by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596
This page describes Perfected forms of inflection in the nouns which is chapter 351 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.
1-3. O Kātyāyana! I shall describe to you the finished forms of inflections. There are two kinds of inflections—sup (substantives) and tiṅ (verbs). The substantives have seven cases. (The inflections) su, au, jas (constitute) the first (case) (Nominative). Aṃ, au, śas (are the inflections of) the second (case) (Accusative). Ṭā, bhyāṃ, bhis (are the terminations of) the third (case) (Instrumental). Ṇe, bhyāṃ, bhyas (constitute) the fourth (case) (Dative). Ṇasi [ṅasi?], bhyāṃ, bhyas are (the inflections of) the fifth (case) (Ablative). Ṇas, os, ām (are the terminations for) the sixth (case) (Genitive). Ṇi, os, sup (are for) the seventh (case) (Locative). These would be added after the uninflected substantives.
4. The substantives are twofold—ending in vowels and ending in consonants. Each one of this would again be threefold: masculine, feminine and neuter.
5-7. The models of these are given. Those which are not mentioned here (follow those) on account of their strength. (Those ending in vowels are to be declined as the following examples). Vṛkṣaḥ [vṛkṣa] (tree), Sarvaḥ [sarva] (all), Pūrvaḥ [pūrva] (former), Prathamaḥ [prathama] (first), Dvitīyakaḥ [dvitīyaka] (second), Tṛtīyaḥ [tṛtīya] (third), Khaṇḍapā (protector of a group), Vahniḥ [vahni] (fire), Sakhā (friend), Patiḥ [pati] (husband), Aharpatiḥ [aharpati] (Sun), Paṭuḥ [paṭu] (clever), Grāmaṇī (chief of the village), Indra (the lord of the celestials), Khalapūḥ [khalapū] (one who sweeps), Mitrabhūḥ [mitrabhū] (being a friend), Svabhūḥ [svabhū] (an epithet of Brahmā), Suśrīḥ [suśrī] (good fortune), Sudhīḥ [sudhī] (a wiseman), Pitā (father), Bhrātā (brother), Nā (a man), Kartā (doer), Kroṣṭu (a jackal), Naptṛ (grandson), Surā (intoxicating drink), Rā (Rai means wealth), Gauḥ [gau] (cow), Dyauḥ (heaven), Glauḥ [glau] (Moon) (are) examples for the masculine (nouns) ending in vowels.
8-12a. (Examples for substantives ending with the consonants): Suvāk (good expression or speech), Tvak (skin), Pṛṣat (a drop of water or any other liquid), Samrāṭ (a paramount sovereign), Janmabhāk (one who has obtained birth), Surāṭ (a good sovereign), Āpaḥ [āpas] (water), Marut (Wind), Bhavan (becoming), Dīpyan (shining), Bhavān (you) (polite form), Maghavān (Indra) (prosperous), Piban (drinking), Bhagavān (fortunate, hence denotes the lord), Aghavān (a sinner), Arvān (a horse), Vahnimat (possessing fire), Sarvavit (knower of all things), Supṛt (a good army), Susīmā (good boundary), Kuṇḍī (Kuṇḍin denotes Śiva, holding a bowl), Rājā (king), Śvā (horse), Yuvā (youth), Maghavā (Indra), Pūṣā (Sun), Sukarmā (doer of good deeds), Yajvā (sacrificer), Suvarmā (good armour), Sudharmaṇā (council of gods, court-hall of Indra), Aryamā (Sun), Vṛtrahā (Indra, killer of Vṛtra), Panthāḥ [panthā] (path), Sukakud (good summit) etc. and Pañca (five), Praśān (one who is tranquil), Sutān (one who spreads well), Pañca (five) etc., Sugauḥ [sugau] (good cow), Surāḥ [surā] (one who is wealthy) and Supūḥ [supū] (good city), Candramāḥ [candramā] (Moon), Suvacāḥ [suvacā] (good speech), Śreyān (excellent), Vidvān (learned), and Uśanas (the preceptor of the demons), Pecivān (one who has cooked), Gauḥ [gau] (cow), Anaḍvān (an ox), Godhuṅ (one who milks a cow), Mitradruh (one who is treacherous to a friend), Śvaliṭ [śvalih] (one who licks like a dog).
