Madhya, aka: Mādhya; 13 Definition(s)

Introduction

Madhya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Madhya (मध्य, “central zone”):—One of the six types of habitats (deśa).—These geographical habitats are divided according to their bhūtas. Jāṅgala has a predominance of Vāta and Pitta. Skilled physicians should account for the nature of the habitat when treating a patient. The word is used throughout Āyurvedic (India medicine) literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Madhya (मध्य, “middle”) refers to one of the three sizes of playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) used, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 2.8-11. This size is stated to be meant for kings (the other sizes being meant for Gods or humans). The measurement of the jyeṣṭha type playhouse is stated to count 64 hastas (also translated as ‘cubit’; one hasta equals 24 aṅgulas). They can also be measured using the same amount of daṇḍas (one daṇḍa equals 4 hastas).

2) Madhyā (मध्या) refers to a class of rhythm-type (chandas) containing three syllables in a pāda (‘foot’ or ‘quarter-verse’), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15. There are twenty-six classes of chandas and out of them arise the various syllabic meters (vṛtta), composed of four pādas, defining the pattern of alternating light and heavy syllables.

3) Madhya (मध्य, “medium”) refers to one of the three tempos (laya) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 31. Accordingly, “the totality of syllables penultimate to the yati, will indicate the tempo, and from the tempo the measure of these will change. A decrease of kalās should be made in other pāṇis. In the slow tempo, there should be one sannipāta, in the medium tempo two sannipātas, and in the quick tempo the number of sannipātas should be four. That which is indicated by this difference, is called the quick and the medium tempo, and the avapāṇi is dependent on a medium tempo. When the tālas of one kalā become the antarakalā played in quick tempo, then it is called the uparyuparipāṇi”.

4) Madhya (मध्य) or Rajanī is the name of a meter belonging to the Vṛtta (syllabic) class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“when the two syllables are short and one long in the triad of its feet, the metre is rajanī”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Madhya (मध्य) or Madhyanāyikā refers to an “adolescent and partly experienced heroine”, of the Svakīya type and represents one of the three kinds of “heroines” (nāyikā) in a dramatic representation, according to the Abhinaya-sara-samputa, as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—In the depiction of any mood or sentiment, a dance performance or a dramatic representation takes the medium of the hero (nāyaka) and the heroine (nāyikā). The heroine is called svakīya when she possesses good character and is upright. She is again classified into three types [viz., Mugdha-nāyikā].

The heroine of the Madhya type is divided into three types: laghu (light annoyance or fury on seeing other women), madhya (medium indignation on hearing the name of another women), and guru (intense anger on seeing the marks of another woman’s love for her lover). There are three activities of the nāyika in this indignation: dhīra (a self-controlled heroine who greets her deceitful lover with sarcastic words), dhīradhīra (partly self-controlled heroine, who rebukes her lover in tears), and adhīra (the heroine who lacks self-control and scolds her lover harshly).

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana

Madhya in Purana glossary... « previous · [M] · next »

1a) Madhya (मध्य).—A Gandharva.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 11.

1b) 1000 crores × prayutam (ayuṭam-vā. p.).*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 98 and 102; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 98.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Madhya (मध्य, “medium”).—Illustration of madhya-grāma (mediocre group of tones) according to 15th century art.—The colour of the body of madhya-grāma is golden-yellow. He holds a vīṇā (Indian lute) with both hands. The colour of the scarf is rosy with red dots and the lower garment is green with a black design. He is well-dressed and tastefully ornamented.

The illustrations (of, for example Madhya) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Madhya (मध्य).—lit. middle; middling variety. The word is used in the sense of the middling effort between the open (विवृत (vivṛta)) and the close (संवृत (saṃvṛta)) external efforts which technically is called हकार (hakāra); cf. मध्ये हकारः । मध्ये भवः मध्यः । अ सांप्रतिके । तदयमर्थः । सांप्रतिके प्रकृतिस्थे कण्ठे सति हकारो नाम बाह्यः प्रयत्नः क्रियते । तेन च व्यञ्जनेषु घोषो जायते । (madhye hakāraḥ | madhye bhavaḥ madhyaḥ | a sāṃpratike | tadayamarthaḥ | sāṃpratike prakṛtisthe kaṇṭhe sati hakāro nāma bāhyaḥ prayatnaḥ kriyate | tena ca vyañjaneṣu ghoṣo jāyate |) T. Pr. Bhāṣya on II.6.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Madhyā (मध्या) is one of the twenty-six varieties of Sanskrit metres (chandas) mentioned in the Chandaśśāstra 1.15-19. There are 26 Vedic metres starting with 1 to 26 letters in each pāda. It is a common belief that the classical metres are developed from these 26 metres. Generally a metre has a specific name according to it’s number of syllables (akṣara). But sometimes the same stanza is called by the name of another metre from the point of view of the pādas.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Madhya (मध्य).—1. Centre, middle. 2. Mean. 3. Middle term in a series. 4. Zenith distance of ecliptic point. Note: Madhya is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Madhya (मध्य, “hundred-million”) is the ninth of sixty digits (decimal place) in an special enumeration system mentioned by Vasubandhu in his Abhidharmakośa (“treasury of knowledge”). The explanations of the measure of years, eons, and so forth must be comprehended through calculation based on a numerical system. Enumeration begins from one and increases by a factor of ten for each shift in decimal place. The sixtieth number in this series is called “countless”.

