Sukumara, aka: Sukumāra, Sukumārā, Su-kumara; 13 Definition(s)
Sukumara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Sukumāra (सुकुमार):—Son of Dhṛṣṭaketu (son of Satyaketu). His son was called Vītihotra. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.17.9)Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
Sukumāra (सुकुमार):—One of the seven sons of Havya (lord of Śākadvīpa). His varṣa is also called the same: sukumāravarṣa.Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna
1) Sukumāra (सुकुमार).—A Pulinda King. The name of the capital of this King was also Sukumāra. It is stated in Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 29, Verse 10, that King Sukumāra was the son of King Sumitra. It is stated in some other Purāṇas that Sucitra was the father of Sukumāra and that during his regional conquest of the east Bhīmasena had defeated both. On another occasion Sahadeva, who had gone for the regional conquest of the south, also defeated both Sukumāra and his father. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 4).
When the battle of Bhārata was about to begin, Sukumāra, the King af Pulinda joined the side of the Pāṇḍavas. It is stated in Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 171, Verse 15, that King Sukumāra became one of the prominent chariot-fighters of the Pāṇḍava army. (See full article at Story of Sukumāra from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Sukumāra (सुकुमार).—A nāga (serpent) who was born in the family of Takṣaka. This serpent was burned to death in the sacrificial fire of Janamejaya. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 9).
3) Sukumāra (सुकुमार).—A King of the Puru dynasty. The father of this King was Vibhu, the son of Varṣaketu. Two sons named Ānarta and Sukumāra were born to Vibhu. The King Satyaketu was the son of Sukumāra. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 278).
4) Sukumāra (सुकुमार).—A Sanskrit poet. There is a story about the devotion of Sukumāra to his teacher. Though Sukumāra was a dutiful student his teacher used to scold him always. Consequently Sukumāra harboured malice in his heart against his teacher. One night Sukumāra got on the upper attic of the house of the teacher with a big stone. His aim was to drop the stone on the head of the teacher. But that night the conversation of the teacher and his wife was about Sukumāra. The wife asked the teacher why he was scolding his disciple so often, when he was so dutiful and righteous. The teacher said that he loved him most and that the chastisement was meant to make him better and better. When Sukumāra heard this his heart was broken. With tears in his eyes, he got down with the stone and disappeared in darkness.
Next morning Sukumāra had no peace of mind. He approached the teacher. He asked the teacher "What is the punishment destined for him who had tried to kill his teacher?" The teacher replied that he should die a slow death in the fire made by the husk of paddy. Instantly Sukumāra made a pit and stood in it and filled the pit with husk up to his neck and set fire to the pile. When the teacher knew that the culprit was Sukumāra, he was filled with grief. He tried his best to dissuade his beloved disciple from his attempt. But it was in vain. While he was slowly burning in the fire he composed and sang the great poem 'Śrī Kṛṣṇa Vilāsa'. The poet was not able to complete the twelfth Sarga of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Vilāsa.
5) Sukumāra (सुकुमार).—The son of King Bhavya who was the ruler of Śāka Island. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 26).
6) Sukumāra (सुकुमार).—An ancient place. This place was near the mountain Jaladhāragiri in the Śāka Island. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 21).
7) Sukumāra (सुकुमार).—The capital city of the Pulindas. (See under Sukumāra III).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Sukumāra (सुकुमार).—King: a son of Dhṛṣṭaketu and father of Vītihotra.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 17. 9.
1b) A son of Havya: after him Sukumāra varṣa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 17-19; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 16.
1c) A son of Suvibhu and father of Dhṛṣṭaketu.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 67. 76; Vāyu-purāṇa 92. 71; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 8. 20.
1d) A son of Bhavya of Śākadvīpa.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 60.
1e) A kingdom of Śākadvīpa down the Jalada hill; named after Sukumāra.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 19; 19. 91; Matsya-purāṇa 122. 21; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 18. 49. 86.
Sukumāra (सुकुमार) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.8, I.57, I.177.9) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Sukumāra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1) Sukumāra (सुकुमार, “delicate”) refers to one of the two types of production of a dramatic play (nāṭya). It is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. The Nāṭaka, the Prakaraṇa, the Vīthī and the Aṅka ate plays of the delicate type (sukumāra), and they depend for their production on an impersonation of human beings only.
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 34, “Nāṭaka, Prakaraṇa, Bhāṇa, Vīthī and Aṅka are to be known of the delicate type. For they depend on human beings. This delicate type of production is pleasing to kings. Hence plays of this class including the Erotic Sentiment, should be produced by women”.
2) Sukumārā (सुकुमारा) is the name of a meter described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in the feet of sixteen syllables the first, the fourth, the seventh the tenth and the last long, is sukumārā”.Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Sukumāra (सुकुमार, “lovely”) refers to one of the ten good qualities (guṇa) of a song (gīta), according to the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi 14.75-76, where they are commonly known as the gītaguṇa. The Saṅgītaśiromaṇi (“crest-jewel of music”) is a 15th-century Sanskrit work on Indian musicology (gāndharvaśāstra). Accordingly, “when the song is full of the quality of loveliness, it is lovely (sukumāra)”.Source: Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi
Sukumāra (सुकुमार, “delicate”) refers to a musical expression corresponding with vāsava (supreme), the fourteenth word of the elā composition (prabandha).—When the syllables and the scale pattern (mūrchanā) are gentle, it is the delicate (sukumāra) type of sound.Source: Google Books: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi: A Medieval Handbook of Indian Music
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
Sukumāra (सुकुमार) refers to one of the ten varieties of “rice” (śāli) according to verse 25.60b-61 of the Īśvarasaṃhitā which deals with the classification of the places for building the fire-pits (kuṇḍa). Śāli represents one of the seven village-corns that are fit for food-offerings. Accordingly, “Śāli (eg., sukumāra) is important among them. Others are to be taken in its absence or that of others”.Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Languages of India and abroad
sukumāra : (adj.) delicate.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
sukumāra (सुकुमार).—a (S su Very, kumāra Young.) Tender, soft, fine, delicate.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
sukumāra (सुकुमार).—a Tender, soft, delicate.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
1) very delicate or soft, smooth.
2) beautifully young or youthful. (-raḥ) 1 a beautiful youth.
2) a kind of sugar-cane.
3) a kind of grain (śyāmāka).
4) a kind of mustard.
5) the wild Champaka. (-rā) 1 the double jasmine.
2) the plantain.
3) the great-flowered jasmine.
Sukumāra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and kumāra (कुमार).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 17 books and stories containing Sukumara, Sukumāra, Sukumārā or Su-kumara. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Chapter 17 - The Dynasties of the Sons of Pururava < [Canto IX - Liberation]
Chapter 1 - King Sudyumna Becomes a Woman < [Canto IX - Liberation]
The Mahabharata - First Book (by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa)
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter CXXXIX - Genealogy of the princes of the lunar race < [Brihaspati (Nitisara) Samhita]
The Mahabharata - Second Book (by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa)