Randhra, Ramdhra: 22 definitions

Introduction:

Randhra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Randhra (रन्ध्र, “opening”):—First seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna (2nd chakra), according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra. It is identified with the first of the seven worlds, named bhūrloka. Together, these seven seats form the Brahmāṇḍa (cosmic egg). The Randhra seat points to the east.

The associated pura is called manas, at the head of which is the Siddha named Mitreśāna. These Siddhas are considered to have been the expounders of the kula doctrine in former times.

The associated dhātu (constituents of the physical body) is the Skin (tvac).

Randhra has the following twelve guṇas associated with it:

  1. Dhātrī,
  2. Dhāmā,
  3. Dhaumyā,
  4. Nīlā,
  5. Nīlāvatī,
  6. Śubhā,
  7. Dravaṇī,
  8. Drāvaṇī,
  9. Jayantī (Kampanī),
  10. Vamanī (Bhramiṇī),
  11. Prabhā (Samā),
  12. and Sutejā.

They are represented as female deities, according to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa). According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Randhra (रन्ध्र) refers to the “opening (of the channel)” (that which pierces the tube), according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 7.216cd-217, while describing the meditation on the kālahaṃsa]—“After [this, the Yogin] visualizes the heart lotus, with sixteen petals, situated in the opening of the channel that pierces the tube (nāḍibhinna-ala-randhra-stha) [i.e., the lotus stem. He imagines] a white, radiant, completely full moon, endowed with sixteen parts, and with his body in the shape of a lotus pericarp. [Then, he pictures] the self, It is to be imagined [as seated] in the middle of that [moon], and is as spotless as pure crystal. [The self is] pervaded with amṛta, [which washes over him] in a wave from the ocean of the milky nectar of immortality”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Randhra (रन्ध्र)  refers to a “cavity”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “The subtle condition arises progressively by following the gross path. The gross is said to be the Transmission (krama), while the subtle is within the End of the Twelve. It is where mount Śrīśaila is located, that is, above the Cavity of Brahmā. O far-famed one, this is called the Division, Cavity (randhra) or Hole (chidra)”.

2) Randhra (रन्ध्र) [=Randhraga?] (Cf. Brahmarandhra) refers to the “cavity of Brahmā”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā.—The Wick (varti) is the Command. So the End of the Sixteen, said to be at the end of the Wick of Smoke, is at the extremity of the Command which is in the End of the Twelve. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā and its commentary, mount Śrīparvata is the Cavity of Brahmā where Dhūmāgni—‘Smoky Fire’—is located. This fire generates a column of smoke that extends upwards to a distance of twelve fingers above the head, corresponding to the series of levels that constitute the End of the Twelve described above. Above this is mount Kaumāra, which is the path that leads to the Cavity of Brahmā [i.e., randhragarandhragaṃ mārgaṃ].

3) Randhra (रन्ध्र) refers to “(the number) nine”, according to the according to the Kularatnoddyota, one of the earliest Kubjikā Tantras.—Accordingly, after Vṛkṣanātha arrived at Candrapura: “[...] (He experienced) a divine awakening by (the goddess’s) Command in the supreme practice of Kula and having burst apart a tamarind tree, he whose mind (moved with the speed of) the wind, received the name Ciñcīśa. (Thus) he reached the land of Koṃkaṇa. (There that) great soul, in order to explain all Kula practice with its (many) divisions, divine and otherwise, he initiated nine (randhra-saṃkhya) holy (people) including Brahmins and others. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

1) Randhra (रन्ध्र) represents the number 0 (zero) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 0—randhra] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

2) Randhra (रन्ध्र) also refers to the number 9 (nine) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā).

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Randhra in Arts glossary
Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Randhra (रन्ध्र) refers to “pits” (as opposed to Nīrandhra—‘absence of pits’), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, “Hunting on horseback (āśvina) represents one of the eight subdivisions of Hunting (mṛgayā). [...] Hunting on horseback leads to intense delight. In this kind, running animals are killed with arrows and with the help of horses. The ground should be without mud and without stones, without trees, and without pits (nīrandhra) [avṛkṣakardamagrāvā nīrandhrā], the appropriate time being from the middle of the cold season to the middle of Jyaiṣṭha. [...]”.

Arts book cover
context information

This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Randhra (रन्ध्र) refers to a “hole (made at the root of a tree)”, according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “A ball made out of the mixture of flowers of the Madhuca indica, Nymphaea caerulea, honey, crystalline sugar and Glycyrrhiza glabra kept in a hole made at the root (mūla-randhra) of a tree produces long lasting fruits (on the tree)”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Randhra (रन्ध्र) refers to the “holes” (of activity), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “It is declared, ‘Activity is the action of mind, body and speech’. It is said by those who are learned in the knowledge of reality, ‘Indeed, that is the cause of the influx of karma’. As a boat in the middle of the ocean takes in water through holes (chidra), so a living soul takes in karma through holes of activity (yoga-randhra) which are good and bad”.

