The Agni Purana

by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596

This page describes The forms of completed euphonic combinations (sandhi) which is chapter 350 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.

Chapter 350 - The forms of completed euphonic combinations (sandhi)

Skanda said:

1-5. I shall describe the forms of finished combinations[1] [i.e., sandhi-siddha-rūpa] (of vowels and consonants). First (I shall describe) the combination of vowels [i.e., svara-sandhi].

daṇḍa + agram = daṇḍāgram [daṇḍāgra];
sā + āgatā = sāgatā;
dadhi + idaṃ = dadhīdaṃ [dadhīda];
nadi + īhate = nadīhate;
madhu + udakaṃ = madhūdakaṃ [madhūdaka];
pitṛ + ṛṣabha = pitṛṣabha;

The letter ‘ḷ’ also becomes similar.
(hotṛ + ḷkāra = hotṛkāra);
tava + idaṃ = tavedaṃ [taveda];
sakala + udakaṃ = sakalodakaṃ;

The following is a half-vowel:
tava + lkāra = tavalkāra;
sā + eṣā = saiṣā;
sā + aindri = saindrī;
tava + odanaṃ = tavaudanaṃ [tavaudana];
khaṭvā + oghaḥ = khaṭvaughaḥ [khaṭvaugha] are thus formed;
vi + asudhiḥ = vyasudhīḥ [vyasudhī];
vasu + alaṅkṛtaṃ = vasvalaṅkṛtaṃ [vasvalaṅkṛta];
pitṛ + artha = pitrartha;
pitṛ + upavana = pitrarthopavana;
nai + aka = nāyaka;
lo + aka = lāvaka;
te + iha = ta iha, tayiha etc.;
te + atra = te'tra;
yaḥ + atra = yo'tra;
jale + akajam = jale'kajam;

(The following do not undergo any change):
aho + ehi = aho ehi;
a + avehi = a avehi;
i + ṃdrakaṃ = i indrakam [indraka];
u + uttiṣṭha = u uttiṣṭha;
kavī + etau = kavī etau;
vāyu + etau = vāyu etau;
vane + ime = vane ime;
ami + ete = amī ete;
yajñabhūte + ehi = yajñabhūte ehi;
deva + imannaya = deva imannaya;

6-10. I shall describe now the conjunction of the consonants.
vāk + yataḥ = vagyataḥ [vagyata];
ac + ekamātṛkaḥ = ajekamātṛkaḥ [ajekamātṛka];
ṣaṭ + ete = ṣaḍete;
tat + ime = tadime;
vā + ādi = vādi (?);
vāk + nītiḥ = vāṅnītiḥ [vāṅnīti];
ṣaṭ + mukha = ṣaṇmukha etc.;
vāk + manasaṃ = vāṅmanasaṃ [vāṅmanasa];
vāk + bhāgādiḥ = vāgbhāgādiḥ [vāgbhāgādi];
vāk + ślakṣṇaṃ = vākślakṣṇaṃ [vākślakṣṇa];
tat + śarīrakaṃ = taccharīrakaṃ [taccharīraka];
tat + lunāti = tallunāti;
tat + caret = taccaret;
kun + āste = kuṅṅāste;
sugan + iha = sugaṇṇiha;
bhavān + caran = bhavāṃścaran;
bhavān + chātro = bhavānśchātro;
bhavān + ṭīkā = bhavāṃṣṭīkā;
bhavān + ṭakaḥ = bhavāṃṣṭakaḥ [bhavāṃṣṭaka];
bhavān + tīrtha = bhavāṃstīrtha;
bhavān + stheyān = bhavāṃstheyān;
bhavān + lekhā = bhavāṃllekhā;
bhavān + jayaḥ = bhavāñjayaḥ [bhavāñjaya];
bhavān + śete = bhavāṃschete;
bhavān + ca śete = bhavāñcaśete;
bhavān + sete = bhavāñśete;
bhavān + dīnaḥ = bhavāṇḍīnaḥ [bhavāṇḍīna];
tvaṃ + bhartā = tvaṃbhartā;
tvaṃ + karisyasi = tvaṅkariṣyasi etc.;

10-12. The conjunctions of visarga are known (as follows):

kaḥ + chindyāt = kaśchindyāt;
kaḥ + caret = kaścaret;
kaḥ + ṭaḥ = kaṣṭaḥ [kaṣṭa];
kaḥ + sthaḥ = kaṣṭhaḥ [kaṣṭha];
kaḥ + calet = kaścalet;

(In the following cases the visarga becomes the upadhmānīya):
kaḥ + khanet = kaḥ ≍ khanet;
kaḥ + karoti = kaḥ ≍ karoti sma;
kaḥ + paṭhet = kaḥ ≍ paṭhet or;
kaḥ + phaleta - kaḥ ≍ phaleta;

(The following may occur in two forms):
kaḥ + śvaśuraḥ = kaśśvaśuraḥ (or) kaḥ śvaśuraḥ [śvaśura];
kaḥ + sāvaraḥ = kassāvaraḥ or kaḥ sāvaraḥ;

(In the following cases there is no change):
kaḥ + phaleta = kaḥ phaleta;
kaḥ + śayitā = kaḥ śayitā;

(The following is an instance of change):
kaḥ + atra yodhaḥ = ko'tra yodhaḥ;

12-13. (The visarga is dropped in the following cases)
kaḥ + uttamaḥ = ka uttamaḥ [uttama];
devāḥ + ete = devā ete;
bhoḥ + iha = bho iha;
sodarāḥ + yānti = sodarā yānti;
bhago + vraja = bhago vraja;

(In the following the visarga becomes repha (r):
supūḥ+sudūḥ+rātriḥ = supūḥ sudūrātriḥ [sudūrātri];
vāyuḥ + yāti = vāyuryāti;
punaḥ + nahi = punarnahi;
punaḥ + eti = punareti;

(The visarga is dropped in the following cases)
saḥ + yāti + iha = sa yātīha;
eṣaḥ + yāti = eṣa yāti;
kaḥ + īśvaraḥ = ka īśvaraḥ [īśvara];
jyotiḥ + rūpaṃ = jyotīrūpam;

(The following are examples of other kinds of union):
tava + chatram = tavacchatram [tavacchatra];
mlecchadhīḥ + chidraṃ + ā + chidat = mlecchadhīśchidramācchidat;

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

The text gives only the combined forms. The individual words have also been given here for easy comprehension.

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