Natyashastra (English)

by Bharata-muni | 1951 | 240,273 words | ISBN-13: 9789385005831

The English translation of the Natyashastra, a Sanskrit work on drama, performing arts, theater, dance, music and various other topics. The word natyashastra also refers to a global category of literature encompassing this ancient Indian tradition of dramatic performance. The authorship of this work dates back to as far as at least the 1st millenn...

Chapter XXIV - Harmonious Representation (sāmānyābhinaya)

Importance of Sattva

1. The Harmonious Representation (sāmānyābhinaya)[1] is known to depend on Words and Gestures. [Among these] one should take special care about the Sattva[2], for the dramatic production has this as its basis.

2. The Histrionic Representation with an exuberant Sattva is superior, the one with the level Sattva is middling, and that with no [exercise of] Sattva is inferior.

Definition of Sattva

3.[3] Sattva is something invisible; but it gives support to Psychological States and Sentiments by means of horripilation, tears and similar other sighs displayed in proper places and in harmony with the Sentiments [to be produced].

Feminine graces in a drama

4-5. Dramatic experts know the young women’s Graces (alaṃkāra, lit. ornament) to be the support of Sentiments in a drama,[4] and these consist of changes in respect of their faces and other limbs. Of these, firstly the change of limbs (aṅgaja)[5] is of three kinds next the natural (sahaja)[6] change of ten kinds, and involuntary (a-yatnaja)[7] change, of seven kinds.

Physical Graces of women

6. Feeling, its expressions ordinary or graceful, arising from one another being different aspects of Sattva, is connected with the physical nature.[8]

Origin of Graces

7. Sattva partakes of the nature of the body, and feeling (bhāv) arises from Sattva, while its ordinary expression (hava) from feeling, and its graceful expression (helā) from the ordinary one.[9]

Ordinary expression of Feeling

8. Bhāva is so called because of its representing (bhāvayan) the inner feeling of the play-wright by means of expression coming from speech, limbs, face and Sattva.[10]

Graceful expression of feeling

9. Sattva with excessive feeling (bhāva) [manifests itself] in relation to persons of the opposite sex. And the ordinary expression (hāva) should be marked as relating to its various conditions.[11]

10. In the same connexion (lit. there) Emotion (hāva) should be known as arising from the mind (citta) and manifesting itself in changes of eye-brows and the Recaka of the neck, indicative of the Erotic Sentiment.[12]

11. Everyone’s ordinary feeling, which depend on the Erotic Sentiment, and reveals itself through graceful movements (lalitābhinaya) is called the graceful expression of feeling (helā) by the wise.[13]

Natural Graces of women

12-13. The ten natural Graces (alaṃkāra) of women are: Sportive Mimicry (līlā), Amorous Gesture (vilāsa), Dishabille (vicchitti), Confusion (vibhrama), Hysterical Mood (kilakiñcita). Manifestation of Affection (moṭṭāyita), Pretended Anger (kuṭṭamita), Affected Coldness (bibboka), Lolling (lalita), and Want of Response (vihṛta).[14]

Sportive Mimicry

14. Imitating the behaviour of a lover by means of relevant words, gestures and make-up (alaṃkāra, lit. ornament) which are delightful and inspired by affection, is called Sportive Mimicry (līlā).[15]

Amorous Gestures

15. Relevant changes of the special kind relating to the standing and sitting postures as well as to gait and the movements of hands, eye-brows and eyes, [which occur at the sight of the beloved] are called Amorous Gestures (vilāsa).[16]


16. The great beauty that results from the slightly careless placing of garlands, clothes, ornaments and unguents, is called Dishabille (vicchitti).[17]


17. Inversion of various items such as words, gestures, dresses, and make-up and Sattva due to intoxication, passion and joy, is called Confusion (vibhrama).[18]

Hysterical Mood

18. Combination of isolated states of smiling, weeping, laughter, fear, sickness, fainting, and fatigue on account of [excessive] joy, is called Hysterical Mood (kilakiñcita).[19]

Manifestation of Affection

19. Manifestation of Affection (moṭṭāyita) occurs through Sportive Mimicry (līlā), Amorous Gesture (vilāsa) and the like, when at the mention of the beloved, one is being absorbed in thought of him.[20]

Pretended Anger

20. Pretended Anger (kuṭṭamita) arises on account of the joy and perplexity in [lover’s] touching the hair, the breast, the lip and the like, and it is feigning distress when actually there is delight.[21]

Affected Coldness

21. The indifference which women show [to their] lovers] on account of vanity and pride, after they have realised their cherished desire (i.e. conquering the lover’s heart), is called Affected Coldness (bibhoka).[22]


22. Graceful movement of hands, feet, brows, eyes, lips etc. made by women is known as Lolling (lalita)[23].

Want of Response

23. That due to bashfulness, pretence and nature, women do not make any reply [to her lover] even when they have heard his words, is called Want of Response (vihṛta)[24].

Involuntary Graces of women

24. The Involuntary [Graces] are: Beauty (śobhā), Charm (kānti), Delicacy (mādhurya), Radiance (dīpti), Self-control (dhairya), Courage (prāgalbhya) and Dignity (audārya)[25].


25. Decoration of limbs on account of good physical form, youth and loveliness being rendered manifest after the enjoyment [of love], is called Beauty (śobba)[26].

Charm and Radiance

26. Beauty which is full of a lover’s passion, is called Charm (kānti)[27]. A high degree of charm, is called Radiance (dīpti.)[28]


27. Moderation in the movement [of limbs] in all conditions, especially in Radiance (dīpti), and in Lolling (lalita), is called Delicacy (mādhurya).[29]


28. A natural bent of the mind which in all matters is free from rashness and boasting, is called Self-control (dhairya).[30]

Courage and Dignity

29. The quality of not becoming agitated in speaking, or acting anything (lit. in practice), is called Courage (prāgalbhya).[31] Courteous bearing in all situation, is called Dignity (audārya)[32] by the wise.

30. These [Graces] are tender in connexion with performance of delicate nature, but [in other cases] they (i.e. the Graces) except Amorous Gesture (vilāsa)[33] and Lolling (lalita)[34] may be brilliant (dīpta)[35].

Eight aspects of the male’s Sattva

31. Brilliant Character (śobhā), Graceful Bearing (vilāsa), Self-possession (mādhurya), Steadiness (sthairya), Gravity (gāmbhīrya), Sportiveness (lalitā), Nobility (audārya) and Spirit (tejas) are the different aspects of the male’s Sattva.[36]

Brilliant Character

32. Skill [in various things], heroism, and energy, aversion to mean acts and emulation of the best virtues constitute Brilliant Character (śobhā, lit. beauty)[37].

Graceful Bearing

33. Eyes moving straight, gait as graceful as that of a bull, and smiling words constitute Graceful Bearing (vilāsa)[38].


34. If due to a [long] practice [in this direction] one’s sense-organs retain their firmness even when great changes of the natural state have occurred, it is called Selfpossesion (mādhurya, lit. sweetness)[39].

35. Not relinquishing any undertaking relating to duty, wealth and enjoyment irrespective of its good or bad results, īs called a Tenacity (sthairya).[40]


36. Gravity (gāmbhīrya) is something due to an influence of which [outward] changes in cases of anger, joy and tear do not occur[41].


37. Erotic movements and changes [of features] which are not deliberate and which grow out of a tender nature, constitute Sportiveness (lalita).[42]


38. Making gifts, bestowing favours and speaking sweet words to others as well as to one’s own men, is called Nobility (audārya)[43].


39. That one does not tolerate even at the risk of one’s life, any reproach or insult made by others, is called Spirit (tejas).[44]

Histrionic Representation through the body

40. O the best of Brahmins, I have spoken before about the Histrionic Representation through Sattva[45]. I shall now explain in detail the Histrionic Representation through the body[46].

