Danda, Daṇḍa, Daṇḍā: 37 definitions
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Danda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting
Daṇḍa (दण्ड, ‘rod’) is a weapon (āyudha or bādhra) according to the Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
1) Daṇḍa (दण्ड) refers to a “churning stick”, and represents a type of absolute measurement, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—In the Indian value of measurement of length there are two different kinds of units, namely, the absolute and the relative. Of these, the first is based on the length of certain natural objects, while the second is obtained from the length of a particular part or limb of the person whose measurement is under consideration. They have been specified by R. N. Mishra, in his text in volume 1 of Kalātattvakośa.
4 dhanur-muṣṭis make 1 daṇḍa (churning stick).
2) Daṇḍa (दण्ड, “staff”) refers to one of the several “attributes” (āyudha) or “accessories” of a detiy commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography—The śilpa texts have classified the various accessories under the broad heading of āyudha or karuvi (implement), including even flowers, animals, and musical instruments. Some of the implements of war mentioned are, for example, Daṇḍa.
3) Daṇḍa (दण्ड) or Daṇḍahasta refers to “rod, dangling” and represents one of the four Elirkai gestures, as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Accordingly, pratimā-lakṣaṇa (body postures of the icons) is comprised of hand gestures (hasta, mudrā or kai-amaiti), stances/poses (āsanas) and inflexions of the body (bhaṅgas). There are thirty-two types of hands [viz., daṇḍa-hasta] classified into two major groups known as tolirkai (functional and expressive gestures) and elirkai (graceful posture of the hand).
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
1) Daṇḍa (दण्ड) refers to the “measuring rod (yard-stick)” a type of physical instrument used during architectural measurement. It is used throughout Vāstuśāstra literature such as the Mānasāra, which is a 5th-century Sanskrit treatise on architectural practice.
2) Daṇḍa (दण्ड, “rod”) is the Sanskrit name for a unit of measurement, used in Vāstuśāstra literature, according to the Mānasāra II.40-53. A single Daṇḍa unit corresponds to 4 Dhanurmuṣṭi units. It takes 8 Daṇḍa units to make a single Rajju unit.
Below follows a table of the different units of measurement in relation to one another:
- 8 Paramāṇu = 1 Rathadhūli, chariot-dust
- 8 Rathadhūli = 1 Vālāgra, hair-end
- 8 Vālāgra = 1 Likṣā, nit,
- 8 Likṣā = 1 Yūka, louse
- 8 Yūka = 1 Yava, barley-corn,
- 8 Yava = 1 Aṅgula, digit (finger-breadth),
- 12 Aṅgula = 1 Vitasti, span,
- 2 Vitasti (24 aṅgulas) = 1 Kiṣku, cubit,
- 4 Dhanurmuṣṭi (26 aṅgulas) = 1 Daṇḍa, rod,
- 8 Daṇḍa = 1 Rajju, rope
The smallest unit, which is paramāṇu, atom is stated ta be perceived (only) by the sages. For all practical purposes, aṅgula is the smallest unit of measurement. For this reason, it is seen to be treated in a special way in the text with regards to its universality that significantly downplays its semantic reference to the body.
3) Daṇḍa (दण्ड) refers to “monolithic shaft”. It is sculptured as a part of the pillar (stambha).Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD
Daṇḍa (दण्ड, “shaft”).—Part of the pillar (stambha);—The shaft is the member of the pillar between the pedestal and capital or bracket in the absence of the capital. It may be decorated variedly from bottom to top. Depending upon the nature of its carving, the shaft is divided into two parts. They are, 1) The base, 2) The Shaft.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Daṇḍa (दण्ड) refers to “administration (of justice)”, but can also refer to “punishment”. It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra.Source: Shodhganga: Facts of society in the Manusamhita
Daṇḍa (दण्ड):—The technical term for this is Daṇḍa i.e. rod which is viewed as having divine origin. It aims at the help of king. It is stated that for the achievement of king’s end, the lord created, out of his essence an d then has given its idea. It is conceived as the son of the creator. The punishing rod of sovereignty provides protection of all creatures. Generally a guiltless man is hard to find in the world. It is also very rare to find a man who is moral for the sake of morality. The character of man possesses the quality of evil, human and divine. So, among these the quality of evil is always destroyed by the fear of punishment. So Daṇḍa controls the whole world. Punishment itself is the king in the true sense. It is considered as very powerful. Hence it is eulogized as the real man, the ruler and the manager of all affairs.
The king holds Daṇḍa and become powerful. He must inflict proper punishment on an offender in due consideration of the time, place, knowledge and specific nature of his offence. Out of the fear of this Daṇḍa, all the created beings including both movable and i mmovable are able for their respective enjoyments. Moreover subjects do not deviate from their specific duties of life out of fear.Source: Triveni: Journal (dharmashastra)
According to Manu, the Danda which was above the king (raja/ rajan) would surely destroy the autocratic and oppressive king (VII, p. 27). The king was to follow the rules of Danda Niti. He could not thus be above Law.