12b-19. (Substantives) in the feminine (are): Jāyā (wife), Jarā (old age), Bālā (young girl), Eḍakā (a ewe), Vṛddhā (old woman), Kṣatriyā (a woman of the Kṣatriya class), Bahurājā (land having many rulers), Bahudāmā (having many garlands) and Bālikā (an young girl), Māyā (illusion), Kaumudagandhā (smelling like a lily), Sarvā (all), Pūrvā (the preceding one) and Anyā (someone else), Dvitīyā (second one), Tṛtīyā (third one), Buddhi (intellect), Strī (woman), Śrī (Lakṣmī, goddess of wealth), Nadī (river), Sudhīḥ [sudhī] (wise), Bhavantī (one who becomes), Dīvyantī (one who shines), Bhātī (one who appears), Bhāntī (one who shines), and Yāntī (one who goes), Śṛṅvatī (one who hears), Tudatī (tormenting), Kartrī (doer), Tudantī (tormenting), Kurvatī (one who is doing), Mahī (earth), Rudhantī (one who is obstructing), Krīḍatī (one who is playing), Dāntī (one who is restrained), Pālayantī (one who is protecting), and Surāṇī (a celestial woman), Gaurī (having white complexion, denotes consort of Śiva), Putravatī (one who is having a son), Nauḥ [nau] (ship or boat), Vadhūḥ [vadhū] (bride), Devatā (deity) and Bhūḥ [bhū] (earth). Tisra (three) and Dve (two) (both denoting feminine), Kati (how many), Varṣābhūḥ [varṣābhū] (a female frog), Svasā (sister), Mātā (mother), Varā (excellent), Gauḥ [gau] (cow), Nauḥ [nau] (ship or boat), Vāk (speech), Tvak (skin), Prācī (east), Avācī (south), Tiraścī (the female of an animal or bird), Samīcī (a doe), Udīcī (north), Śarat (autumn), Vidyut (lightning), Sarit (river), Yoṣit (lady in separation), Agnivit (knower of fire), Sampat (wealth), Dṛṣat (stone), Yā (who), Eṣā (this), Vedavit (knower of the Veda), Saṃvit (knowledge), Bahvī (many), Rājñī (queen), Tvayā (by you), Mayā (be me), Sīmā (boundary), Pañca (five) etc., Rājī (line or row), Dhūḥ [dhū] (shaking), Pūḥ [pū] (purifying), Diśā (direction), Girā (speech), Catasraḥ [catasṛ] (four), Viduṣī (learned person), Kā (who), Iyaṃ (this), Dik (direction), Dṛk (look), Tādṛśī (that kind). These are chief among (the substantives belonging to) the feminine gender. (I shall describe) the chief among (the substantives belonging to) the neuter.
20-22a. Kuṇḍaṃ [kuṇḍa] (a bowl or pit), Sarvaṃ [sarva] (all), Somapaṃ [somapa] Dadhi (curd), Vāri (water), Khalapū (that which sweeps), Madhu (honey), Trapu (tin), Bhartṛ, Atibhartṛ, Payaḥ [payas] (milk), Puraḥ [pura] (city), Prāk (east), Pratyak (?) (backwards), Tiryak (across), Udak (above or nothward), Jagat (world), Jāgrat (awakening state), Śakṛt (excrement), Susampat (good wealth), Sudaṇḍī (good stick), Ahaḥ [ahan] (day), Kiṃ (what), Idaṃ (this), Śaṭ (six), Sarpiḥ [sarpi] (clarified butter), Śreyaḥ [śreyas] (fortune), Catvāri (four), Adaḥ (that thing). Others are similar to these.
22b-28a. (The inflections of) the first case (Nominative) etc. would come after these uninflected forms. A form of a word which is neither a verbal root (dhātu), nor an affix (pratyaya) is a nominal base (prātipadika). The first case from the nominal base is employed to denote the subject. The first case (is also employed) in addressing when the agent and the object are mentioned. That which is done (by the agent) is the object (karma). Second case (Accusative) is used in the object. That by which something is done is the instrument (karaṇa). One who does is the agent (kartā). When the object is not specified to be the agent through the verbal affix or suffixes of the kṛt and taddhita type, the third case (Instrumental) is used in (denoting) the instrument and the agent. The fourth case is employed in sampradāna (to be given). It is said to be sampradāna in which the desire to give is indicated. Apādāna, is that from which something moves away or taken away. The fifth case (Ablative) is used (to denote) apādāna. The sixth case (Genitive) (is used to denote) one’s ownership. The term adhikaraṇa is used in the sense of the base (ādhāra). The seventh case (Locative) (is used) therein.
