Saura, Śaura, Shaura: 19 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Saura means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śaura can be transliterated into English as Saura or Shaura, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Shaur.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Śaura (शौर).—A name for Śuci Agni.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 29. 2.

2a) Saura (सौर).—The fire originating in waters; light and heat produced from;1 is Śuci agni;2 the Sun god.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 24. 12, 18; Vāyu-purāṇa 53. 8, 13.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 12. 3.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 1. 97.

2b) Belonging to Ārṣeya pravara of Bhārgavas.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 195. 38

2c) Śanaiscara born of Revatī in Cākṣuṣa epoch; (3/4) of Bṛhaspati in extent.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 53. 67, 109.

2d) The sthānam of the sun in the maṇḍalam.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 53. 59.

2e) One of the six darśanas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 104. 16.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra

Saura (सौर) represents an undesirable Ācārya, according to the 9th-century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra Ādikāṇḍa chapter 3.—The Lord said:—“I will tell you about the Sthāpakas endowed with perverse qualities. He should not construct a temple with those who are avoided in this Tantra. [...] He with whom one constructs a temple should not be a Śaiva, or a Saura, nor a Naiṣṭhika, nor a naked one, nor born of mixed marriage, nor unclean, old, or one who is of a despicable form or marked by great sin. [...] A god enshrined by any of these named above (viz., saura), is in no manner a giver of fruit. If a building for Viṣṇu is made anywhere by these excluded types (viz., saura) then that temple will not give rise to enjoyment and liberation and will yield no reward, of this there is no doubt”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Saura (सौर) refers to a “worshipper of the Sun”, according to the Janmasūtra.—Accordingly, “The Kaulika (reality) manifests in the seventh birth, that of the Śāmbhava state, which is the last (paścima). These Siddhas in the Western House attain the goal in (this) the Kali Age. A Bauddha is in the first life and a Jaina in the second. (Then) a Vedika (bhaṭṭa) is in the third, a Vaiṣṇava in the fourth, a worshipper of the Sun (Saura) in the fifth and (a Śaiva), the most excellent, in the sixth. The seventh (birth is in) the Western House, which is the Teaching of the Three Lineages”.

2) Saura (सौर) refers to one of the spiritual disciplines (darśana—systems) issued from the limbs of the body of the Goddess, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] All spiritual disciplines, whatever the tradition, are necessarily grounded in the same energy of the Śāmbhava state. They issue, as the texts put it, from the limbs of the body of the goddess who is this energy. These range from the lowest extremity—the left big toe—where Buddhism originates, to the highest—the End of Sixteen—where the Śāmbhava state is attained which is the source of the Kubjikā tradition. The systems (darśana) and their corresponding places of origin in the Goddess’s body are as follows: [5) Saura—the heart—hṛd, ...].

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Saura (सौर) [=Sūrya?] is the name of an author of Astronomical texts, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (the qualifications of) a jyotiṣaka. [...] He must have studied the works of Pauliśa, Romaka, Vasiṣṭha, Sūrya and Pitāmaha; he must have a correct, knowledge of a yuga (43,20,000 Solar years), [...]”.

2) Saura (सौर) also refers to the “solar months”.

3) Saura (सौर) also refers to the “solar division of time”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Social Life In Medieval Rajasthan

Saura (sun worship) in Rājasthān.—Like Brahmā the Sun was also an object of worship in our early period. His images belonging to post-Gupta and later period at Mandor, Bedā, Pokharaṇ, Kirādu, Bithu and Pāli in Mārwār and Mugad, Kaṇbā, Sarodā, Thākdā in Dungarpur as well as splendid temples of Sirohi, Chitor and Bhinmāl dedicated to the Sun remind us that the Sun-worship was prevalent up to the 11th century A D., in western and south-western parts of Rājasthān.

Saura worship was pre-eminent during the period when many Rājput-clans, especially the Guhilots, traced their origin from the Sun and claimed to be ‘Suryavanshi' or clans progenerated from the Sun. It is also evidenced that many of them were the worshippers of the Sun. The Dastari Records give us some details of rituals of the Sun-worship as it was practised on the occasionof the birth of a son. It was customary, as it is now, for the mother toworship the Sun on the 11th day of the birth of her child.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saura (सौर).—m A large tree, Bombax Malabaricum.Grah.

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saura (सौर).—a S (sūrya or sūra) Belonging or relating to the sun;--as worship, worshiper, fast, festival, observance &c. 2 Measured by the sun, solar;--a day, a year, time. 3 as s m A solar month. 4 The planet Saturn or the Regent of it.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

saura (सौर).—a Belonging to the sun; solar. m A solar month.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saura (सौर).—a. (- f.) [सूरस्य इदं सूरो देवतास्य वा अण् (sūrasya idaṃ sūro devatāsya vā aṇ)]

1) Relating to the sun, solar.