Synonyms: Chidra, Vivara.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Randhra.—(IE 7-1-2; EI 25), ‘nine’; used in the sense of ‘cypher’ in a few late works. Note: randhra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

randhra (रंध्र).—n (S) A hole, esp. a bore or perforation. 2 fig. A flaw, defect, imperfection, a hole.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

randhra (रंध्र).—n A hole. A bore. Fig. A flaw, defect.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Randhra (रन्ध्र).—[Uṇādi-sūtra 2.28]

1) A hole, an aperture, a cavity, an opening, a chasm, fissure; रन्ध्रोष्विवालक्ष्यनभःप्रदेशा (randhroṣvivālakṣyanabhaḥpradeśā) R.13.56;15.82; नासाग्ररन्ध्रम् (nāsāgrarandhram) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1.1; क्रौञ्चरन्ध्रम् (krauñcarandhram) Meghadūta 59.

2) (a) A weak or vulnerable point, assailable point; रन्ध्रोपनिपातिनोऽनर्थाः (randhropanipātino'narthāḥ) Ś.6; रन्ध्रान्वेषणदक्षाणां द्विषामामिषतां ययौ (randhrānveṣaṇadakṣāṇāṃ dviṣāmāmiṣatāṃ yayau) R.12.11;15.17;17.61; रन्ध्रं च प्रकृतीनाम् (randhraṃ ca prakṛtīnām) Kau. A.1.16. (b) A defect, fault, an imperfection.

3) A symbolical expression for the number 'nine'. (there being nine openings in the human body).

4) The vulva.

5) Name of the 8th astrological mansion; Bri. S.

6) A mischief; रन्ध्रदर्शनासहैः (randhradarśanāsahaiḥ) Daśakumāracarita 2.7.

Derivable forms: randhram (रन्ध्रम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Randhra (रन्ध्र).—n.

(-ndhraṃ) 1. A hole, a fissure, a cavity, a chasm. 2. A fault, a defect. E. ram to sport, aff. kvip, dhṛ to have or hold, aff. ka .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Randhra (रन्ध्र).—i. e. radh, [Causal.], + ra, n. 1. A hole, a fissure, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 42 (cf. also 3.). 2. A cavity, [Śiśupālavadha] 4, 61. 3. A fault, a defect, a weak point, [Pañcatantra] 182, 2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Randhra (रन्ध्र).—[neuter] ([masculine]) opening, cleft, hole, pit; defect, flaw, weak [particle]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Randhra (रन्ध्र):—n. rarely m. ([probably] [from] √rad) a slit, split, opening, aperture, hole, chasm, fissure, cavity, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (nine openings are reckoned in the human body cf. under kha; and sometimes a tenth in the skull, as in the fontanel of an infant)

2) the vulva, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) a [particular] part of a horse’s head, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Śiśupāla-vadha] (cf. upa-r)

4) a defect, fault, flaw, imperfection, weak part, [Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc. (cf. chidra)

5) Name of the 8th astrological mansion, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

6) of the number ‘nine’ (cf. above), [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

7) m. Name of a son of Manu Bhautya, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa] ([varia lectio] bradhna)

8) the off spring of a Brāhman and a Maitrī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Randhra (रन्ध्र):—(ndhraṃ) 1. n. A hole; a defect.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Randhra (रन्ध्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Raṃdha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Randhra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Randhra in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Randhra in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) foramen, hole, an orifice, aperture; stomata; pore; ~[dhraka] foramen; ~[dhrila] faveolate, foraminate, stomate, having holes; porous; ~[dhri] stomatal, foramenal, pertaining to a hole/orifice/aperture..—randhra (रंध्र) is alternatively transliterated as Raṃdhra.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Raṃdhra (ರಂಧ್ರ):—

1) [noun] a hole; an opening.

2) [noun] a narrow opening, but which does not separate the whole into two; a crack; a crevice; a cleft.

3) [noun] any of the openings in the human body, as the mouth, ears, nostrils, etc.

4) [noun] a fault, imperfection or shortcoming; a defect.

5) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number nine.

6) [noun] the eigth sign of the zodiac; Scorpio.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Randhra (रन्ध्र):—n. 1. hole; chasm; 2. blame; stigma; 3. vagina; 4. word denoting the number 'nine';

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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