28b-29a. Singular is used to denote a single thing. Dual comes in the sense of two things. Plural would occur in the (sense of) many. I shall describe the finished forms (now).
29b-32a. (The following are examples for the Nominative): Vṛkṣaḥ [vṛkṣa] (tree), Sūryaḥ [sūrya] (Sun), Ambuvāhaḥ [ambuvāha] (cloud), Arkaḥ [arka] (Sun). The following are the examples for the Vocative): He Ravi (O Sun!), He Dvijātayas (O twice-borns!), Viprau (O Brahmins!). (Then the example for the Accusative): Gajān (the elephants). (Then the examples for the Instrumental): Mahendreṇa (by Mahendra, the lord of the celestials), Yamābhyām (by two Yamas—by the twins), Analaiḥ kṛtam (done by Anala, fire plural). Rāmāya (for Rāma), Munivaryābhyām [munivarya?] (for the two excellent sages), Kebhyaḥ (for whoṃ, plural) (are examples for the Dative). Dharmāt (from Dharma), Harau ratiḥ (?), Śarābhyāṃ (from the two arrows), Pustakebhyaḥ (from the books) (are illustrations for the Ablative). Arthasya (of the sense), Īśvarayoḥ (of the two lords), Gatiḥ bālānāṃ (the fate of children) (are for the Genitive). Sajjane prītiḥ (pleased in good people), Haṃsayoḥ (in the two haṃsas), Kamaleṣu (in the lotuses) (are examples for the Locative). In the same way, the words Kāma (God of love), Maheśa (the great lord) and other (words) should be known like (the word) Vṛkṣa (tree).
32b-36a. Sarve (all), Viśve (all or entire or whole), Sarvasmai (for all), Sarvasmāt (from all) and Katara (who or which of two) are regarded (as similar). Sarveṣām (of all), Svam (one’s self), Viśvasmin (in the whole). The other forms are like (the word) Vṛkṣa (tree). Similarly Ubhaya (both), Katara (who or which of the two), Katama (who or which of many), Anyatara (one of two) etc. (should be known). Pūrve (all the former), Pūrvāḥ (all the former, feminine), Pūrvasmai (for the former), Pūrvasmāt (from the former), Pūrve (in the former), Pūrvasmin (in the former). The other forms are like that of Sarva. Para (superior), Avara (inferior) as well as Dakṣiṇa (south), Uttara (north), Antara (in between), Aparāḥ (others), Adharaḥ (below) (are to be known) in the same way. Nemāḥ (parts), Prathamāḥ (the first ones), Prathame (in the first one) are like the word Arka (Sun). In the same way (we whould have) Caramāḥ (last), Alpa (little), Ardha (half) and the Nema (part) and others.
36b-41a. Dvitīyasmai (or) Dvitīyāya (for the second), Dvitīyasmāt (or) Dvitīyakāt (from the second), Dvitīyasmin (or) Dvitīye (in the second) and Tṛtīya (third) like (the word) Arka (Sun). Somapāḥ (a drinker of Soma) and Somapau (two drinkers of Soma) should be known. Go to Somapāḥ (drinkers of Soma) (or) Somapāṃ (a drinker of Soma). Kīlālapau (two drinkers of a heavenly drink similar to nectar) and Somapaḥ (drinker of Soma), Somapāḥ (drinkers of Soma), Somape dada (give to a drinker of Soma), Somapābhyāṃ (to two drinkers of Soma), Somapābhyaḥ (to many drinkers of Soma), Somapaḥ (drinker of Soma), Somapau (two drinkers of Soma) (belong to) a group. (The words) such as Kīlālapāḥ (drinkers of a celestial drink) would be similar. Kaviḥ [kavi] (poet), Agniḥ [agni] (fire) and Arayaḥ [araya] (enemies), He kave! (O poet!), Kaviṃ (the poet, accusative), Agni (two fires, accusative), Tān Harīn (those Hari-s), Sātyakinā hṛtaṃ (taken by Sātyaki), Ravibhyāṃ (by two Suns), Ravibhiḥ (by the Suns), Dehi vahnaye yaḥ samāgataḥ (Give to Fire who has come), Agneḥ (of fire), Agnyoḥ (of two fires), Agnīnāṃ (of many fires), Kavau (in the poet), Kavyoḥ (in the two poets) and Kaviṣu (in many poets) (are examples for words ending in ‘i’). Similarly Susṛtiḥ [susṛti] (good path), Abhrāntiḥ [abhrānti] (not an error), Sukīrtiḥ [sukīrti] (good fame) and Sudhṛtiḥ (firmness) (are to be declined).