41. This is sixfold: Words (vākya), Sūcā, Aṅkura, Śākhā, Nāṭyāyita and Nivṛttyaṅkura[47].


42. Recitatives in Sanskrit and Prakrit composed in verse or prose when they possess meanings giving various Sentiments, constitute the Histrionic Representation by Words[48].


43. When the meaning of a sentence or the sentence [itself] is indicated first by Sattva and Gestures, and then a Verbal Representation is made, it is called Sūcā[49].


44. When one skilfully represents by Gestures in the manner of the Sūcā and having the same source as the feeling which one has in one’s heart, it is called the Representation of Aṅkura[50].


45. The representation that is made in due order by the head, the face, shanks, thighs, hands and feet in the manner of branches, is known as the Śākhā Representation.[51]


46. The intimation of Histrionic Representation which is made at the entrance of a major character by [different] gestures for enlivening the time, and which lasts till the coming together [of the dramatis personae on the stage] is called Nāṭyāyita.[52]

47. The pantomeneic Representation of Dhruvās relating Psychological States and Sentiments which are made by means of delineating joy, anger, grief and the like, is also to be known as Nāṭyāyita.


48. When one represents words of another person by Sūcā it is called Nivṛtyaṅkura.[53]

Twelve forms of Verbal Representation

49-51. These are the [histrionic] ways connected with proper Psychological States and Sentiments that are available for the subject matter of plays. The representation of these, is to take the following twelve forms: Accosting (ālāpa), Prattling (pralāpa), Lament (vilāpa), Repeated Speaking (anulāpa), Dialogue (saṃlāpa), Change of Words (apalāpa), Message (sandeśa), Agreement (atideśa), Specific Mention (nirdeśa), Pretext (vyapadeśa), Instruction (upadeśa) and Indirect communication (apadeśa).[54]

Accosting and Prattling

52. Accosting (ālāpa) is a sentence used in addressing [any one].[55] Irrelevant words are called Prattling (pralāpa).[56]

Lament and Repeated Speaking

53. Words originating in a pathetic condition are called Lament (vilāpa).[57] Speaking again and again on anything is called Repeated Speaking (anulāpa).[58]

Dialogue and Change of words

54. Dialogue (saṃlāpa) is made up of utterance and counter-utterance.[59] Change of words (apalāpa)[60] is the alteration of words spoken before.

Message and Agreement

55. “Speak this to him,” is [an example of] Message (sandeśa).[61] Saying “You have said what was uttered by me” is [an example] of Agreement (atideśa).[62]

Specific Mention and Pretext

56. “It is the same I that is speaking,” is [an example] of Specific Mention (nirdeśa).[63] To speak with the purpose of deception, is called Pretext (vyapadeśa).[64]

Instruction and Indirect Communication

57. To say “Do this” or “Take this” is [an example] of Instruction (upadeśa).[65] Saying anything on behalf of another person is [an example of] Indirect Communication (apadeśa).

Another classification of Verbal Representation

58. These are the forms [of sentences] that are to create the Verbal Representation. I shall speak [hereafter] of the characteristics of the seven forms which it may have.

59. [A sentence may contain a statement which] treats an act visible (pratyakṣa) or invisible (parokṣa); it may relate to the present, past or future time; it may affect one’s ownself (ātmastha) or another (parastha).

60. “O this [person] is speaking and I am not speaking” is a statement which treats a visible act (pratyakṣa), affects another person (parastha) and relates to the present time.

61. “I am doing, or going or speaking” is a statement which affects one’s ownself, relates to the present time and treats a visible act.

62. “I shall do, go or speak” is a statement which affects one’s ownself, treats an invisible act and relates to the future time.

63. “All my enemies were killed, conquered and put to flight by me,” is a statement which affects one’s ownself as well as others, and relates to the past time.

64. “[The enemies] were killed and conquered by thee,” is a statement which treats an invisible act, affects others, and relates to the past time.

65. “This [person] is speaking, doing or going,” is a statement which affects another, relates to the present time and treats a visible act.

66. “He is going or doing” is a statement which affects another, relates to the present time and treats a visible act.

67. “They will do, go or speak,” is a statement which affects others, relates to the future time and treats an invisible act.

68. “That work is to be done today by me together with you,” is a statement which affects one’s ownself as well as another and relates to the present time.

69. Anything that is spoken on the stage (lit, in drama) under the cover of the hand, will affect one’s ownself, relate to something at one’s heart or will relate to an invisible (parokṣa) act.

70. The seven forms of this (i. e. Verbal Representation) will have many more varieties when they will be modified according to time, and persons (lit. of the self and others) who are affected.

71. These are the ways of the Histrionic Representation, known to producers of a drama. Different kinds of representations are to be made through these.

Harmonious Representation

72. The Harmonious Representation is that in which the effort is equally shared by the head, the face, the feet, the thighs, the shanks, the belly and the waist.

73. Experts in acting are to represent [a character] by graceful movements of hands and delicate efforts of limbs [in general], which are to delineate the Sentiments and the Psychological States.

Regular Histrionic Representation

74-75. The acting (lit. drama) which is [performed] by physical efforts which are not violent, hurried or complex, and which rest on proper tempo (laya), time (tāla) and the measurement of Kalās, and in which words are distinctly uttered without harshness and hurry, is called “regular” (ābhyantara).

Irregular Histrionic Representation

76. When it is of the opposite kind, and observes free movements and is not combined with songs and instrumental music, is called “irregular” (bāhya).

77. It is called “regular” when it conforms to the rule (lit. within the lakṣaṇa or rule) and ‘irregular’ when it is outside [the prescription] of the Śāstra.

Lakṣaṇa defined

78. As by this, a performance is lakṣyate or marked, it is called lakṣaṇa (characteristic mark). Hence it is of use in a drama.

Some prefer practice to the Śāstra

79. Those who have not received training from (lit. lived with) any master or who had no access to the Śāstras, resort to practices observed by others?[66]

Representation of objects and senses

80. A wise [actor] should represent sound, touch, form, taste and smell and sense-organs concerned, through gesture reflecting those objects of senses[67].


81. By making a side-long glance, bending the hand sideways and putting a hand near the ear, one should represent the sound.


82. By slightly narrowing down the eyes, raising the eyebrows in the like manner as well as by touching the shoulder and the cheek, the wise one should represent the form.


83. By holding on the head the Patāka hand with its fingers slightly moving, and looking intently [at something] with eyes, the wise one is to represent the form.

Agreeable Taste and Smell

84. By slightly narrowing down the eyes and expanding the nostrils and in the same breath, the wise one is to represent the agreeable taste and the smell.

85. These are gestures which arise from the activities of the five sense-organs such as skin, eyes, nose, tongue and ears.

Importance of mind

86. Objects of sense-organs are preceived by a person with attentive mind. But person out of his mind cannot perceive any object which comes through five [sense-organs].

Three aspects of mind

87. With reference to the representation, the mind has three attitudes [towards objects], viz. desired (iṣṭa), undesired (an-iṣṭa) and indifferent (madhyastha).

Favourable mind

88. Everything favourable should be represented by the happy movement of limbs, horripilation and the opening of the mouth.

89. In case of a favourable sound, form, touch, smell or taste, one should show a happy face by concentrating the senses [concerned] in mind.[68]

Unfavourable mind

90. By turning the head, not using the eyes and keeping them fixed to the nose, one should represent whatever is unfavourable.

Indifferent mind

91. An indifferent attitude should be represented by expressing not too much delight or to much abhorrence, and by keeping oneself in the middling state.

92. The representation of words like “[It is done] by him,” “It is his,” or “He does this” which relate to invisible acts is [an example of] indifferent attitude.

Meaning ofpersonal

93. The object which a person himself feels is called “personal” (ātmastha).

Meaning ofexternal

That which is a description of another person is called “external” (parastha).