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Arthashastra (politics and welfare)Source: Exotic India: Nitiprakasika of Vaisampayana (A Critical Edition)
Daṇḍa (दण्ड, “open attack”) is of three types—
- forcibly taking away the enemy’s wealth,
- and physical affliction,
These are the types of daṇḍa that are well known. (see the Nītiprakāśikā 8.79)
Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Daṇḍa (दण्ड).—A staff carried by those in the renounced order of life, sannyāsīs.Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition
Daṇḍa (दण्ड) refers to:—A measurement of time; approximately 25–30 minutes; explained in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Third Canto, Chapter 11 and in Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta (Madhya-līlā 3.387–390). (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition
Daṇḍa (दण्ड) refers to “twenty-four minutes”, according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—One daṇḍa comprises twenty-four minutes, and two daṇḍas, or forty-eight minutes, comprise one muhūrta. In one complete day of twenty-four hours, there are thirty muhūrtas.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Daṇḍa (दण्ड).—A king who was the son of Ikṣvāku. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 45, that this King was the rebirth of Krodhahantā, an asura. Birth. Ikṣvāku had one hundred sons. Of them Vikukṣi, Nimi and Daṇḍa were famous. Daṇḍa became a famous archer when he grew up. In the Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa mention is made that this King Daṇḍa took part in the Devāsura battle (Battle between the gods and the demons) and killed several thousand asuras (demons). Administration. The king Ikṣvāku gave his son Daṇḍa the country between the mountains Himālaya and Vindhya and anointed him the King of that country. Daṇḍa built a capital city known as Madhumatta and began to rule the country. He had an army of Caturaṅga (four parts, elephant, chariot, horse and infantry). The hermit Śamana was the priest of King Daṇḍa. (Uttararāmāyaṇa). The origin of Daṇḍakāranya (the forest of Daṇḍaka). Daṇḍa once raped Arā, the daughter of hermit Śukra, who had been doing penance in a forest in the middle of the country of Daṇḍa. Śukra the hermit got angry and destroyed the country of Daṇḍa by a shower of fire. From that day onwards that country was known as Daṇḍakāraṇya. (For further information see under Arā). (See full article at Story of Daṇḍa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Daṇḍa (दण्ड).—General information. Another Kṣatriya King of ancient India. He was the son of the King Vidaṇḍa. In Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 185, it is mentioned that Vidaṇḍa and Daṇḍa had attended Draupadī Svayaṃvara (the marriage of Draupadī). Other information. (1) Bhīmasena defeated the King Daṇḍa. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 307, Stanza 177).
2) This King Daṇḍa was the brother of Daṇḍadhara, the king of Magadha. Daṇḍadhara and Daṇḍa were killed by Arjuna in battle. (Mahābhārata Karṇa Parva, Chapter 18, Stanza 16).
3) Daṇḍa (दण्ड).—An attendant of the Sun. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 3, Stanza 68).
4) Daṇḍa (दण्ड).—A warrior of the kingdom of Cedi. He fought on the side of the Pāṇḍavas against the Kauravas and was killed by Karṇa. (Mahābhārata Karṇa Parva, Chapter 56, Stanza 49).
5) Daṇḍa (दण्ड).—A synonym of Mahāviṣṇu. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 149, Stanza 105).
6) Daṇḍa (दण्ड).—(Daṇḍaka). A thief who had made the world tremble in the Dvāpara yuga. This wicked Daṇḍaka used to steal the wealth of the Brāhmaṇas, kill those who trusted him, speak lies, rape the women of others, drink liquor, eat the flesh of cows, mingle with wicked people and do various other sinful deeds daily.
7) Daṇḍa (दण्ड).—A giant (Rākṣasa). This giant Daṇḍa was born to the giant Sumāli, by his wife Ketumatī. The nine ministers of Rāvaṇa, named Prahasta, Akampana, Vikaṭa, Kālakāmukha, Dhūmrākṣa, Supārśva, Saṃhrāda, Prākvāṭa and Bhāsakarṇa were brothers of this Daṇḍa. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Daṇḍa (दण्ड).—One of the elder sons of Ikṣvāku.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 6. 4. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 9; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 9; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 2. 12.
1b) (see also daṇḍanīti): the rod of punishment, unknown in Śākadvīpa;1 in Puṣkaradvīpa;2 the duty of a Kṣatriya;3 one of the upāyas of a king; to be used if the first three fail; illegal punishments lead the king to hell; to be used according to time and the considered advice of men learned in ancient lore.4
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 106; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 103.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 120.
