Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra

by Helen M. Johnson | 1931 | 742,503 words

This page describes Sermon on yatidharma which is the ninth part of chapter III of the English translation of the Sumatinatha-caritra, contained within the “Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra”: a massive Jain narrative relgious text composed by Hemacandra in the 12th century. Sumatinatha in jainism is one of the 63 illustrious beings or worthy persons.

Part 9: Sermon on yatidharma

So addressed by the prince, the great muni, the enemy of Māra (Kama), replied in a voice deep as the thunder of a new cloud:

“The sources of pride—youth, power, beauty, etc.—have become subdued from penance, like evil spirits of a sorceror reduced to servitude from the power to summon them.[1] Yatidharma, handed down orally by the Blessed Ones, is the best boat without impediments for crossing the ocean of saṃsāra. Control, truthfulness, purity, chastity, poverty, austerities, forbearance, humility, sincerity, and freedom from greed are the ten divisions. Control (saṃyama) is said to take the form of avoidance of injury to living creatures. Truthfulness (sunṛta) takes the form of avoidance of false speech. Purity (śauca) is perfect purity of control from the refusal of gifts not given.[2] Chastity (brahma) is the restraint of the senses accompanied by the nine guptis.[3] Indifference to the body is considered poverty (akiñcanatā).[4] Austerities (tapas) are twofold, outer and inner, as follows: complete fasting, partial fasting, limitation of food, giving up choice food, bodily austerities, and avoidance of unnecessary motion are called outer austerities; confession and penance, service to others, study (of sacred texts), reverence,[5] indifference to the body,[6] pure meditation are the six inner austerities. Forbearance (kṣānti) is endurance by restraint of anger in strength or weakness. Humility (mārdava) is the avoidance of the fault of pride by the destruction of conceit (māna). Sincerity (ārjava) is straightness in speech, mind and body from overcoming deceit. Freedom from greed (mukti) is the destruction of the thirst for inner and outer possessions. So the tenfold dharma, like a spotless wishing-jewel, capable of leading across saṃsāra, is attained in the world by merit.”

Footnotes and references:


With double use of sadhana.


I.e., honesty.


See I, p. 452. Uttar., Chap. 16, gives a list almost identical with that of the Sam., but it has 10 divisions instead of 9.


Really indifference to all bodily comforts and possessions.


Hem. himself makes vinaya fourfold: reverence for knowledge, belief, and right conduct, and service to one’s superiors. See 1. 1. 892. So also T. 9. 23. For other subdivisions, up to 13, see Navatattvasāhityasaṅgraha, 2, p. 44.



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