Pudgala: 21 definitions


Pudgala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Pudgala (पुद्गल) refers to a “man” (i.e., ‘that man seeking to know divinity [śivatva]’), according to the Sarvajñānottara-tantra 1.5.—Accordingly, “Just as gold is hidden within copper, in the same way the Divinity which a man (pudgala) seeks to know is hidden within [him]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Pudgala (पुद्गल) refers to a “person”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “[...] (The meaning of the letter ru, i.e., being free from conceptual arrangement, etc.—) [Taught in connection with] the conceptual arrangement, the selflessness of person (pudgala-nairātmya), the great, is [accompanied by] a web of conceptualization. The letter ru [represents the principle that] myself is conditioned: That [letter ru refers to the state of] being free from the conceptual arrangement of ‘mine’. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Pudgala (पुद्गल) refers to “(the three strong) individuals”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[The eighteen āveṇika-dharmas (‘special attributes’)]—[...] (5). The Buddha has no non-concentrated mind.—[...] Moreover, the Arhat who still has traces of the disturbing emotions and is capable of regressing has distractions. The Buddha who, in his omniscience, has complete knowledge, has no distractions. He is like a vessel full of water where there is neither sound nor movement. The Buddha is the only person who can be called free of deception; he is the foremost of the three strong individuals (dṛḍha-pudgala). His mind remains unchanged in suffering as in happiness. [...]”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Pudgala (पुद्गल) refers to “persons”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] The Bodhisattva Gaganagañja then sustained the jewel-canopy of ten thousand yojanas high over the Lord’s lion throne in the sky, joined the palms of his hands, saluted, and praised the Lord with these suitable verses: ‘[...] (10) The dharmas are devoid of a living being (satva), a life principle (jīva), and a person (pudgala). They are pure and beyond words (nāma) like the sameness of open space. Understanding the fact that there is no real self, he awakens living beings to the unconditioned (asaṃskṛta) ambrosia (amṛta). [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Pudgala (पुद्गल) or Aṣṭapudgala refers to the “eight persons” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 102). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., pudgala). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Buddhist Door: Glossary

1. Pudgala [puggala] an individual, self. Pudgala stands for an individual entity as opposed to a group. It signifies a sentient being who is a mere combination of material as well as mental processes. According to one etymology, human beings are called pudgala-s because they have to undergo afflictions in hell due to their evil actions. [Pun ti vuccati nirayo tasmin galantīti puggalā.]

2. A person, in the everyday sense of an individual.

3. The concept of personhood, particularly in the philosophical sense of an enduring self similar to (but not quite the same as) the eternal soul (ātman), which Buddhism denies.See pudgala-vāda.

Source: Scribd: The Literature of the Pudgalavadins

Pudgala is the essential factor that unifies a person's life processes, It appropriates and sustains a body for a certain amount of time, and constitutes the same person from conception to death, and then extends through other lives.

The pudgala is like a single person wearing different outfits. It is the pudgala that constitutes the person who carries a certain name, lives a certain time, suffers or enjoys the consequences of its acts.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: WikiPedia: Jainism

1. In Buddhism, Pudgala means the entity that reincarnates as an individual or person, i.e., the bundle of tendencies that keeps an individual reincarnating until they attain enlightenment.

2. In Jainism, Pudgala (or Pudgalāstikāya) is one of the six Dravyas, or aspects of reality that fabricate the world we live in.

The six dravyas include the jiva and the fivefold divisions of ajiva (non-living) category:

  1. dharma (motion),
  2. adharma (rest),
  3. akasha (space),
  4. pudgala (matter)
  5. and kala (time).

Pudgala, like other dravyas except kala is called astikaya in the sense that it occupies space.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Pudgala (पुद्गल, “matter”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.5.—Things which have form (rūpī) constitute matter (pudgala). Why matter is called pudgala? Pud means combine and gala means to separate. The main attribute of matter is its ability to combine and separate (fusion and fission) to form clusters. Matter (pudgala) is with form (mūrtika or rūpī). How do we know it? Existence and activities of matter in the universe are perceptible by sense organs. Hence it is called with form or just concrete.

According to Tattvārthasūtra 5.10, what is matter (pudgala)? An entity which has fusion and fission (combining and separating) as its primary attributes and which is concrete is called matter. What are the popular attributes of matter? Touch, taste, smell and colour are the popular attributes of mater.

According to Tattvārthasūtra 5.23.—“The forms of matter (pudgala) are characterized by touch (sparśa), taste (rasa), smell (gandha) and colour (varṇa)”. What is the meaning of matter (pudgala) substance? An entity which has touch, taste, smell and form /colour as its attributes is called matter.

According to Tattvārthasūtra 5.25.—How many types of matter (pudgala) are there? They are of two types namely sub-atom (paramāṇu) and aggregate /molecule (skandha). What is the meaning of a sub-atom? The smallest indivisible part with one space point is its volume is called sub-atom. What is the meaning of aggregate /molecule (skandha)? An entity formed by combining two, three or more sub-atoms is called an aggregate.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Pudgala (पुद्गल) refers to “material objects”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “[com.—Next he speaks about the despair (vaicitryam) connected with material objects (pudgalānāṃ)]—Look [here], for men, those material objects (pudgala) dear to the mind which were possessed of the character of pleasure before are now afflicted with the character of suffering”.