41b-43a. (Some more examples for words ending in ‘i’): Sakhā (a friend), Sakhāyau (two friends), Sakhāyaḥ (many friends). ‘He sakhe! vraja satpatiṃ’ (O Friend! go to a good master), Sakhāyaṃ (the friend), Sakhāyau (the two friends), Sakhīn (the friends) (are accusative forms). Sakhyā gataḥ (gone with the friend). Dada sakhye (give to the friend). Sakhyuḥ (from a friend), Sakhyuḥ (of the friend), Sakhyoḥ (of the two friends). That rest (are formed like) the forms of Kavi (poet). Patyā (by the master), Patye (for the master), Patyuḥ (from the master), Patyuḥ (of the master), Patyoḥ (of the two masters) are like (the word) Agni (fire).
43b. Dvau (two), Dvau (the two), Dvābhyām (by the two), Dvābhyām (for the two), Dvayoḥ (from the two) and Dvayoḥ (of the two) are in the sense of dual.
44. Trayaḥ (three), Trīn (the three), Tribhiḥ (by the three), Tribhyaḥ (for the three), Trayāṇāṃ (of the three) and Triṣu (in the three) (are) in order. Kati (how many) and Katī (how many). The other plural forms are like Kavi (poet) (in the plural).
45. (The word Nī, leader is declined as follows): Nīḥ (a leader), Niyau (two leaders) and Niyaḥ (many leaders). He nīḥ (O leader!), Niyam (one leader), Niyau (two leaders), Niyaḥ (many leaders). Niyā (by a leader), Nībhyāṃ (by two leaders), Nibhiḥ (by many leaders). Niye (for a leader), Nībhyaḥ (for many leaders). Niyāṃ (of many leaders), Niyi (in a leader) and Niyoḥ (in two leaders).
46-48a. Suśrīḥ (good fortune), Sudhīḥ (good intellect) etc. Grāmaṇīḥ (a leader), pūjayeddhariṃ (should worship Hari). Grāmaṇyau (the two chiefs), Grāmaṇyaḥ (the many chiefs), Gramaṇyaṃ (the chief, accusative), Grāmaṇyā (by the chief), Grāmaṇibhiḥ (by many chiefs), Grāmaṇyaḥ (of a chief), Grāmaṇyāṃ (in a chief). Words beginning with Senānī (leader of an army) are similarly (declined). Subhūḥ (good land) and Sabhuvau (two good lands). Svayambhuvaḥ [svayambhū] (self-born), Svayambhuvaṃ (self-born, accusative), Svayambhuvā (by the self-born), Svayambhuvi (in the self-born). Pratibhuvaḥ [pratibhū] (bail or surety) etc. (should be formed) similarly.
48b-49. Khalapūḥ [khalapū] (that which sweeps), Khalapvau (the two which sweep), Śreṣṭhau (that are excellent), Khalapvaṃ (that which sweeps, accusative), and Khalapvi (in a sweeper). (The words) beginning with Śarapūḥ [śarapū] would be in the same way. Kroṣṭhā (a jackal) and Kroṣṭhāraḥ (many jackals), Kroṣṭhūn (the jackals, accusative plural), Kroṣṭhunā or Kroṣṭhrā (by a jackal), Kroṣṭhūnāṃ (of the jackals), Kroṣṭhari (in a jackal) are said to be (formed) thus.