94-95. Almost all the Psychological States proceed from erotic passion (kāma) and which combined with acts proceeding from desire which is regarded as having many forms such as, passion for virtue (dharma-kāma), passion for wealth (artha-kāma) and passion for liberation (mokṣa-kāma)[69].


95-96. The union of a man and a woman is called sensual passion (kāma). This love which may end in joy or sorrow for all people, is mostly to be observed as leading to happiness even in unhappy situations.

Erotic Affair

97. The union of man and woman which finds them sexually united is known as an Erotic Affair (śṛṅgāra). This benefits the two, and brings them happiness.

98. In this world people always desire happiness of which women are indeed the source. These women are of various nature.[70]

Various types of woman

99-100. Women are known to possess the nature of gods, Asuras, Gandharvas, Rākṣasas, Nāgas, birds, Piśācas, Yakṣas, tigers, men, monkeys, elephants, deer, fish, camel, Makara, asses, horses, buffaloes, goats, dogs, cows and the like.[71]

101-102. A woman who has delicate limbs, steady and soft looks from the corner of her eyes, is free from any disease, has lustre, munificence, truth and simplicity, emits very little sweat, has middling sexual passion, takes moderate food, loves sweet scent and is engaged in vocal and instrumental music, is known to possess the nature of a goddess.

A woman of Asura type

103-104. A woman who transgresses laws and practices trickery, is confirmed in anger, very cruel, fond of wine and meat, always irascible [in temper], very proud, fickle-minded, very covetous, harsh, fond of quarrel, jealous and inconstant in affection, is said to possess the nature of an Asura.[72]

A woman of Gandharva type

105-106. A woman who enjoys roaming in many gardens, is adorned with good nails and teeth, speaks with a smile, is slim-bodied, has a slow gait, loves sexual pleasure, is always pleased to hear music (gīta and vādya) and to witness dance, is careful about cleanliness [of the body] and has soft skin, glossy hairs and charming eyes, is known to possess the nature of a Gandharva.[73]

A woman of Rākṣasa type

107-108. A woman who has large and broad limbs, red wide eyes, coarse hairs, loves to sleep in day time, speaks loudly, has the habit of hurting [one] with nails and teeth, is disposed to anger, jealousy and quarrel, and likes to roam at night, is said to possess the nature of a Rākṣasa.[74]

A woman of Nāga type

109-110. A woman who has a pointed nose and sharp teeth, slender body, reddish eyes, complexion of a blue lotus, is fond of sleep, very irascible, has an oblique (tiryak) gait and unsteady efforts, takes pleasure in [the company of] many persons (lit. beings), and loves sweet scent, garlands and similar other objects, is said to possess the nature of a Nāga.[75]

A woman of bird type

111-112. A woman who has a very large mouth, energetic character, loves streams, enjoys spirituous liquor and milk, has many offsprings, likes fruits, is always given to breathing and is always fond of gardens and forests, is [very] fickle and talkative, is said to possess the nature of a bird.[76]

A woman of Piśāca type

11 3-114. A woman who has more or less than the usual number of fingers, is merciless during sexual acts, has the habits of roaming in gardens and fields, and of terrifying children, is treacherous, speaks with a double entendre, behaves abominably during sexual acts, has a hairy body and loud voice, and is fond of spiritous liquor and sexual indulgence, is said to have the nature of a Piśāca.[77]

A woman of Yakṣa type

115-116. A woman who sweats during sleep, loves quiet rest in bed or seat, is [very] intelligent, fearless and fond of wine, sweet scent and meat, takes delight on seeing the beloved one after a long time, feels gratitude [to him], does not sleep for a long time, is said to have the nature of a Yaksa.[78]

A woman of tiger type

117. A woman who takes honour and dishonour in the same spirit, has a rough skin and harsh voice, is wily, speaks untruth and haughty words, and has tawny eyes, is said to have the nature of a tiger (vyāla).[79]

A type of human female

118-119. A woman who loves uprightness, is always clever and very virtuous, has regular features (vibhaktāṅgī), is grateful [to her benefactors], disposed to worship the elders and gods, always careful about duty (dharma) as well as material gain, and is free from pride and fond of friends and has good habits is said to have the nature of a human being.[80]

A woman of monkey type

120-121. A woman who has a compact and small body, is impudent, has tawny hairs, is fond of fruits, talkative, fickle, and energetic, loves trees, gardens and forests, cherishes highly even a small kind act [done to her] and forces sexual act, is said to have the nature of a monkey[81].

A woman of elephant type

122-123. A woman who has a large chin and forehead, is fleshy and bulky, has tawny eyes, hairy body, is fond of sweet scent, garlands and wine, has an irascible temper, steady energy, loves water, garden, forests, sweet things and sexual intercourse, is said to have the nature of an elephant[82].

A woman of deer type

124-125. A woman who has a small abdomen, flat nose, thin shanks is fond of forest, has large red eyes, is fickle, has the habit of quickly going, susceptible to fright in day time, is timid, fond of songs and instrumental music, and intercourse, irascible in temper, unsteady in her efforts, is said to have the nature of a deer[83].

A woman of fish type

126. A woman who has long, large and high breasts, is fickle and without any twinkle in her eyes, has many servants and offsprings, is fond of water, is said to have the nature of a fish[84].

A woman of camel type

127-128. A woman who has protruding lips, too much sweat, a slightly awkward gait, slender abdomen, is fond of opening flowers, fruits, salt, sour and pungent tastes, has her waist and sides loosely bound, speaks harsh and and cruel words, has a very high and rough neck, is said to have the nature of a camel[85].

A woman of Makara type

129. A woman who has a large head, a steady neck, a mouth wide open, very loud voice and is cruel, has habits of a fish, is known to have the nature of a Makara[86].

A woman of ass type

130-131. A woman who has a thick tongue and lips, rough skin and harsh words, is violent during sexual acts, impudent, fond of nail-scratches and biting [from her lover], jealous of her co-wives, clever, not fickle, slow in her gait, angry by nature, and has many offsprings, is known to have the nature of an ass[87]

A woman of swine type

132-133. A woman who has a large back, belly and mouth, hairy and strong body, a very narrow forehead, is fond of ordinary and bulbous roots and fruits, is black, has a face rendered ugly due to big teeth, large thigh and thick hairs, mean habits and many offsprings, is said to have the nature of a swine[88].

A woman of horse type

134-135. A woman who is faithful, has symmetrical sides, thighs, hips, back and neck, straight and thick hairs, is charming, munificent, small, fickle-minded, sharp-tongued, quickly moving, and disposed to anger and sexual passion, is said to have the nature of a horse[89].

A woman of buffalo type

136-137. A woman who has a broad backbone, teeth, sides, belly, tawny hairs, is turbulent and hater of men, fond of intercourse, has a slightly broad (lit. raised) mouth, large forehead and hips, and is fond of forests and sporting in water, has the nature of a buffalo[90].

A woman of goat type

138-139. A woman who is thin, has small arms and breasts, moving red eyes, short hands and feet, is covered with fine hairs, and is timid, shy of water, fond of forests, restless, swiftly moving, and has many offsprings, is said to have the nature of a goat[91].

A woman of canine type

140-141. A woman who is alert in eyes and limbs, disposed to yawning [often], is talkative and grateful, has a long face, short hands and feet, loud voice, short sleep irascible [temper], and low manners, is said to have the nature of a dog.

A woman of cow type

142-143. A woman who has large, plump and high hips, thin shanks, short hands and feet, is kind to friends, firm in her efforts, favourable to children, engaged in worshipping ancestors and gods, always clean, respectful to superiors, faithful, and patient in her sufferings, is said to have the nature of a cow[92].

Etiquette towards women

144-145. Women possessing the spirit of animals they resemble by nature, have different habits. After knowing her spirits one should approach a woman accordingly. For courteous acts done to a woman according to her nature, even if these are not many, will be pleasing to her, while great many such acts when they are done with an ignorance of her nature, will not satisfy her [at all][93].