Synonyms: Vastu, Padārtha, Mūrta, Pumartha.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pudgala (पुद्गल).—a. Beautiful, lovely, handsome.

-laḥ 1 Atom (paramāṇuḥ) पुद्गलाः परमाणवः (pudgalāḥ paramāṇavaḥ) Śrīdhara.

2) The body, matter; A. Rām.3.2.28.

3) The soul.

4) The Ego or individual.

5) Man.

6) An epithet of Śiva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pudgala (पुद्गल).—m., often written puṃgala (so regularly in Lalitavistara, Śatasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā, e.g. 4.1, and mss. of Mahāvastu, also (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 108.23; 112.19 etc.; Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 19.2; this writing also occurs in Sanskrit, see [Boehtlingk and Roth], and Tedesco, JAOS 67.172 ff., who rightly observes that the word is essentially Buddh. and Jain, and offers an [etymology] which does not convince me; another reading found in Mahāvastu mss. is puṅgava, a Sanskrit word which may have influenced the form with nasal, puṃgala; = Pali puggala; see also aprati-pu°, niṣ-pu°), = Sanskrit puruṣa, person, man, creature, soul (often in the latter sense = ātman, especially in niṣ-pu°): Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 120.7; Lalitavistara 103.14; 420.10; 423.13; 439.2; Mahāvastu i.4.2 (Senart always prints pudgala, contrary to most or all his mss. puṃg°); 47.2, 8; 80.13; 119.14; 142.4; 163.18; Bodhisattvabhūmi 46.22; Śikṣāsamuccaya 236.15 (puruṣo vā pudgalo vā); Udānavarga xiii.14; Mahāvyutpatti 4674; 7028; Śatasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 4.1 etc.; (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 108.23; 112.19 etc.; catvāra ime…pudgalā bodhisattvena na sevitavyāḥ Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 18.17 (wicked persons, listed in sequel; here text repeatedly pudgala but in 19.2 puṃgala); puṃgalādhyāśaya (Senart em. pudga°) Mahāvastu i.85.10; 88.12, 14, according to Senart, Introd. xxviii note, (inclinations) tournées vers la grande personnalité (i.e. the Buddha), which seems to me doubtful; rather = Sanskrit ātma-, with self-determined (-directed, -controlled ?) dispositions; catvāraḥ pudgalāḥ Mahāvyutpatti 2968—72 (as in Pali, Puggala-paññatti 51 f. same terms in Pali form), tamas (separate word) tamaḥpa- [Page347-b+ 71] rāyaṇaḥ, tamo jyotiṣparā°, jyotis tamaḥpara°, jyotir jyotiṣparā°, i.e. one who is in a low state of existence and does evil (tending to still lower states), ditto but does good, who is in a good state but does evil, ditto and does good; eight pudgala Mahāvastu i.291.16 = Pali Khp. 6.6, on which commentary 182.11 f. says, te hi cattāro ca paṭipannā (viz. the four just listed above) cattāro ca phale ṭhitā (i.e. as reaping the fruits of their good or evil courses) ti aṭṭha honti.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pudgala (पुद्गल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) 1. Beautiful, handsome, of a handsome form or figure. 2. Having form or property. m.

(-laḥ) 1. The body. 2. The soul. 3. An atom. 4. An epithet of Siva. E. pūra what fills, and gala what decays, deriv. irr.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pudgala (पुद्गल).—I. adj., f. , Beautiful, Mārk. P. 99, 57. Ii. m. 1. The body, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 41 (read pudgale). 2. The soul. 3. Śiva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pudgala (पुद्गल).—[adjective] beautiful; [masculine] body, matter, soul, individual, man, [Epithet] of Śiva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pudgala (पुद्गल):—mf(ā)n. beautiful, lovely, handsome, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

2) m. the body, [Hitopadeśa i, 41] [varia lectio]

3) (with Jainas) material object (including atoms), [Śaṃkarācārya; Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 535]

4) the soul, personal entity, [Lalita-vistara]

5) man, [Varāha-mihira]

6) the Ego or individual (in a disparaging sense), [Saddharma-puṇḍarīka]

7) Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata] (= deha, [Nīlakaṇṭha])

8) a horse of the colour of rock-crystal, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pudgala (पुद्गल):—(laḥ) 1. m. The body; the soul. a. Beautiful; having property.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pudgala (पुद्गल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Puggala, Poggara, Poggala.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pudgala in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pudgala (ಪುದ್ಗಲ):—[adjective] charming; beautiful.

--- OR ---

Pudgala (ಪುದ್ಗಲ):—

1) [noun] the smallest particle of an element or compound that can exist in the free state and still retain the characteristics of the element or compound; a molecule.

2) [noun] the physical body (of a human being).

3) [noun] the individual soul.

4) [noun] (jain.) the principle, considered as non-living, formed by the molecules.

--- OR ---

Pudgaḷa (ಪುದ್ಗಳ):—[adjective] = ಪುದ್ಗಲ [pudgala]1.

--- OR ---

Pudgaḷa (ಪುದ್ಗಳ):—[noun] = ಪುದ್ಗಲ [pudgala]2.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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