- 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 161 and 168; III. 28. 56.
- 4) Matsya-purāṇa 122. 44; 148. 66 and 76; 222. 2; 225. 1-18. 227. 217.
1c) A Bhairava in Lalitā's army.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 17. 4.
1d) A son of Āpa.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 5. 22.
1e) A son of Kuvalāśva.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 12. 32.
1f) A son of Kriyā.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 35.
2) Daṇḍā (दण्डा).—A river of the Ketumāla country.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 44. 22.
Daṇḍa (दण्ड) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.43) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Daṇḍa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Daṇḍā (दण्डा) refers to a one of the thirty-two cārīs, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 11. The Daṇḍā-cārī is classified as a ākāśikī, or “aerial”, of which there are sixteen in total. The term cārī refers to a “dance-step” and refers to the simultaneous movement of the feet (pāda), shanks (jaṅghā) and the hip (ūru). From these cārīs proceed dance as well as movements in general.
2) Daṇḍa (दण्ड, “chastisement”) refers to one of the twenty-one sandhyantara, or “distinct characteristics of segments (sandhi)” according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. The segments are divisions of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic play (nāṭaka) and consist of sixty-four limbs, known collectively as the sandhyaṅga.
3) Daṇḍa (दण्ड) refers to the “rod”, a weapon which should measure should measure twenty aṅguli (unit of measurement), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. In dramatic plays, weapons such as daṇḍa should be made by experts using proper measurements and given to persons engaged in a fight, angry conflict or siege. It forms a component of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Dhanurveda (science of warfare)Source: Wisdom Library: Dhanurveda
Daṇḍa (दण्ड) refers to a weapon (“stick”, “staff”). It is a Sanskrit word defined in the Dhanurveda-saṃhitā, which contains a list of no less than 117 weapons. The Dhanurveda-saṃhitā is said to have been composed by the sage Vasiṣṭha, who in turn transmitted it trough a tradition of sages, which can eventually be traced to Śiva and Brahmā.
Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Daṇḍa (दण्ड) refers to a type fish, also known as daṇḍamatsya, according to the Dhanvantari-nighaṇṭu. In the science of Āyurveda (ancient Indian healthcare), the meat of a fish (matsya) is used and prepared in balanced diets. The flesh of the daṇḍa fish is bitter in taste. It reduces the mucus and acidity, while it increases gases and strengthness.The Dhanvantarinighaṇṭu is a 10th-century medicinal thesaurus (nighaṇṭu) containing characteristics and synonyms of various herbal plants and minerals.
Daṇḍa (दण्ड) refers to the “stem” (of a tree), as mentioned in a list of four synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Daṇḍa] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Daṇḍa (दण्ड).—One of the eight artificial Vedic recitations.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Daṇḍa (दण्ड).—A punctuation mark in the form of a vertical stroke. Note: Daṇḍa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)
Daṇḍa (दण्ड) or Daṇḍasaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a tāmasa type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika. b. Rājasa. c. Tāmasa (eg., Daṇḍa-saṃhitā).
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas
Daṇḍa (दण्ड) refers to one of the various Devatā weapons and represents a type of “temple implement (instrument)” as described in the Karaṇalakṣaṇavidhi-paṭala section of the Uttara-Kāmikāgama.—The instruments should be according to the particular śāstra followed at the temple. Some of the instruments mentioned are weapons of all Devatās including [viz., daṇḍa].
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Kavya (poetry)Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa
Daṇḍa (दण्ड) refers to 1) a “stick” or 2) one of the attendants of the Sun, and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 22.12; 21.149.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
1) Daṇḍa (दण्ड)—Sanskrit term corresponding to the english “stick”.
2) Daṇḍa (दण्ड, “punishment”):—One of the epiteths of Yama, the vedic God of death, who is the embodiment of Dharma. Yama rules over the kingdom of the dead and binds humankind according to the fruits of their karma. Daṇḍa also means “staff” which is one of the objects that Yama is displayed carrying.Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Daṇḍa (दण्ड, ‘staff’).—(a) This word is often mentioned in the ordinary sense; for example, when used for driving cattle (go-ajanāsaḥ), or as a weapon. A staff was given to a man on consecration for driving away demons, according to the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. The staff also played a part in the initiation (upanayana) of a youth on attaining manhood. In a modified sense the word is used to denote the handle of a ladle or similar implement.