146. An external love will arise in a woman when she has been courted and won over in a proper manner. And certain Etiquette (upacāra) has been prescribed for man and woman in love [with each other].

147. Austerities are practiced for the sake of virtue and the [acquisition of] virtue is for the purpose of happiness. And happiness has its source in women the enjoyment of whose company is desired [by people in general].

Two classes of Etiquette

148. In the theatrical convention, Etiquette relating to the practice of love of men and women, is of two kinds: external and internal.

149. [Of these two], the internal [Etiquette] is to be observed by kings in the Nāṭaka. And the external [Etiquette] is to be observed by courtezans in the Prakaraṇa.

A King’s Etiquette towards Women

150. In this connexion I shall describe in detail the rules of Etiquette for kings in their enjoyment [of women’s love], which have been drawn out from the Science of Erotics.

Three classes of women

151-152. Women who have the nature of various animals are of three classes: “homely” (ābhyantara, lit. inside) “public” (bāhya, lit. outside) and “mixed” (bāyābhyantara, lit. outside and inside), A woman belonging to a high family is a “homely” (ābhyantara) and a courtezan, a “public” (bhaya) woman. A thoroughly tested (kṛtaśauca) woman, if she is a maiden of high family, is of the mixed (bāhyābhyantara) class.

153. A lady or a maiden may become subject to a king’s attention in his harem. But enjoying the company of a public woman is not desirable in connection with a king’s love-affair.

154. A king’s union takes place with a “homely” woman, and a common man may unite with a “public” woman, while the king may have union with a heavenly courtezan [only][94].

155. The manner of love-making which is approved in case of [married] women of high family, will hold good in case of maidens too. And [in love affairs] a courtezan too [will behave generally] like a lady of high family[95].

Beginning of love

156. Love of the superior, the middling or the inferior kind arises in men and women, from various causes[96].

157. Love [for a person] grows from hearing [about one] and [hearing] the charming conversation, seeing the personal beauty, or the sportive movement of limbs.

158. A woman becomes overpowered with love on seeing a young man who has personal beauty as well as other innate qualities, and has besides the knowledge of various arts and crafts.

159. An expert in this matter should then observe the various indications of love in men and women who desire one another’s company.

Signs of love

160. The glance in which [the eyes are] sportive, tearful, half-closed, upper eyelid is drooping and eyelashes are throbbing, is called Kāmyā. (lit. loving) and it should be used here.

161. The glance in which eyes are expanded up to the corner and have sportful and smiling expressions, is called Lalitā. It is used in women’s partial looks[97].

162. The colour of the face when one’s cheeks become slightly red and the face dotted with sweat-drops, and hairs in the body stand on their end[98], relates to love.

Signs of a courtezan’s love

163-165. A courtezan overpowered with, love should be represented by making her express the feelings by casting side-long glances, touching the ornaments, itching the ears, scratching the ground with her toes, showing the breasts and the navel, cleansing the nails and gathering her hairs[99].

Signs of love in a highborn lady

165-167. Similarly one should know that there are indications [of love] in a woman of high family, These are as follows: she looks continuously with blooming eyes, conceals her smile, speaks slowly and with a down-cast face, gives reply with a smile, conceals Her sweat and appearance, has throbbing lips and is trembling[100].

Signs of a maiden’s love

ī68. These are the various signs of love with which a woman not yet having an experience of the pleasure of intercourse will express differently her love which has ten stages[101].

Various stages of her love

169-171. First there will be a longing (ābhilāsa), secondly Anxiety (cintā), thirdly Recollection (anusmṛti), fourthly Enumeration of [the beloved one’s] Merits (guṇakīrtana), fifthly Distress (udvega), sixthly Lamentation (vilāpa), seventhly Insanity (unmāda), eighthly Sickness (vyādhi), ninthly Stupor (jaḍatā), and tenthly Death (maraṇa)[102]. These are the stages of love in case of men as well as of women. Now listen about the characteristics of all these.


172. Longing (abhilāṣa) arises from efforts born of desire and wish [for the beloved one], and leads to the means, of meeting [him][103].

173. One goes out of the place [where one is] or enters it or stays within his sight, and shows signs of amour in the first stage of love[104].


174. Anxiety (cintā) should be indicated by speaking to the female Messenger (dūtī) words such as “By what means and in what manner will there be an Union with (lit. obtaining of) the beloved[105]?”

175. In the second stage [of love] one should look with half-closed eyes and handle the Valaya (bangles), the Raśanā, and touch the Nīvi, the navel and the thighs[106].


176. Sighing again and again, thinking deeply of the beloved person and disliking other engagements, is called Recollection (anusmṛti)[107].

177. Being engrossed in thinking of him (i.e. the beloved) one does not attain composure in sitting or lying in bed, and remains unable to do to one’s duty. The third stage [of love] should be expressed like this[108].

Enumeration of Merits

178. To express by means of sportful movement of limbs, smiles and glance and [other efforts] the idea that ‘there is no one else like him’, is called Enumeration of [the beloved one’s] Merits.[109]

175. Representation [of love] in the fourth stage (i.e. should he made by horripilation at the Enumeration of Merits of the beloved and wiping off tears, and sweats, and by constant confidential talk to the female Messenger[110].


180. That one is not at case or is pleased in sitting, or in lying in bed and is always eagerly expecting [the beloved one] is the stage of Distress ( udvega) in love[111].

181. By representing anxiety, sighs, lassitude and burning of the heart in an exaggerated manner, one should express the stage of Distress[112].


182. Lamentation (vilāpa) is represented by speaking sorrowfully words such as. “He stood here; he sat here, and here he united himself with me, etc[113].”

183. A lamenting woman is distressed by very eagerly expecting [the beloved one], and out of uneasiness she moves from one place of grief to another[114].

184. When a woman introduces topic about him (i.e. the beloved) on all occasions and hates all [other] males, it is a case of Insanity (unmāda)[115].

185. To represent Insanity one should sometime look with a steadfast gaze, sometimes heave a deep sigh, sometimes be absorbed within oneself and sometimes weep at the [usual] time for recreation[116].


186. When after enjoying all objects fit for one in love, and even by desirable sprinkling, one fails to bring her condition under control, Sickness appears[117].

187. To represent Sickness, the eighth stage one is to show that she faints, the heart has no point on which to settle, the head aches badly, and one does not have any peace.[118]


188. In Stupor (jaḍatā) one does not respond when questioned, and does not hear or see [anything], she remaining speechless or begins her words with ‘alas’ or loses memory.[119]

189. To represent Stupor one is to utter response (huṃ) on the wrong occasion, and is to have one’s limbs relaxed and the mouth given to excessive breathing.[120]


190. If even after adopting all the means [available for the purpose] the Union [with the beloved] does not take place, then burnt in the fire of love one’s Death (maraṇa) takes place[121].

191. Thus in case of her not meeting (lit. getting) the beloved, one should represent, according to the Science of Erotics, for the Heroine all the stages of love except the last one[122].

Manifestation of men’s love

192. Even a man separated from his beloved one, will thus make a manifestation of his love in diverse ways through different Psychological States[123].

Characteristics of love

193. One should represent men as well as women who are expressing these stages of love by bringing in their common characteristics [in particular stages]1.

Women separated from the beloved one

194-196. All the stages of love should be generally represented through Psychological States arising from separation and having different bases such as anxiety, excessive breathing, lassitude, pain in the body, and imitating the conduct (lit. merit) [of the beloved] or looking to his path or gazing [vacantly] at the sky, talking pathetically, touching and twisting [some objects] or clinging to some support.

Relief in love-sickness

197. When burning very much with the fire of love one will use [special] clothes, ornaments, scents, rooms and gardens which have a cooling effect.