Among these decimal positions (eg., madhya, “hundred-million”), the first nine positions from one to one hundred million are called ‘single set enumeration’. From a billion up to, but not including countless is “the enumeration of the great companion” and is called the ‘recurring enumeration’.

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

India history and geogprahy

Madhya.—(CII 1), middle course. Note: madhya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

madhya (मध्य).—m (S) Middle or centre. 2 The waist. 3 In comp. Middle, centrical, intermediate.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

madhya (मध्य).—m Centre. The waist. In comp. Middle.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Madhya (मध्य).—a. [man-yat nasya dhaḥ Tv.]

1) Middle, central, being in the middle or centre; एकं मुक्तागुणमिव भुवः स्थूल- मध्येन्द्रनीलम् (ekaṃ muktāguṇamiva bhuvaḥ sthūla- madhyendranīlam) Me.48; Ms.2.21.

2) Intervening, intermediate.

3) Middling, moderate, of a middling size or quality, mediocre; अग्र्यो मध्यो जघन्यश्च तं प्रवेक्ष्याम्यशेषतः (agryo madhyo jaghanyaśca taṃ pravekṣyāmyaśeṣataḥ) Ms.12.3; प्रारभ्य विघ्नविहता विरमन्ति मध्याः (prārabhya vighnavihatā viramanti madhyāḥ) Bh.2.27.

4) Neutral, impartial.

5) Just, right.

6) Mean (in astr.).

-dhyaḥ, -dhyam 1 The middle, centre, middle or central part; अह्नः मध्यम् (ahnaḥ madhyam) midday; सहस्रदीधितिरलंकरोति मध्यमह्नः (sahasradīdhitiralaṃkaroti madhyamahnaḥ) Māl.

1) 'the sun is on the meridian' or 'right over-head'; सरति सहसा बाह्वोर्मध्यं गताप्यबला सती (sarati sahasā bāhvormadhyaṃ gatāpyabalā satī) M.4.11 (v. l.); व्योममध्ये (vyomamadhye) V.2.1.

2) The middle of the body, the waist; मध्ये क्षामा (madhye kṣāmā) Me.84; वेदिविलग्नमध्या (vedivilagnamadhyā) Ku.1.39; विशाल- वक्षास्तनुवृत्तमध्यः (viśāla- vakṣāstanuvṛttamadhyaḥ) R.6.32; दधाना बलिभं मध्यं कर्णजाहविलोचना (dadhānā balibhaṃ madhyaṃ karṇajāhavilocanā) Bk.4.16.

3) The belly, abdomen; मध्येन (madhyena) ... वलित्रयं चारु बभार बाला (valitrayaṃ cāru babhāra bālā) Ku.1.39.

4) The inside or interior of anything.

5) A middle state or condition.

6) The flank of a horse.

7) Mean time in music.

8) The middle term of a progression.

9) Cessation, pause, interval.

-dhyā 1 The middle finger.

2) A young woman, one arrived at puberty.

-dhyam Ten thousand billions. [The acc., instr., abl. and loc. singulars of मध्य (madhya) are used adverbially. (a) मध्यम् (madhyam) into the midst of, into. (b) मध्येन (madhyena) through or between. (c) मध्यात् (madhyāt) out of, from among, from the midst (with gen.); तेषां मध्यात् काकः प्रोवाच (teṣāṃ madhyāt kākaḥ provāca) Pt.1. (d) मध्ये (madhye)

1) in the middle, between, among, in the midst; स जहार तयोर्मध्ये मैथिलीं लोकशोषणः (sa jahāra tayormadhye maithilīṃ lokaśoṣaṇaḥ) R.12.29.

2) in, into, within, inside, oft. as the first member of adverbial compounds; e. g. मध्येगङ्गम् (madhyegaṅgam) into the Ganges; मध्येजठरम् (madhyejaṭharam) in the belly; Bv.1.61; मध्येनगरम् (madhyenagaram) inside the city; मध्येनदि (madhyenadi) in the middle of the river; मध्येपृष्ठम् (madhyepṛṣṭham) on the back; मध्येभक्तम् (madhyebhaktam) a medicine taken in the middle of one's meals; मध्येरणम् (madhyeraṇam) in the battle; Bv.1.128; मध्ये- सभम् (madhye- sabham) in or before an assembly; N.6.76; मध्येसमुद्रम् (madhyesamudram) in the midst of the sea; Śi.3.33.].

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Mādhya (माध्य).—a. [madhya-aṇ] Central, middle.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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