2) Sacred or dedicated to the sun.

3) Worshipping the sun.

4) Celestial, divine.

5) Relating to spirituous liquor.

-raḥ 1 A worshipper of the sun; Mb.7.82.16.

2) The planet Saturn.

3) A solar month.

4) A solar day.

5) The plant called Tumburu.

6) Name of Yama, the god of death.

-ram 1 Name of a collection of hymns (extracted from the Ṛigveda) addressed to Sūrya.

2) The right eye.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saura (सौर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) 1. Solar. 2. Celestial. 3. Spirituous. m.

(-raḥ) 1. The planet Saturn. 2. A month, consisting of thirty rising and settings of the sun, a solar month. 3. A solar day, whilst the sun is in one degree of the ecliptic. 4. A worshipper of the sun. f. (-rī) The wife of the sun. n.

(-raṃ) Name of a collection of hymns, (taken from the Rig-Veda,) addressed to Surya. E. sura a deity, &c., or sūra the sun, aṇ aff.; or sūrya the sun, ṅīṣ aff. for the fem. form.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saura (सौर).—i. e. sūrya, and surā, + a, I. adj., f. . 1. Solar, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 187. 2. Sacred to Sūrya, i. e. the sun, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 86. 3. Celestial. 4. Spirituous, Ii. m. 1. A solar month. 2. A solar day. 3. The planet Saturn. Iii. f. , The wife of the sun.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saura (सौर).—1. [adjective] consisting of spirituous liquor.

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Saura (सौर).—2. [feminine] ī relating to the sun, solar; [masculine] a worshipper of the sun.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Saura (सौर) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—prayers addressed to the sun. Oxf. 298^b. Haug. 46. 50. Bp. 285.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śaura (शौर):—mf(ī)n. ([from] śūra; also as Vṛddhi form in [compound]) relating to a hero, heroic, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

2) Saura (सौर):—1. saura mfn. ([from] surā) consisting of spirituous liquor, [???]

3) 2. saura mf(ī)n. ([from] 1. sūra and sūrya; in some meanings perhaps [from] sura) relating or belonging or sacred to or coming from etc. the sun or the god Sūrya, solar, [Maitrī-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.

4) celestial, divine, [Horace H. Wilson]

5) m. a worshipper of the sun, [Mahābhārata; Prabodha-candrodaya] ([Religious Thought and Life in India 342])

6) ‘son of the Sun’, Name of the planet Saturn, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) Name of the 20th Kalpa (q.v.)

8) a solar day (while the sun is in one degree of the ecliptic), [Horace H. Wilson] a solar month (consisting of 30 risings and setting of the sun or the period during which the sun is in one sign of the zodiac), [Horace H. Wilson]

9) a representation of a solar zodiacal sign used at marriage ceremonies, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

10) coriander, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Zanthoxylon Alatum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) Name of a Guru, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

13) n. a collection of hymns addressed to Sūrya (extracted from the Ṛg-veda), [Catalogue(s)]

14) the right eye, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

15) Name of a Sāman (= bṛhat-saura), [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

16) Name of [work] ([probably] = saura-purāṇa), [Kapila [Scholiast or Commentator]]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saura (सौर):—(raḥ) 1. m. The planet Saturn; a solar day or month. f. (ī) Wife of the sun. a. Solar, celestial, spirituous.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saura (सौर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Saura.

[Sanskrit to German]

Saura in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Śaūra (शऊर) [Also spelled shaur]:—(nm) mannerliness, decency; discretion, sence; ~[dāra] mannerly; sensible; discreet.

2) Saura (सौर) [Also spelled saur]:—(a) solar; (nm) a (cotton) wrapper; —[dina/divasa] day; from sun-rise to sun-set, a solar day; —[parivāra] solar system; —[māsa] a solar month; —[varṇakrama] solar spectrum; —[varṣa/saṃvatsara] a solar year; —[vikiraṇa] solar radiation.

context information

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Saura (सौर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Saura.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Saura (ಸೌರ):—

1) [adjective] of, pertaining to or having to do with the sun; solar.

2) [adjective] produced by or coming from the sun; solar.

3) [adjective] depending upon the suṇs light or energy; solar.

4) [adjective] fixed or measured by the earth’s motion with relation to the sun; solar.

5) [adjective] of, pertaining to or having to do with gods.

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Saura (ಸೌರ):—

1) [noun] that which is pertaining to the sun.

2) [noun] a devotee of the Sun-God.

3) [noun] the system of calculation of days, months and year based on the suṇs movement.

4) [noun] (astrol.) the Saturn, personified as the son of the Sun-God.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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