A Female Messenger

198. Suffering [thus] from love-sickness and being afflicted on many points she should send a female Messenger, expert in love affairs [to the beloved] to speak of her conditions.

199. The message sent through the female Messenger should relate to passionate love. She [should] deliver the same] with proper courtesy [and] say “This is her actual condition”.

200. Then due to manifold significance of the communication, he is to think of some means [of relief]. This is the rule to be observed by the experts where love is to be practised secretly.

A King’s Etiquette to Women

201. I shall now speak truly about the rules regarding the practice of kings in relation to “homely” women, and these rules are taken out the Science of Erotics[124].

202. Happy and unhappy conditions which occur [in connexion with love] in persons of various dispositions, and which are assumed by kings, are also followed by common people.

203. Kings have no difficulty in obtaining women; because means for this, is at their command. And the love that grows out of liberality produces delight.

204. Out of respect for the queens and for fear of their favourite women, kings are to make love secretly to women employed in the harem.

205. Though the kings may have many ways of making love, making it secretly will be [the most] pleasing [of all].

206. Attachment to a woman being shut out from a woman and difficulty in obtaining her, imparts the supreme delight to her love.

207. In case of women of the harem, the king’s diversion with them in day time may be permitted, but in Conjugal Union (vāsaka) meeting should take place at night.[125]

Reasons for Conjugal Union

208. The following six are reasons[126] for the Conjugal Union (vāsaka): scheduled order (paripāṭī), [desire for] progeny (phala), newness of relation (navatva), birth of a child (prasava), time of sorrow (duḥkha) and of joy (pramoda).[127]

209. Conjugal Union being due, kings should go to the bed-chamber of a wife even if she may be in her menses and may not be his favourite.

Eight kinds of Heroine

210-211. In this connexion Heroines (nāyikā) are known to be of eight kinds such as, “one dressed up for Union” (vāsakasajjā), “one distressed by separation” (virahotkaṇṭhitā), “one having her husband in subjection” (svādhīna-bhartṛkā), “one separated [from her lover] by a quarrel” (kalahāntaritā), “one enraged with her lover” (khaṇḍitā), “one deceived by her lover” (vipralabdhā) “one with a sojourning husband” (proṣitabhartṛka) and “one who moves [to her lover] (abhisārikā).[128]

A Heroine dressed up for Union

212. A woman who in eager expectation of love’s pleasure decorates herself joyfully when the Conjugal Union is due, is a Heroine dressed up for Union.[129]

A Heroine distressed by separation

213. A woman whose beloved one does not turn up on account of his preoccupation with many other engagements and makes her afflicted with sadness by his not coming, is a Heroine distressed by separation.[130]

A Heroine having her husband in subjection

214. A woman whose husband captivated by her pleasing qualities as well as by intense pleasure of love (surata) from her, stays by her side, is a Heroine having the husband in subjection.[131]

A Heroine separated by quarrel

215. When woman is impatient for her lover having gone away due to a quarrel, or jealousy, and not returning, she is a Heroine separated by quarrel[132].

An enraged Heroine

216. A women whose beloved one, due to attachment for another female, does not come for the Conjugal Union when it is due, is an enraged Heroine.[133]

A deceived Heroine

217. When lover does not come to such a women (i.e. khaṇḍitā) for a certain reason even after he had met her and made a tryst, she is a deceived Heroine.[134]

A Heroine with a sojourning husband

218. A woman whose husband (lit. the beloved one) is living abroad on account of serious duties and who has the ends of her hairs scattered, is called a Heroine with a sojourning husband.[135]

A Heroine moving to her lover

219. A woman who due to love or lust is attracted to her lover and gives up modesty for going out to meet him, is called a Heroine secretly moving to her lover.[136]

Representation of different Heroines

220. Heroines in a Nāṭaka should be of these conditions. I shall speak of the manner in which the producers are to represent them.

221-223. Enraged, Deceived and Quarreling Heroines and the Heroine with a sojourning husband should be represented by the conditions such as anxiety, sighs, lassitude, burning of the heart, conversation with female friends, looking to one’s own condition, weakness, depression, shedding tears, appearance of anger, giving up of ornaments and toilet, sorrow and weeping.[137]

The Heroine having the husband in subjection

224. A Heroine having the husband in her subjection should be represented with gaudy and brilliant dresses, face beaming with pleasure and having an excess of blooming.[138]

Different classes of Heroine moving to the lover

225. When she may be a courtezan, a lady of high family or a maid-servant, the producers should make the Heroine move to her lover in the special manner described below[139].

A Courtezan

226. [In going down to her lover] the courtezan is to have her body beautifully decorated with various ornaments and to walk slowly in the company of her attendants and with [a display of] passion (samadanā) and mild efforts.[140]

The woman of high family

227. [And in such a situation] a woman of high family will cover her face with a veil, and walk timidly with her limbs contracted, and will [very often] turn back[141] her face.

A hand-maid

228. And [in the same situation] a hand-maid will walk haughtily with uneven steps (āviddhagati) and with eyes beaming with amorous joy, and will talk distortedly due to intoxication (madaskhalita-saṃlāpā).[142]

How to meet a sleeping lover

229. If the beloved one (lit. this one) is in bed, and she finds him manifestly asleep, she [should] awaken him by the following means:[143]

230. A woman of high family is to awaken him by [the sound of] ornaments, the courtezan by the sweet (lit. cool) scents, and the handmaid by fanning the beloved one with her clothes.[144]

231. This is the rule of amours for women of high family, courtezans and others, for the Nāṭaka is to represent the Psychological States of all kinds [of Heroine].

Mans Preparation for Amorous Union

232. For a woman newly in love or an enraged woman when she is not coming [of her own accord,] the Amorous Union should be arranged [by the lover] through some pretext.

233. A woman in love always enjoys with pleasure various ornaments, dresses, scents and garlands which are charming and are of the best kind.

234. Just as a man does not come particularly under the control of love when he has failed to win any woman, so on being united, with the beloved woman [such a person] becomes doubly delighted.

Behaviour at the Amorous Union

235. At the time of Amorous Union (lit. union of love) there should be amorous feelings, gestures, words and specially sportful movements of the sweetest kind (lit. having a special quality of sweetness) and especially looking at each other with love.

Preparation for Women’s Amorous Union

236. In special cases, a woman also while meeting the beloved one should arrange Amorous Union which is to be a source of pleasing Sentiment.

237. Alter collecting scents, garlands and a short cloth, she should keep these in readiness for the lover, and make her own toilet.

238. In preparing for the Amorous Union one should not put on too many ornaments, [among these] the Raśanā and the Nūpura, which have a sound are generally to be preferred.

Acts prohibited on the stage

239. [In representing various activities of women] there should be on the stage no ascending of the bed-stead, no bath, no use of unguents and collyrium, no decoration of the body and no doing of the hair.

240. And women of the superior and the middling types should not be shown as very scantily draped (apāvṛtā) or wearing only one piece of garment (ekavastrā) and they should use no colour for their lips.

241. The prohibited mode of [of dress] will suit only the women of the inferior type, because of their low nature.[145] But they too are not to be represented as doing what is improper.

242. Men and women in different Psychological States should in a play take up a flower when they dress themselves up (lit. in their taking ornaments).

243. A woman who has finished toilet waits for a while for the arrival of her beloved men. And while looking to his path she will hear the ringing of the bell indicating Nāḍikās.

A Heroine in expectancy

244. After hearing the sound of [the expected] Nāḍikā the Heroine excited [with joy) at [the chance of] the beloved one’s coming should run towards the gate with a trembling [body] and with her Heart about to stop.

245. And holding the door-frame with her left hand, and a door-blade with the right one, she should with straight eyes look up for the arrival of the beloved one.