50-52a. Pitā (father), Pitarau (two fathers), Pitaraḥ (many fathers), He pitaḥ (O Father!), Pitarau śubhau (O Auspicious fathers!), Pitṝn (the fathers, accusative), Pituḥ (from the father), Pituḥ (of the father), Pitroḥ (of the two fathers), Pitṝṇāṃ (of many fathers), Pitari (in the father) are formed) thus. In the same way Bhrātā (a brother), Jāmātṛ (son-in-law) and others (words) (are formed). Then Nṝṇāṃ or Nṛṇāṃ (of the men). Kartā (doer), Kartārau (two doers), Kartṝn (many doers, accusative), Kartṛṇāṃ (of many doers) and Kartari (in a doer) are thus (formed). Udgātā (a singer of Vedic hymn), Svasā (sister), Naptṛ (grandson) are known to be like (the word) Pitṛ (father).
52b. Surāḥ [surā] (good fortune), Surāyau (dual), Surāyaḥ (plural), Surāyaṃ (accusative), and Surāyi (locative).
53. Gauḥ [gau] (a cow), Gāvau (two cows), Gāṃ (accusative), Gāḥ (accusative, plural), Gavā (instrumental), Goḥ (genitive), Gavoḥ (genitive, dual), Gavāṃ (genitive, plural) and Gavi (in a cow). In the same way Dyauḥ [dyau] (heaven) and Glauḥ [glau] (Moon)and the chief masculine words ending in vowels.
54-57a. Suvāk (good speech), Suvācī (nominative dual), Suvācā (instrumental), Suvāgbhyāṃ (instrumental, dual), Suvākṣu (locative, plural). Similarly the directions beginning with (east). Prāṅ (east), Prāñcī (nominative neuter dual), Prāñcaṃ (to the east) bho vraja (you go). Prāgbhyām (instrumental, dual), Prāgbhiḥ (instrumental, plural), Prācāṃ (genitive), Prācī (locative, singular), Prāṅsu and Prāṅkṣu (locative, plural). In the same way Udaṅ or Udīcī (north), Samyaṅ (well), Pratyak (western), Samīcī (a doe), Tiryaṅ (that which moves horizontally), Tiraśca, Sadhryaṅ (a companion, especially husband), Viṣvadryaṅ (all-pervading) are known to be like the former. Adadṛyāṅ, Adamuyaṅ, Amumuyaṅ (all meaning going to that) etc. are similar. Adadryoñc (one who has gone to that direction) and Amudrīcaḥ (one who has gone to that direction) and Adadryābhyāṃ are as before.
57b-59a. Tattvatrṭ (desirous of truth) (nominative), Tattvatṛṣau (dual), Tattvatṛṅbhyāṃ (with men desirous of Truth) samāgataḥ [samāgata] (one has come together), Tattvatṛṣi (in one desirous of truth), Tattvatṛṭsu (among those desirous of truth). In the same way Kāṣṭha (wood), Taḍa (?) etc. (are formed). Bhiṣak (a physician), Bhiṣagbhyāṃ (by two physicians), Bhiṣaji (locative). (The words) such as Jannabhāk (are) then (similarly declined). Marut (wind), Marudbhyāṃ (by two winds), Maruti (in the wind). In the same way (we have) Śatrujit (conqueror of an enemy) etc.
59b-61. Bhavān (you, polite form), Bhavantau (dual), Bhavatāṃ (of you, plural), Bhavan (vocative), Bhavati (in you). Mahān (great), Mahāntau (dual), Mahatāṃ (of great people), Bhagavat (fortunate) etc. In the same way Maghavan (Indra), Maghavantau (dual). Agnicit (one who has kept the sacred fire), Agniciti (locative), Agnicitsu (locative, plural). In the same way Anyat (another), Vedavit (one who knows the scriptures), Tattvavit (knower of truth) etc. (We will have) Vedavidāṃ (in locative singular). In the same way Anyat (some other person). One who knows all is Sarvavit.