(b) The ‘staff’ as the symbol of temporal power, implying punishment, is applied by the king (rāja-preṣito daṇḍaḥ). The king, in modern phraseology, was the source of criminal law; and he clearly retained this branch of law in his own hands even in later times. The punishment of the non-guilty (a-daṇḍya) is given as one of the characteristics of the non-Brahminical Vrātyas in the Pañcaviṃśa-brāhmaṇa. See also Dharma.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Daṇḍa (दण्ड) refers to a “club” and represents one of the items held in the right hand of Heruka: one of the main deities of the Herukamaṇḍala described in the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Heruka is positioned in the Lotus (padma) at the center; He is the origin of all heroes; He has 17 faces (with three eyes on each) and 76 arms [holding, for example, daṇḍa]; He is half black and half green in color; He is dancing on a flaming sun placed on Bhairava and Kālarātrī.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Google Books: Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation
Daṇḍa (दण्ड, “staff”).—One of the fourteen gems (ratna) serving the Cakravartin;—The daṇḍa is a splendid staff with which the earth can be bored into its depths, but which also alliviates the pain and misery by its touch.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Daṇḍa.—(IE 8-5; EI 12), fine or tax, mentioned along with suṅka (śulka); a levy or free service (cf. prayāṇa-daṇda). (EI 24), fines; authority. (HRS), fines; distinguished from atyaya in the Artha- śāstra. (CII 1), punishment. (ASLV), judicial punishment; sometimes possibly also ‘administration’. (EI 25), ‘five’. (EI 30; LP), contraction of Daṇdanāyaka. (EI 28), Od8iyā; a path (cf. daṇḍā). Cf. taṇḍu (SITI), a palanquin; a pole for carrying the vehicle on which the image of a deity is set up. Cf. daṇḍu, taṇḍu (SITI), an army; going on a military expedition. Cf. taṇdam (SII 1; CITD); fine, penalty or punishment; a punitive tax; a fine or tax payable as penalty. Note: daṇḍa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Daṇḍā.—(EI 31), Od8iyā; a boundary line or road. See daṇḍa. Note: daṇḍā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Daṇḍa.—(ASLV), a palanquin; its use was a privilege some- times specially granted to favourites or distinguished persons by the king. Note: daṇḍa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
daṇḍa : (m.) 1. a stem, stick, cudgel, walking stick, timber (in general), 2. a fine, punishment.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Daṇḍa, (Vedic daṇḍa, dial.=*dal(d)ra; (on ṇ: l cp. guṇa: guḷa etc.) to *del as in Sk. dala, dalati. Cp. Lat. dolare to cut, split, work in wood; delere to destroy; Gr. Qai/dalon work of art; Mhg. zelge twig; zol a stick. Possibly also fr. *dan(d)ra (r=l frequent, ṇ: l as tulā: tūṇa; veṇu: veḷu, etc. cp. aṇḍa, caṇḍa), then it would equal Gr. dέndron tree, wood, & be connected with Sk. dāru) 1. stem of a tree, wood, wood worked into something, e.g. a handle, etc. J.II, 102; 405 (v. l. dabba); Vism.313; PvA.220 (nimbarukkhassa daṇḍena (v. l. dabbena) katasūla). tidaṇḍa a tripod.—2. a stick, staff, rod, to lean on, & as support in walking; the walking-stick of a Wanderer Vin.II, 132 (na sakkoti vinā daṇḍena āhiṇḍituṃ), 196; S.I, 176; A.I, 138, 206; Sn.688 (suvaṇṇa°); J.III, 395; V, 47 (loha°); Sdhp.399 (eka°, °dvaya, ti°). daṇḍaṃ olubbha leaning on the st. M.I, 108; A.III, 298; Th.2, 27.—3. a stick as means of punishment. a blow, a thrashing: daṇḍehi aññamaññaṃ upakkamanti “they go for each other with sticks” M.I, 86=Nd2 199; °ṃ dadāti to give a thrashing J.IV, 382; V, 442; daṇḍena pahāraṃ dadāti to hit with a stick S.IV, 62; brahma° a certain kind of punishment D.II, 154, cp. Vin.II, 290 & Kern, Manual p. 87; pañca satāni daṇḍo a fine of 500 pieces Vin.I, 247; paṇīta° receiving ample p. Pv IV.166; purisa-vadha° J.II, 417; rāja-daṇḍaṃ karoti (c. Loc.) to execute the royal beating PvA.216. See also Dh.129, 131, 310, 405 — 4. a stick as a weapon in general, only in cert. phrases & usually in combination w. sattha, sword. daṇḍaṃ ādiyati to take up the stick, to use violence: attadaṇḍa (atta=ā-dā) violent Sn.935; attadaṇḍesu nibbuta Dh.406=Sn.630; a.