246. She is to express anxiety, apprehension and fear due to some reasons, and when the beloved one fails to appear (lit. not seeing the beloved), she should turn sad at the moment.

247. Then after heaving a deep sigh she should shed tears and with a motionless heart drop down herself (lit. her limbs) on a seat.

248. Due to a delay of the beloved one she should connect (lit. ponder over) his coming with causes (lit. considerations) which may be good or bad.

245. She will think [as follows:] “Could the beloved one have been held up by serious duties, by the friends, or by the minister engaged in affairs of the state, or could He have been detained by some favourite woman?”

250. She should represent an appearance connected with the various good or bad causes [mentioned above] by means of physical omens like quivering or throbbing [of a particular limb.]

Personal omens

251. Personal omens indicating things favourable to women, will occur to their left [side] while in case of all undesirable happenings they will take place on their right.

252. If the left eye, forehead, eyebrow, lip, thigh arm, or breast throbs, this, will indicate the coming [of the beloved].

253. If these will throb differently[146] that will indicate something calamitous (lit. not desired). In case of perceiving such an evil omen she should at once faint.

254. As long as the beloved one has not come, her hand will rest on her cheek, and being careless about her toilet she should go on weeping.

A Heroine’s reception of the beloved one

255-256. But afterwards on seeing some good omen indicating his arrival the Heroine should represent that the beloved one has drawn near by means of feeling[147] his smell, and on seeing him [come] she should joyfully get up and proceed to welcome the beloved one.

Receiving the guilty lover

256-238. And if the beloved one is guilty he should be given censure in due order by means of [appropriate] gestures and reproachful words as well as by Jealous Anger (māna), Insult, Fainting or Dissimulations and in case of women’s outburst of speech [in such cases] will consist of abuse.

258-261. In case of satisfaction [witnessing] a contest, love, doubt, responding to courtesy, and wonder, in case of private words relating to duty, wealth amour or in laughter, curiosity, flurry, calamity and acceding to a situation of fun and to his concealing any ascription of any fault, the Heroine should speak to the beloved one even if [His guilts require that] he should not be spoken to, because of these reasons.

261-262. Where there is affection there is fear also. And where there is jealousy there occurs love (madana).

Causes of jealousy

The causes of this (i.e. jealousy) are fourfold: Depression (vaimanasya), Mixed Feeling (vyalīka), Disgust (vipriya) and Anger (manyu). Please listen about their description.


262-265. Depression arises from seeing the beloved one walking lazily due to sleepiness and lassitude, and discovering signs [of his Union with another woman] and fresh wounds [received from the latter].

264. A women should represent this with an intensely jealous face, great trembling of lips due to anger, and utterance of words like “It is good,” “It is nice” and “It is beautiful.”

Mixed feeling

265. Mixed Feeling arises due to jealousy mixed with great joy when one’s beloved one is seen [near by] even after he has been treated with contempt in many ways.

266. Mixed Feeling should be represented by putting forward a foot and having the left hand on the breasts and the right one violently gesticulating.


267. Disgust (vipriya) will arise when the beloved one says that “I live [only] as long as you live,” “I am your slave” and “You are my love,” but behaves in a [quite] different manner,

268. Representation of Disgust should be made by repulsing the female Messenger, the latter’s solicitation of reply [made by the beloved one] and also by angry laughter weeping and shaking of the head.


269. Anger arises [in a woman] when the beloved one comes to her from the place of a rival woman, and carries the signs of his Union with her and boasts about his good luck in this matter.

270. Anger should be represented by turning round the Valayas [bangles) and throwing up the Rasanā in a loose manner and by apprehensive and tearful eyes.

On treating a lover at fault

271. On seeing the beloved one standing much ashamed and afraid due to his guilt, [the Heroine] should harass him with rebuke made up of words spoken in jealous [indignation].

272. But no very cruel words should be uttered, and no very angry words should also be applied. [The Heroine] should speak tearfully things referring to her ownself (i.e. her ill luck).

273-275. This attitude should be represented by placing on the breast a hand the middle finger of which is touch the edge of the lip, and by looking with eyes upturned, and looking continuously or assuming a Karaṇa in which a hand is placed on the hip with the fingers separated or by moving them on the head and letting them fall together or by a look of Dissimulation or by beautiful gestures finger of indicating threat.

275-277. After saying “You are shining,” “You look well,” “Go”, “Why are you tarrying”, “Don’t touch me,” “Go to the beloved one who is in your heart,” ‘And go away,” she should turn back and resume her joyful expression on any pretext.[148]

278. In case of being taken forcibly by the dress, the hand or the hair (lit. head) the woman should be softened even after observing the guilt [of the beloved person].

279. When taken by her hand, dress or hair the woman drawing near the beloved one should slowly release herself from him.

280. When taken by her hair, hand or dress the woman should enjoy (lit. take) the touch of the beloved in such a way that he may not perceive it.

281. The woman should slowly release her hair [from the hands of the beloved one] by standing first on her toes with limbs bent and then taking to the Aśvakrāntā posture.[149]

282. Her hair being not released [due to efforts of the beloved one] the woman should slightly perspire on his touch and say “Hum hum, let [my hairs] go,” and “Go away”.

283. After hearing the angry words like “Go away” the lover (lit. man) should [first] go away and then come back to start talking to her on any pretext.

284. Then the woman should make movements of her hand while uttering “Huṃ huṃ”, and during these movements she should pretend [anger] with abuses (śapatha).

285. In case of her clothes being taken away [by the beloved one] the woman should either cover his eyes, conceal herself behind his back and cover her Nīvi.

286. A woman should harass her [offending] lover till he would fall to her feet; but on his falling at her feet she should look to the female Messenger.

287-288. Then the Heroine should embrace the beloved one and with the object of intercourse she should joyfully walk [with him] to the bed. All these should be represented [only] by [appropriate] songs[150] with a gentle dance.

288-289. When in a play there is any speaking to the sky or any action depending on another man’s speech, which relates to the Erotic Sentiment, then the same line of representation should be followed by a woman.

290. The same should be the rule of representation if an action of a play relates to the inner apartment (harem) and the Erotic Sentiment.

Acts forbidden on the stage

291. One knowing the dramatic convention (nāṭya - dharma) should not represent sleeping on the stage. But if [such is necessary] on some pretended need one should bring the Act to a close.

292-293. If out of any necessity anyone sleeps alone or with anyone, no kiss or embrace or any other private acts such as biting, scratching with nails, loosening the Nīvi, the pressing of breasts and lips, should be presented on the stage.[151]

294. Taking food or sporting in water or doing any immodest act should not be presented on the stage.

295.[152] As a Nāṭaka is to be witnessed by the father and the son, the mother-in-law and the daughter-in-law [all sitting together] these acts should be carefully avoided.

296. With words which are very pleasant to hear and have not very harsh sounds and are sweet and not very cruel the experts should write Nāṭakas which are to contain good counsels.

Endearing terms of address for the beloved one

297. Now listen about terms which women in love are to use to their beloved ones when the Amorous Union takes place.

298.[153] Such terms are “dear” (priya), “beloved” (kānta), “affectionate” (vinīta), “lord” (nātha), “master” (svāmi), “life” (jīvita) and “joy” (nandana) when they are pleased.

Angry terms of address for the beloved one

299.[154] In case of anger, terms generally used may be “ill-natured” (duḥśīla), “tyrant” (durācāra, lit. ill-doing), “deceitful” (śaṭha), “hostile” (vāma), “indifferent” (virūpa), “shameless” (nirlajja) and “cruel” (niṣṭhura).

Endearing terms of address

300. He who does nothing undesirable, speaks nothing improper, and always conducts himself uprightly is called “dear” (priya).

301. He in whose lips or [other parts of] the body no sign of Amorous Union with another woman is visible is called “beloved”[155].

302. He who even in his anger does not cross words [with the woman he loves] and does not use any harsh word is called “affectionate”.

