causal.] To restrain, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 92, 19, Chezy. niyamita, 1. Restrained. 2. Confined, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 93. 3. Prescribed. 4. Governed.

— With pratini prati-ni, pratiniyata, Determined proportionally (in proportion to the acts done in a preceding existence), [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 92; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 187, 22.

— With vini vi-ni, To punish, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 249.

— With saṃni sam-ni, To subdue, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 93.

— With pra pra, 1. To offer, to deliver, [Hitopadeśa] 65, 15; to give, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 223; Chr. 288, 15 = [Rigveda.] i. 48, 15 (yacchatāt, imperat. 2. sing.). 2. To give in marriage, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 89. 3. To restore, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 181; [Pañcatantra] 88, 14. 4. To pay, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 158. prayata, Well restrained, keeping his organs controlled, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 222. 2. Submissive, [Nala] 25, 2. 3. Careful, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 183; intent on his devotion, 11, 158; zealous, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 43. 4. Pure, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 145. Comp. A-, adj. impure, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 142.

— With pratipra prati-pra, To restore, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 195, 14.

— With saṃpra sam-pra, 1. To give, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 19. 2. To give in marriage, Mahābhārata 3, 16661 (= [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 2, 4, v. r. erroneous).

— With vi vi, To give, Chr. 292, 12 = [Rigveda.] i. 85, 12 (yanta, 2. pl. imperat. aor. 1.).

— With sam 1. To constrain, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 365. 2. To bind, Mahābhārata 3, 1694. 3. To subdue, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 11. 4. To govern (as horses), Mahābhārata 3, 12110. saṃyata, Restrained, subdued, [Nala] 1, 4; fettered. Comp. Su-saṃyata, adj. well composed, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 193 (v.r.).

— Cf. [Latin] jejunus, and probably jentare, fræna; [Gothic.] aiths; [Anglo-Saxon.] adh, adhum; [Old High German.] eidum.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yam (यम्).—yacchati yacchate (yamati, yamate), [participle] yata (q.v.) hold, hold up, lift, raise, erect, sustain, support; hold back, restrain, check, stop; hold out, offer, grant, furnish, give ([dative] or [locative] of [person or personal] & [accusative] of th., or [accusative] of [person or personal] & [instrumental] of th.); stretch, extend, show; [Middle] rest on ([locative]), stretch or extend with ([instrumental]); hold out, persevere, be obedient or faithful to ([dative]). [Causative] yamayati (te) hold back, restrain, control, bring in order.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yam (यम्):—[class] 1. [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxiii, 15]) yacchati ([Vedic or Veda] also te, and [Vedic or Veda] [Epic] yamati, te; [perfect tense] yayāma, yeme; 2. sg. yayantha, 3. [plural] yemuḥ, yemire, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.; 3. [dual number] irreg. -yamatuḥ, [Ṛg-veda v, 67, 1]; [Aorist] ayān, ayamuh; [imperative] yaṃsi, yandhi; [Potential] yamyās, yamīmahi, [Ṛg-veda]; ayāṃsam, ayāṃsi, ayaṃsta [subjunctive] yaṃsat, satas, sate, [ib.; Brāhmaṇa]; 3. sg. -yamiṣṭa, [Ṛg-veda v, 32, 7]; ayaṃsiṣam [grammar]; [future] yantā, [ib.]; yaṃsyati, yamiṣyati, [Brāhmaṇa] etc. [infinitive mood] yantum, yamitum, [ib.]; yantave, yamitavai, [Ṛg-veda]; [indeclinable participle] yatvā, yamitvā, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.; yatya, [Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa]; -yamya, [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra]; -yamam, [Ṛg-veda; Brāhmaṇa]),

—to sustain, hold, hold up, support ([Ātmanepada] ‘one’s self’; with [locative case] ‘to be founded on’), [Ṛg-veda; Brāhmaṇa; Chāndogya-upaniṣad];

—to raise, wield (a weapon etc.; [Ātmanepada] with āyudhaiḥ, ‘to brandish weapons’), [Ṛg-veda];

—to raise, extend or hold (as a screen etc.) over ([dative case]), [Ṛg-veda];

— ([Ātmanepada]) to extend one’s self before ([dative case]), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa];

—to raise (the other scale), weigh more, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa];

—to stretch out, expand, spread, display, show, [Ṛg-veda];

—to hold or keep in, hold back, restrain, check, curb, govern, subdue, control, [ib.] etc. etc.;

—to offer;—confer, grant, bestow on ([dative case] or [locative case]), present with ([instrumental case]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.;

— (with mārgam), to make way for ([genitive case]), [Mahābhārata];

— (with prati and [ablative]), to give anything in exchange for anything, [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 2-3, 11];

— ([Ātmanepada]) to give one’s self up to, be faithful to, obey ([dative case]), [Ṛg-veda];

—to raise, utter (a sound etc.), [ib.];

—to fix, establish, [ib.];

— ([Ātmanepada]) to be firm, not budge, [Ṛg-veda];

—to catch fire, [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa] ([Scholiast or Commentator]) :—[Passive voice] yamyate ([Aorist] ayā-mī), to be raised or lifted up or held back or restrained, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.:—[Causal] yāmayati ([Atharva-veda]), yamayati ([Brāhmaṇa] etc.; te, [Mahābhārata]; [Aorist] ayīyamat),

—to restrain, hold in, control, keep or put in order:—[Desiderative] yiyaṃsati, to wish to restrain etc., [Brāhmaṇa] :—[Intensive] yaṃyamīti (See ud-√yam) or yaṃyamyate ([Pāṇini 7-4, 85], [vArttika] 2, [Patañjali]) (cf. [Greek] ζημία, ‘restraint, punishment.’)

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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