+kodhâbhibhūta S.IV, 117: ādinna-daṇḍa ādinnasattha Vin.I, 349; opp. daṇḍaṃ nidahati to lay down the stick, to be peaceful: sabbesu bhūtesu nidhāya daṇḍaṃ Sn.35, 394, 629; nihita-d. nihita-sattha using neither stick nor sword, of the Dhamma D.I, 4, 63; M.I, 287; A.I, 211; II, 208; IV, 249; V, 204. daṇḍaṃ nikkhipati id. A.I, 206. d.-sattha parāmasana Nd2 576. daṇḍa-sattha-abbhukkirana & daṇḍa-sattha-abhinipātana Nd2 5764. Cp. paṭidaṇḍa retribution Dh.133. ‹-› 5. (fig.) a means of frightening, frightfulness, violence, teasing. In this meaning used as nt. as M.I, 372; tīṇi daṇḍāni pāpassa kammassa kiriyāya: kāyadaṇḍaṃ vacī°, mano°; in the same sense as m. at Nd2 293 (as explained to Sn.35).—6. a fine, a penalty, penance in general: daṇḍena nikkiṇāti to redeem w. a penalty J.VI, 576 (dhanaṃ datvā Com.); daṇḍaṃ dhāreti to inflict a fine Miln.171, 193; daṇḍaṃ paṇeti id. Dh.310 (cp. DhA.III, 482); DhA.II, 71; aṭṭha-kahāpaṇo daṇḍo a fine of 8 k. VvA.76.—adaṇḍa without a stick, i.e. without force or violence, usually in phrase adaṇḍena asatthena (see above 4): Vin.II, 196 (ad. as. nāgo danto mahesinā; thus of a Cakkavattin who rules the world peacefully: paṭhaviṃ ad. as. dhammena abhivijiya ajjhāvasati D.I, 89=A.IV, 89, 105, or dhammena-manusāsati Sn.1002=S.I, 236.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
daṇḍa (दंड).—m (S) A stick, a staff, a mace, a baton. 2 Beating, fining, punishment gen.; but esp. by mulct or amercement. 3 Money raised by a fine. 4 The arm from the shoulder to the elbow. 5 A ridge in fields or gardens marking the divisions: a raised watercourse: the line or stripe (of a garment) where two pieces are sewn together. v ghāla. 6 A long measure,--a pole of four cubits. 7 A measure of time,--24 minutes. 8 A certain exercise of Athletæ: hence any hard and toilsome labor or vehement exertion. v kāḍha, pēla. 9 A narrow road along a hill declivous on both sides. 10 The curved ridge or projection running from top to bottom of a mountain. 11 A spur or off-branching of a mountain. 12 A form of array of troops,--the line. 12 Standing upright or erect. 13 Subduing or subjecting. 14 Of daṇḍa in the sense of Fine or amercement, and as conditional to the restoration of an offender to caste, three kinds are appointed, --rājadaṇḍa, brahmadaṇḍa, jātidaṇḍa q. v. in loc. daṇḍa avaḷaṇēṃ-bāndhaṇēṃ or daṇḍālā kāḍhaṇyā lāvaṇēṃ (Because kāḍhaṇyā ropes are usually applied by horsemen to the thieves whom they catch.) To pinion. daṇḍa thō- paṭaṇēṃ To slap the upper arms--wrestlers &c. previously to engaging. Hence fig. to stand forth daringly or defyingly. In this fig. sense, daṇḍālā mātī lāvaṇēṃ.
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daṇḍa (दंड).—a (S) Headstrong, violent, overbearing.
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danda (दंद).—n (dvandva S) Discord, dissension, variance. v dhara, lāva, māṇḍa, lāga.
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dāṇḍa (दांड).—a (daṇḍa S) Rude, violent, bullying, over-bearing.
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dāṇḍa (दांड).—m (daṇḍa S) A long bamboo stick. 2 A practising stick of fencers. 3 The raised boundaryline of a field: the ridge of a hill: a raised water-course: a raised strip or seam on a garment: a balk or a strip left (through or on the margin of a field) as a pathway: any long-stretching ridge, bank, or foot-path or line of country (esp. as considered as bare, dreary, and wearisome to the foot or eye). 4 Aching stiffness. v bhara. Ex. pāṭhīlā dāṇḍa bharalā basūna basūna. 5 P A plot or parcel (of plantation or garden ground). 6 m n P (Commonly daṇḍa) A mulct or fine. v māra. dāṇḍa kāḍhaṇēṃ g. of o. To gallop, drive, or work hard (beast or man).