62-64. (The word Rājan is declined thus): Rājā (king), Rājānau (dual), Rājñaḥ (genitive), Rājñi or Rājani (locative), Rājan (vocative). Yajvā (a performer of a sacrifice), Yajvānaḥ (plural) are similar. Karī (an elephant), Daṇḍī (one who holds a stick), Daṇḍinau (dual), Panthāḥ (path), Panthānau (dual), Pathaḥ (plural), Pathibhyāṃ (instrumental, dual) and Pathi (locative) (will be) similar. Manthā (that which churns), Ṛbhukṣāḥ (nominative plural) (Ṛbhukṣaḥ [ṛbhukṣa] means Indra) and Pathya (wholesome food) etc. (should be known). Pañca (five), Pañca (accusative), Pañcabhiḥ (instrumental). Pratān (one who spreads well), Pratānau (dual), Pratānbhyāṃ (instrumental, dual), He Pratān (vocative) and Suśarmaṇaḥ (vocative, those who are happy). (The following is always plural): Āpaḥ (water) (nominative), Apaḥ (accusative), Adbhiḥ (instrumental). In the same way Prasān (one who is tranquil) and Praśāni (locative) also.
65-67. Kaḥ (who), Kena (by whom) like Sarva (all). Keṣu (among whom), Ayaṃ (this), Ime (dual), Imān (accusative plural), Anena (by this), Ābhyāṃ (instrumental, dual), Ebhiḥ (instrumental, plural), Asmai (dative, singular), Ebhyaḥ (dative plural), Svaṃ (one’s own), Asya (genitive), Anayoḥ (genitive, dual), Eṣāṃ (genitive, plural) and Eṣu (locative, plural) would be (formed). Catvāraḥ (four), Caturaḥ (accusative), Caturṇāṃ (genitive), Caturṣu (locative). Sugīḥ (good speech), Sugīrṣu (locative, plural), Sudyauḥ (good day), Sudivau (dual), Sudyubhyam (instrumental dual). Viṭ (merchant), Viśau (dual), Viṭsu (locative, plural). Yādṛśaḥ (ablative, singular, from which kind of a thing), Yādṛgbhyāṃ (ablative, dual) Viḍbhyāṃ (dual in the third, fourth and fifth cases). Ṣaṭ (six), Ṣaṭ (accusative) Ṣaṇṇāṃ (genitive plural), Ṣaṭsu (locative, plural).
68-70a. Suvacāḥ (eloquent), Suvacasā (instrumental), Suvacobhyāṃ (instrumental, dual), He Suvaco (vocative), He Uśanan (Uśanas denotes the preceptor of the demons) (vocative), Uśanā (instrumental), Uśanasi (locative), Purudaṅśā (a goose), Añchā (a stupid person), He Vidvan (O Learned man!), Vidvān (nominative) Viduṣe namaḥ (obeisance to the learned, dative), Vidvadbhyāṃ (instrumental, dative and ablative, dual), Vidvatsu (locative, plural). Babhūvivān (one that has become). (We have) in the same way, Pecivān (one that cooks), Śreyān (excellent), Śreyāṃsau (nominative, dual), Śreyasaḥ (accusative, plural).
70b-73. The following are the forms of Adas (that): Asau, Amū, Amī (nominative, singular, dual and plural), Amum and Amūn (accusative singular and plural), Amunā, Amībhiḥ (instrumental singular and plural), Amuṣmai (dative), Amuṣmāt (ablative), Amuṣya, Amuyoḥ, Amīṣāṃ (genitive singular, dual and plural) and Amuṣmin (locative). Similarly (we have) (the forms of Godhuk, one who milks the cow): A person has come with one who milks the cow. Godhukṣu (locative plural). Thus (we have) other (forms). Mitradruhaḥ [mitradruh] (one who is treacherous to a friend), Mitradrugbhyāṃ (dual instrumental), Mitradrugbhiḥ (plural) and Cittadruhaḥ (inimic to the mind) etc. Svaliṭ (one who licks himself), Svaliḍbhyāṃ (instrumental dual), Svalihi (locative). Anaḍvān (nominative of Anaḍuh, a bull), Anaḍutsu (locative plural). These are (the words) ending in the vowels and consonants in the masculine. I shall describe (now) those in the feminine.
Footnotes and references:
The text gives only the nominative singular forms of the substantives in this chapter.
The reading is obviously wrong.
Seems to be Tiraścī, denoting a female of any animal.