303. He who maintains an intercourse with a woman by sweet words (sāma, lit. conciliation), gifts (dāna), providing enjoyment, caress and maintinance, is called “lord”[156].

304. He who is a well-wisher [of his beloved woman], is able to protect her, is not conceited or jealous, is always alert on every occasion, is called “master”[157].

305. He who takes the woman to the bed to please her tactfully by [providing] enjoyments according to her wishes and desires, is called “life”[158].

306. He who is high-born, patient, clever, kind, master of words and fit to be praised among women friends, is called “joy”[159].

307. These words are used to heighten the charm of intercourse. I shall now speak of words which indicate an want of love. Listen about them.

Angry terms of address explained

308. He who is cruel, impatient, conceited, shameless, bragging, given to crossing words, is called “ill-natured” (duḥśīla)[160].

309. He who restrains indiscreetly a woman’s movement or beats her or uses harsh words to her, is called a “tyrant”[161].

310. He who for his own purpose speaks sweet words but does not put them into practice is called “deceitful”[162].

311. He who even being forbidden to do anything does that very thing, and resolutely, is called “hostile”[163].

312. He who has fresh wounds [received from a another woman] and is proud of it and remains silent is called “indifferent”[164].

313. He who approaches the woman more resolutely than ever even when he is guilty [towards her] and bears the marks of such a guilt and is forbidden to approach, is called “shameless”[165].

314. He who being guilty towards her tries to enjoy a intercourse with a woman by force, and does not think of conciliating her, is called “cruel”[166].

315. These are the ways of using words to indicate whether a lover is dear or not so. In different circumstances[167] one should use them discretely[167].

316. In songs [mentioning such a situation] there should be application of gentle dance of the Erotic Sentiment and the [representation of] fatiguing acts of love.

317. When there is a man in the sky alluding to another person, and his word suggests the Erotic Sentiment, the same should be the mode of representation [on the part of a woman].

318. These should also be the procedure when a [similar] act relating to the Erotic Sentiment takes place in a Nāṭaka, with regard to a male.

319. This is the rule about the representation of incidents relating to the harem. I shall now describe in due order the rules regarding the goddesses (lit. celestial females).

Goddesses in human roles

320. The dress of goddesses is always brilliant, their mind is always full of joy and their time is always passed happily and in sports.

321. Celestial males have no jealousy, anger and malice in life, and they require no propitiation of their females.

322. When celestial women unite with human beings they are to assume all the Psychological States of a mortal.

323. When celestial women sustain a fall [from the heaven] due to a curse, their union with human males and the mode of approach should be likewise.

324. [Remaining] invisible, she should tempt them with her voice and with [the scent of] flowers in her decoration and then revealing herself for a moment she should disappear.

325. The Hero is to be maddened by a display of dresses, ornaments, garlands and letters and such other means.

326. Love growing out infatuation will be pleasing, and that [love] which is natural will not cause such abundant feelings.

327. Being reduced to human existence celestial males should assume all the Psychological States which arc proper for men and should behave like them.

328. This should be the practice in connexion with kingly Etiquette in relation to the harem. The Etiquette in relation to the outsiders will be treated in rules regarding Courtezans (vaiśika).

Here ends Chapter XXIV of Bharata’s Nāṭyaśāstra which treats of the Harmonious Representation.

Footnotes and references:


Ag, seems to have no very convincing explanation as to why sāmānyābhinaya was so called. He discusses it from different points of view (pp. 436-430). From the contexts of this chapter as well as the def. given here in 72 below, it appears that the expression means harmonious use of the four kinds of abhinaya (VI. 23), and as such it should be distinguished from the citrābhinaya (XXVI.) which applies only to the special representation of various objects and ideas.


See VI. 22 note.


See VI. 22 note.


Cf. DR. II. 30a; BhP. p. 6. 1.20; ND. p. 203.


See DR. II. 30b; ND. p. 203.


See DR. II. 32-33a; ND. p. 203.


See DR. II. 31; ND. p. 203.


Cf. DR. II. 30b.


Cf. DR. II. 33b-34b.


Cf. DR. II. 33b; ND. p. 204. BhP. p.8. 1.4-10.


See below 10 note 1, K. reads 9a as (?)


According to ND. (p.204) the bhāva relates to a slight manifestation of erotic feelings through words and gestures, while the hāva to a very clear expression of one’s emotion through various gestures.


Cf. DR. II. 34b; BhP. p.8, 1.13-14. According to ND. (pp. 204-205) these three aspects of women’s Sattva depend on one another. For example, the hāva depends on the bhāva, and the helā on the hāva.


DR. II. 37b; BhP. p. 9. l. 5. ND. p. 205.


Cf. DR. II. 37b; BhP. p. 9.1. 5; ND. p. 205.


Cf. DR, II, 38a, BhP. p. 9,1. 6-7, p. 205.


The word is Prakrit in form and comes probably from vikṣipti. Cf. DR. II. 38b; BhP. p. 9. 1. 8-9; ND. p. 205.


Cf. DR. II. 39a; BhP. p, 9. l. 10-11. ND. p. 205.


Cf. DR. II. 39b; BhP. p. 9, l. 12. ND. p, 206.


Cf. DR. II. 40a, BhP. p. 9, l. 13-14; ND. p. 206.


Cf. DR. II. 40b; BhP. p. 9, l. 15-16; ND. p. 206.


Cf. DR. II. 41a; BhP. p. 9.1. 17-18; ND. p. 205-206.


Cf. DR. II. 41b; BhP. p. 9, l. 19-20; ND. p. 206.


Cf. DR. II. 42a; BhP. p. 9, l. 21-22; ND. p. 206.


Cf. DR. II. 31.


Cf, DR II. 35a; BhP. p. 8. l. 15-16; ND. p. 207. This def. seems to mean that a young woman’s loveliness is augmented after she has had her first experience of love's enjoyment, and this augmented loveliness is called śobhā.


Cf. DR. II. 35b; BhP. p. 8, l. 16.


Cf. DR. II. 36a; BhP. p. 8, l. 17-18; ND. p. 207.


Cf. DR. II. 37a; BhP. p. 8; l. 19; ND. p. 207.


Cf. DR. II. 37a; BhP. p. 8; l. 21; ND. p. 207.


6 Cf. DR. II. 36b; BhP. p. 8, l. 22; ND. p. 207.


Cf. DR. II. 36b, BhP. p. 8. l. 20-22 ND. p. 207.


See above 15.


See above 22.


See above 26.


Cf. DR. II. 10. BhP. p. 9, l. 24; p. 10. l. 1; ND. p. 197.


Cf. DR. II. 11a; BhP. p. 13, l. 2-3; ND. p. 197.


Cf. DR. II. 11b; BhP. p. 10, l. 4; ND. p. 197.


Cf. DR. II, 12a; BhP. p. 10, l. 5.


DR. II. 13a; BhP. p. 13, l. 16 gives the term as dhairya, ND. p. 198.


Cf. DR. II. 12b; BhP. p. 10, l. 7; ND p. 198.


Cf. DR. II. 14a; BhP. p. 10, l. 8; ND. p. 198.


Cf. DR. II. 14b; BhP. p. 10. l. 10; ND. p. 197.


Cf. DR. II. 13b; BhP. p. 13. l. 10; ND. p. 197.


It is curious that the author of the NŚ. is classifying now abhinaya in a different manner and reckons its two broad classes: sāttvika and śārīra, and gives their sub-divisions. For a four-fold division of the abhinaya see VI. 23.


Cf. Kālidāsa’s pañcāṅgābhinaya, Mālavi. l. 6.2.


This seems to be the same as the vācikābhinaya.


This kind of representation is mainly to accompany songs and dance.


This kind of representation is meant to be combined with dance.


See above 1-39.


This kind of representation is to accompany recitatives (pāṭhya).