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dāṇḍā (दांडा).—m (daṇḍa S) A thickish and shortish stick. 2 A handle or helve (as of a spoon, ladle, pickax); the pole or staff of any thing. 3 A raised channel or course for water. 4 The backbone: the ridge of a mountain: a strip or neck of land running into the sea: a ledge of rocks, or a long bank of sand: the bar of a river: the bridge of the nose: the fruitstalk of the Plantain: the stem (as of a plantain-leaf): the pin (as of a brooch): a strip, slip, spire, shaft gen. (of land, of buildings &c.) 5 The pole (usually of the Castor-oil plant) driven into the hole in which the hōḷī is burned. 6 A secondary beam of a house, a joist: also a division of a beam used as a rafter. dāṇḍē vāsē mōjaṇēṃ (gharācē) To be an ingrate (i. e. to count the timbers of a benefactor's house, in order to calculate its value for sale).Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
daṇḍa (दंड).—m A stick, a staff, a mace. Beating, fining, punishment gen. but esp. by mulct or amercement. Money raised by a fine. The arm from the shoulder to the elbow. The line or stripe (of a garment) when two pieces are sewn together. v ghāla. A certain exercise of Athletæ. Fine or amercement as con ditional to the restoration of an of- fender to caste, as jātidaṇḍa. daṇḍālā kāḍhaṇyā lāvaṇēṃ To pinion. daṇḍa thōpaṭaṇēṃ To slap the upper arms–wrestlers &c. previously to engaging. Hence fig. to stand forth daringly or defyingly.
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dāṇḍa (दांड).—m A long bamboo stick. a Rude, overbearing.
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dāṇḍā (दांडा).—m A thickish and shortish stick. A handle (as of a ladle &c.) A se- condary beam of a house, a joist.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) A stick, staff, rod, mace, club, cudgel; पततु शिरस्यकाण्डयमदण्ड इवैष भूजः (patatu śirasyakāṇḍayamadaṇḍa ivaiṣa bhūjaḥ) Māl.5.31; काष्ठदण्डः (kāṣṭhadaṇḍaḥ).
2) The sceptre of a king, the rod as a symbol of authority and punishment; आत्तदण्डः (āttadaṇḍaḥ) Ś.5.8.
3) The staff given to a twice-born man at the time of investiture with the sacred thread; cf Ms.2.45-48.
4) The staff of a संन्यासिन् (saṃnyāsin) or ascetic.
5) The trunk of an elephant.
6) The stem or stalk as of a lotus, tree &c.; U.1.31; Māl.9.14; the handle as of an umbrella; ब्रह्माण्डच्छत्रदण्डः (brahmāṇḍacchatradaṇḍaḥ) &c. Dk.1 (opening verse); राज्यं स्वहस्तधृतदण्डमिवातपत्रम् (rājyaṃ svahastadhṛtadaṇḍamivātapatram) Ś.5.6; Ku.7.89; so कमल- दण्ड (kamala- daṇḍa) &c.
7) The oar of a boat.
8) An arm or leg (at the end of comp.)
9) The staff or pole of a banner, a tent &c.
1) The beam of a plough.
11) The cross-bar of a lute or a stringed instrument.
12) The stick with which an instrument is played.
13) A churning-stick.
14) Fine; Ms.8.341;9.229; Y.2.237.
15) Chastisement, corporal punishment, punishment in general; यथापराधदण्डानाम् (yathāparādhadaṇḍānām) R.1.6; एवं राजापथ्यकारिषु ती- क्ष्णदण्डो राजा (evaṃ rājāpathyakāriṣu tī- kṣṇadaṇḍo rājā) Mu.1; दण्डं दण्ड्येषु पातयेत् (daṇḍaṃ daṇḍyeṣu pātayet) Ms.8.126; कृतदण्ड स्वयं राज्ञा लेभे शूद्रः सतां गतिम् (kṛtadaṇḍa svayaṃ rājñā lebhe śūdraḥ satāṃ gatim) R.15.23. यथार्हदण्डो (yathārhadaṇḍo) (rājā) पूज्यः (pūjyaḥ) Kau. A.1.4; सुविज्ञातप्रणीतो हि दण्डः प्रजां धर्मार्थकामै- र्योजयति (suvijñātapraṇīto hi daṇḍaḥ prajāṃ dharmārthakāmai- ryojayati) Kau. A.1.4
17) Attack, assault, violence, punishment, the last of the four expedients; see उपाय (upāya); सामादीनामुपायानां चतुर्णामपि पण्डिताः । साम- दण्डौ प्रशंसन्ति नित्यं राष्ट्राभिवृद्धये (sāmādīnāmupāyānāṃ caturṇāmapi paṇḍitāḥ | sāma- daṇḍau praśaṃsanti nityaṃ rāṣṭrābhivṛddhaye) || Ms.7.19; cf. Śi.2.54.
18) An army; तस्य दण्डवतो दण्डः स्वदेहान्न व्यशिष्यत (tasya daṇḍavato daṇḍaḥ svadehānna vyaśiṣyata) R.17. 62; Ms.7.65;9.294; Ki.2.15.
19) A form of military array; Mb.12.59.4.
2) Subjection, control, restraint; वाग्दण्डोऽथ मनोदण्डः कायदण्डस्तथैव च । यस्यैते निहिता बुद्धौ त्रिदण्डीति स उच्यते (vāgdaṇḍo'tha manodaṇḍaḥ kāyadaṇḍastathaiva ca | yasyaite nihitā buddhau tridaṇḍīti sa ucyate) || Ms.12.1.
21) A measure of length equal to 4 Hastas; Bṛ. S.24.9.
22) The penis.
23) Pride; या चापि न्यस्तदण्डानां तां गतिं व्रज पुत्रक (yā cāpi nyastadaṇḍānāṃ tāṃ gatiṃ vraja putraka) Mb. 7.78.25.
24) The body.
25) An epithet of Yama.
26) Name of Viṣṇu.
27) Name of Śiva.
28) An attendant on the sun.
29) A horse (said to be m. only in this and the preceding four senses).
3) A particular appearance in the sky (similar to a stick).
31) An uninterrupted row or series, a line.
32) Standing upright or erect.
33) A corner, an angle.
34) The Science of Govt. विनयमूलो दण्डः, दण्डमूलास्तिस्त्रो विद्याः (vinayamūlo daṇḍaḥ, daṇḍamūlāstistro vidyāḥ) Kau. A.1.5.
35) Harm, injury; न्यासो दण्डस्य भूतेषु मनोवाक्कायजस्य यः (nyāso daṇḍasya bhūteṣu manovākkāyajasya yaḥ) Bhāg.7. 15.8.
Derivable forms: daṇḍaḥ (दण्डः), daṇḍam (दण्डम्).
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Dāṇḍa (दाण्ड).—a. (-ṇḍī f.) Relating to a stick or punishment.
-ṇḍā A kind of game with sticks.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍaṃ) A stick, a staff. m.
(-ṇḍaḥ) 1. Punishment, castigation, amercement, imprisonment or putting to death. 2. A name of Yama, regent of the dead. 3. An army. 4. A form of array, a line or column of troops. 5. A long measure, a pole of four cubits. 6. A churning stick. 7. A corner, an angle. 8. A horse. 9. A companion or attendant of the sun. 10. A stem or stick of a tree. 11. Subduing, subjecting. 12. Pride, arrogance. 13. A measure of time, a Danda, (1/60)th part of the day and night, or twentyfour minutes. 14. Standing upright or erect, being like a staff. 15. A son of Ikshwaku. E. dam to tame, and ḍa Unadi aff. or daṇḍa to punish, affix ac .
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(-ṇḍaḥ-ṇḍī-ṇḍaṃ) 1. Relating to a stick or staff. 2. Relating to punishment, &c. E. daṇḍa a stick, aṇ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Daṇḍa (दण्ड).— (a form of dantra, i. e. dam + tra), m. and n. 1. A staff, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 280. 2. Often compounded with preceding words signifying arm, thigh, trunk, e. g. bāhu-, An arm as hard as a staff, [Daśakumāracarita] in
Daṇḍa (दण्ड).—[masculine] ([neuter]) stick (+ vaitasa cane), staff ([especially] of the twice-born), pole, cudgel, mace, club; flag-staff handle, on a chariot; (the rod as symbol of) power, force, (concr. forces = army); assault, violence; sovereignty, dominion of ([genetive] or —°), authority; punishment of all kinds.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Daṇḍa (दण्ड):—m. (= δένδρο-ν -v, hence cognate with dāru and √dṝ) (n. cf. ikṣu- [gana] ardharcādi) a stick, staff, rod, pole, cudgel, club, [Ṛg-veda] etc. (staff given at investiture with the sacred thread, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.; ‘penis [with vaitasa]’, [xi, 5, 1, 1]; ‘trunk’ See śuṇḍā-; ‘arm’ or ‘leg’ See dor-, bāhu-; ‘tusk’ See daṃṣṭrā-)
2) = ḍakāsana, [Bṛhan-nāradīya-purāṇa, 38 adhyāya xxxi, 115] (n.)
3) a stalk, stem (of a tree; cf. ikṣu-, ud-, khara-), [Mahābhārata ii, 2390]
4) the staff of a banner, [2079; iv, xiv]
5) the handle (of a ladle, sauce-pan, fly-flap, parasol etc.), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.