This is the use of gestures in connection with songs and dance before the beginning of the dramatic performance.


This kind of representation is used by the dancer who interprets other’s speeches.


BhP. p. 10. l. 20-23;


Cf. BhP. p. 10, l. 24.


Cf. ibid p. 11, l. 1.


Cf. BhP. p. 11, l. 2.


See ibid p. 11. l. 3.


See BhP. p. 11, l. 4.


See ibid p. 11, l. 5.


Cf. BhP. p. 11, l. 6.


See ibid p. 11, l. 7.


Cf. BhP. p. 11, l. 8.


Cf. ibid p. 11, l. 11.


Cf. BhP. p. 11. l. 9.


This shows that the ancient India’s artists did not follow the Śāstras slavishly.


See also VIIIff.


The expression used is indriyair manasā prāptair, ‘by means of senses coming together with the mind.’


It seems that Freud has been in a way anticipated here.


Cf. BhP. p. 109, l. 9-10.


See BhP, p. 109, l. 12-15. See also Caraka-saṃhitā Śārīra, IV. and Suśruta-saṃhitā. Śārīra, IV. and Kāśyapa-saṃhitā. Ch. XXVIII.


Cf. BhP. (p. 109, l. 20 - 32.) here this type is called daityaśīlā.


Cf. BhP. p. 108, l. 1-4,


Cf. BhP. p. 110, l. 8-11.


Cf. BhP. p. 110, l. 21-22, p. III, l. 1.


Cf. BhP. p. 110. l. 21-22.


Cf. BhP. p. 110. l. 15-18.


Cf. BhP. p. 110, l. 5-7.


Cf. BhP. p. 110, l. 19-22.


Cf. BhP. p. 111, l. 3-4.


Cf. BhP. p. 111, 1. 5-7.


Cf. BhP. p. 111, l. 8-9.


BhP. p. 111. l. 10-13.


Cf. BhP. p, 111, l. 13-14.


Cf. BhP. p. 111, l. 15-16.


Cf. BhP. p. 111, l. 17-18.


Cf. BhP. p. 111, l. 19-20.


Cf. BhP. p. 111, l. 21-22.


Cf. BhP. p. 112, l. 1-3.


Cf. BhP. p. 112, l. 4-6.


Cf. BhP. p. 112, l. 7-9.


Cf. BhP. p. 112, l. 10-12.


See BhP. p, 112, l. 14-16.


As in Vikram.


Cf. “saṃyuktā nāyakena tadrañjanārthamekacāriṇīvṛttam” e tc. KS. IV. z. I.


These three kinds of love have been defined by later authors like Śāradātanaya; see BhP. p. 113, l. 13-14.


See VIII. 73.


Cf. BhP. p. 113, l. 17-19.


Cf. BhP. p. 113, l. 3-9, and p, 114. l. 1-2.


Cf. BhP. p. 113, l. 17, p. 114, l. 1-2.


BhP. (p. 88) gives the number as ‘ten or twelve’.


Cf. BhP. (p. 88, l. 3-5) gives two more stages (icchā and utkaṇṭhā). Also cf. KS. V. 1-5: NL. 2421ff.


Cf. NL. 2427; BhP. p. 88, l, 15-16.


Cf. NL. 2428ff; BhP. p. 88. l. 17-20.


Cf. NL. 2436ff; BhP, p. 88, l, 21-27.


Cf. BhP. p. 89, l. 8-5.


Cf. NL. 2449; BhP. p. 89, l. 7-8.


Cf. NL. 2449; BhP. p. 89, l. 9-11. C.’s reading of the portion of this chapter (XXIV.) given in pp. 281 (line 27)-289 (line 3) is merely an unacknowledged copy of K.s reading of the same. C.’s own reading occurs in pp. 348 (line 14) 355 (line 8) as a part of the chapter XXXI.


Cf. NL. 2456; BhP. p. 89, l. 12-14.


Cf. BhP. p. 89, l. 15-18.


Cf. NL. 2462ff; BhP. p. 89, l. 19-22.


See note of 180 above.


Cf. NL. 2470; BhP. p. 90, l. 1-3. An example “iha tayā saha hasitam, iha tayā saha kathitam, iha tayā saha parthuṣitam, iha tayā saha kupitam, iha tayā saha śayitam” etc. (Svapna 1. 15. 2-4).


Cf. BhP. 90, l. 4-8.


Cf. NL. 2484ff; BhP. p. 90, l. 9-15.


See above 184 note.


BhP, p. 90. l. 16-18. K. NL (2476) has ātaṅka (disquietude) which precedes unmāda.


Cf. BhP. p. 90, l. 19-22.


Cf. NL. 2499ff; BhP. p, 91, l. 1-6.


See above 188 note.


Cf. NL. 2505ff. BhP. p. 91, l. 7-8.


Cf. NL. 2510ff. BhP. p. 91, l. 9-10.


See above 182 note.


This seem to relate to treatises now lost.


Cf. KS. V. 1, 16.


See Hemacandra’s vṛtti on this passage quoted in KA. (p. 307) where he copies Ag. vebatim.


This rule of the Conjugal Union (vāsaka) seems to have been relaxed at the time of Vātsyāyana. See KS. III. 2, 61-63.


See DR. II. 23-27.


Cf. NL. 2525ff; DR. II. 24; BhP. p. 99.


Cf. NL. 2530ff; DR. II. 25; BhP. p. 100.


Cf. NL. 2568ff; DR. II. 24; BhP. p. 99.


Cf. NL. 2550; DR. II. 26; BhP. p. 99.


Cf. NL. 2536ff; DR. II. 25; BhP. 98.


Cf. NL. 2542ff; DR. II. 26; BhP. p. 99.


Cf. NL. 2556ff; DR. II. 27; which uses the tern proṣitapriyā. BhP. p. 100.


Cf. NL. 2572ff; DR. II. 27. See BhP. p. 100.


Cf. DR. II. 28; cf. BhP. p. 98-100.


Cf. DR. II. 28. Cf. BhP. p. 99.


Cf. DR. II. 28. Cf. BhP. p. 100.


Cf. NL. 2580ff; BhP. p. 101, l. 4-10; SD 117.


Cf. NL. 2576ff; BhP. p. 100, l. 19-22; SD. 117.


Cf. NL. 2580ff; BhP. p. 101, l. 11-15.


Cf. BhP. p. 101, l. 16.


Cf. BhP. p. 101, l. 16-22.


That is, they might appear on the stage as very scantily draped or with one piece of garment or might have their lips painted.


That is, if the right eye and eyebrow etc. throb.


That is, by representing it with gestures.


trans. of 277 is tentative.


See XIII. 167-168.


K. reads 290 with some variation. In trans. it is as follows: Then the woman will tolerate (lit. accept) the touch of the beloved and holding him up properly [from the feet] lead him to the bed.


This shows the high moral tone of the Indian theatrical art.


See above 292-293 note.


BhP. (p. 107, l. 7-9) has eleven terms.


BhP. (p. 108, l. 10-11) has eight terms.


Cf, BhP. p. 107. l. 14-15.


Cf. BhP. p. 107b. l. 16-17,


Cf. BhP; p. 107b, l. 18-19.


Cf. BhP. p. 108b, l. 4-5; the term here is jīviteśa, lord of life.’


Cf. BhP. p. 10 8b, l. 2-3.


Cf. BhP. p. 108b, l. 14-15.


Cf. BhP. p. 109, l. 4-5.


Cf. BhP. p. 108b, l. 20. p. 109b, l. 1.


Cf. BhP. p. 108b, l. 12-13.


Cf. BhP. p. 108b, I. 14-15.


Cf. BhP, p. 108b. I, 18-19.


Cf. BhP. p. 108b. I. 20-21.


That is in irony (solluṇṭhaṇa-bhāṣita). See SD. 107.

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