6) the steam of a plough, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) ‘a mast’ See mahādaṇḍa-dhara
8) the cross-bar of a lute which holds the strings, [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra xvii]
9) the stick with which a lute is played, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) a churning-stick (cf. ḍāhata), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) a pole as a measure of length (= 4 Hastas), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xxiv, 9; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa il]
12) Name of a measure of time (= 60 Vi-kalās), [Brahma-purāṇa ii; Varāha-purāṇa; Bhaviṣya-purāṇa, khaṇḍa 1 & 2: bhaviṣya-purāṇa & bhaviṣyottara-purāṇa]
13) Name of a staff-like appearance in the sky (‘Name of a planet’ [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; cf. -bhāsa), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
14) Name of a constellation, xx, 2 [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka; Laghujātaka, by Varāha-mihira]
15) a form of military array (cf. -vyuha), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
16) a line (cf. -pāta)
17) a staff or sceptre as a symbol of power and sovereignty (cf. nyasta-), application of power, violence, [Manu-smṛti vii f.; Mahābhārata]
18) power over ([genitive case] or in [compound]), control, restraint (cf. vāg-, mano-, kāya- [karma-, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa xli, 22]]; tri-daṇḍin), [Subhāṣitāvali]
19) embodied power, army (kośa-,[dual number] ‘treasure and army’ [Manu-smṛti ix, 294; Mahābhārata; Kirātārjunīya ii, 12]), [Manu-smṛti vii; Raghuvaṃśa xvii, 62]
20) the rod as a symbol of judicial authority and punishment, punishment (corporal, verbal, and fiscal; chastisement and imprisonment, reprimand, fine), [Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa xvii, 1] [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (cf. gupta & gūḍha-)
21) pride, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
22) m. a horse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
23) Punishment (son of Dharma and Kriyā, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa i, 7, 27; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa l])
24) Yama, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
25) Śiva, [Mahābhārata xii, 10361]
26) Name of an attendant of the Sun, [iii, 198]
27) ([gana] śivādi and śaunakādi) Name of a man with the [patronymic] Aupara, [Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā iii, 8, 7; Taittirīya-saṃhitā vi, 2, 9, 4]
28) of a prince slain by Arjuna (brother of -dhara, identified with the Asura Krodha-hantṛ), [Mahābhārata if., viii]
29) of a Rakṣas, [Rāmāyaṇa vii, 5, 39]
30) See oḍaka
31) Daṇḍā (दण्डा):—[from daṇḍa] f. Hedysaruni lagopodioides, [Nighaṇṭuprakāśa]
32) Dāṇḍa (दाण्ड):—1. dāṇḍa mf(ī)n. relating to a stick or to punishment, [Horace H. Wilson]
33) m. [patronymic] [from] daṇḍa, ([gana] śivādi)
34) Dāṇḍā (दाण्डा):—[from dāṇḍa] f. a [particular] game with sticks, [Pāṇini 4-2, 57; Kāśikā-vṛtti]
35) Dāṇḍa (दाण्ड):—n. the being a staff ([gana] pṛthv-ādi)
36) multitude of staff-bearers, [vi, 4, 164] [Scholiast or Commentator]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+246): Danda Sutta, Danda Vagga, Danda-adaya, Danda-aya, Danda-dash-aparadha, Danda-dosha, Danda-kanam, Danda-kkanam, Danda-marga, Danda-shulka, Dandabahu, Dandabaladhi, Dandabali, Dandabhaj, Dandabhanga, Dandabhasa, Dandabhaya, Dandabhighata, Dandabhiti, Dandabhogika.
Ends with (+177): Adadanda, Adanda, Adattadanda, Adhikarana-danda, Ahi-danda, Ajapadakadanda, Akshadanda, Alamadanda, Amoghadanda, Andhra-danda, Apalapadanda, Apalapanadanda, Aparvadanda, Arabatadanda, Aramadanda, Ardhadanda, Ashanidanda, Attadanda, Avadanda, Ayodanda.
Full-text (+643): Dandapata, Tridanda, Rajadanda, Sarpadanda, Dandalesha, Dandagrahika, Dandapanika, Dandamathika, Nivartana, Dandalanem, Dandavidhi, Dandakarman, Dandabhaya, Dendera, Dandapamshula, Dandaghna, Dhigdanda, Dandashramin, Dandavikalpa, Sharadanda.
Search found 70 books and stories containing Danda, Daṇḍa, Daṇḍā, Dāṇḍa, Dāṇḍā; (plurals include: Dandas, Daṇḍas, Daṇḍās, Dāṇḍas, Dāṇḍās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Chapter 11 - Calculation of Time, from the Atom < [Canto III - The Status Quo]
Chapter 13 - The Behavior of a Perfect Person < [Canto VII - The Science of God]
Chapter 18 - Lord Vamanadeva, the Dwarf Incarnation < [Canto VIII - Withdrawal of the Cosmic Creations]
Kautilya Arthashastra (by R. Shamasastry)
Chapter 3 - Construction of Forts < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]
Chapter 20 - Measurement of Space and Time < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]
Chapter 4 - Buildings within the Fort < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]
Manasara (English translation) (by Prasanna Kumar Acharya)
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter XIX - The Garudi Vidya which is the cure for all kinds of snake-bite < [Agastya Samhita]
Chapter CXXVI - Visvedeva Puja < [Brihaspati (Nitisara) Samhita]
The Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)