Kashta, Kaṣṭa: 22 definitions

Introduction:

Kashta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kaṣṭa can be transliterated into English as Kasta or Kashta, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Kasht.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) refers to the exclamation “how pathetic” and represents an element of a siddhi (success) expressed vocally (vāṅmayī), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 27. The siddhis in a dramatic production (nāṭaka) arise from words, sattva and gestures and relate to the various bhāva (psychological states) and rasa (sentiments). They can be broadly divided into divine (daivikī) and human (mānuṣī) which are made up of sattvas expressed vocally or physically.

Accordingly, “in the pathetic sentiment (karuṇa-rasa) they should utter with tears ‘how pathetic’ (kaṣṭa)”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट, “disturbed”) refers to one of the sixty defects of mantras, according to the 11th century Kulārṇava-tantra: an important scripture of the Kaula school of Śāktism traditionally stated to have consisted of 125.000 Sanskrit verses.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Śrī Devī: “For those who do japa without knowing these defects [e.g., kaṣṭa—disturbed], there is no realization even with millions and billions of japa. [...] Oh My Beloved! there are ten processes for eradicating defects in Mantras as described. [...]”.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) refers to “painful” (i.e., painful austerities), according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as Bhagavat (Viṣṇu) said to Śaṃkara: “O Śambhu! Supreme Void [i.e., paramākāśa]! (You) whose mind is centred on the goddess! The goddess in the form of Kumārī was born on Himavat’s mountain. She gave this Liṅga which is reality and the supreme cause (of all things). And I am the authority there. I, Kumārikā, am a limb of that (Liṅga). Thus, (I) abide as the bliss of my own experience of the Void. O Vyāsa whom do you contemplate having performed painful austerities [i.e., kaṣṭa-uttarāyaṇakṛtvā kaṣṭottarāyaṇam]?”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) refers to “suffering”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The first year of the ninth yuga is Plavaṅga, the next year is known as Kīlaka, the third is known as Saumya and the last two years are known as Sādhāraṇa and Rodhakṛt respectively; of these, during the years Kīlaka and Saumya mankind will be happy. In the year Plavaṅga mankind will suffer much [i.e., kaṣṭakaṣṭaḥ plavaṅgo bahuśaḥ]; in Sādhāraṇa there will be slight rain and crops will suffer; in the fifth year there will be a variety of rainfall and crops will thrive”.

2) Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) refers to a “very poor” [?] (condition of the world), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 9).—Accordingly, “If Venus (śukra) should either disappear or reappear in a northern Vīthi there will be prosperity and happiness in the land; if in a central Vīthi there will not be much of either; and if in a southern Vīthi mankind will be afflicted with miseries. If Venus should disappear or reappear in the several Vīthis beginning from the northernmost one, the condition of the world will respectively be—1. Very excellent, 2. Excellent, 3. Good. 4. Fair, 5. Moderate, 6. Tolerable, 7. Poor, 8. Very poor [i.e., kaṣṭa], 9. Miserable”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) refers to “unmeritorious (karma)”, according to the Mṛgendrāgama Kriyāpāda verse 8.149-150.—Accordingly, “Having lifted up the lokadharmī to [the cosmic level of] the deity he desires, he should cause [this deity’s] qualities to be present in the candidate, or, for those desirous of liberation, [join him] in Śiva. He should establish the [regent] who is at the top of the [respective] path, together with his powers, recite the OṂ at the end of the mantra, and then join [him with the deity], while remaining untouched by unmeritorious (kaṣṭa) [karma]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) refers to “distress (felt during penance)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.28 (“Description of the fraudulent words of the Brahmacārin”).—Accordingly, after Śiva said to Pārvatī after revealing his form: “When the lord of the gods spoke in this way, Pārvatī rejoiced. Whatever distress (kaṣṭa) she had felt during penance she cast off as something old. O excellent sage, her weariness subsided. In fact, when the fruit is realised, the exertion felt during the process of undertaking perishes”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) refers to “evil”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] At that time, sixty koṭis of Bodhisattvas, having stood up from the congregation, joined their palms, paid homage to the Lord, and then uttered these verses in one voice: ‘[...] (229) They will deceive kings and a great number of people (mahā-jana) will be split, even then living beings will listen to the dharma by the presence of the Buddha. (230) At that evil time [kaṣṭatasmin kāle vayaṃ kaṣṭe], for the benefit of living beings, giving up our bodies and lives, we will uphold the true dharma. [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) refers to “misery”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Indeed, alone, the self roams about in the impassable wilderness of the world which is full of great misfortune [com.mahā-kaṣṭa-saṃkoca—‘that which has binding with great misery’] [and] inflamed by the fire of suffering. The same [self] always takes hold of the interior of a body entirely to experience the good and bad result developed from its own action by itself”.

Synonyms: Vyasana.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Kasta in India is the name of a plant defined with Leucas aspera in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Phlomis obliqua Buch.Ham. ex Hook.f. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Flora of the British India (1885)
· Enum. Hort. Berol. Alt. (1822)
· Rev. Hortus Malab. (1839)
· Enum. Pl. (1809)
· Systema Vegetabilium (1825)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kasta, for example extract dosage, diet and recipes, health benefits, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kaṣṭa (कष्ट).—m (S) Bodily exertion, labor, toil, pains, endeavors. Pr. kaṣṭīṃ phaḷa āṇi tapīṃ rājya. 2 The sensation of fatigue or weariness resulting. 3 Pain or inquietude (whether mental or bodily). Gen. in pl.

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kasta (कस्त).—n f Detriment, damage, loss. v sōsa, khā. 2 fig. Deficiency, lack. v ghē, khā. Ex. hā kasāhī pra- saṅga paḍalā kaddhīṃ kasta ghēta nāhīṃ He never confesses any deficiency or inferiority.

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kasta (कस्त).—f (Corr. from kaṣṭa q. v.) Exertion, toil, pains. v khā.

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kastā (कस्ता) [or स्ती, stī].—a Inclined; deviating from rectitude--a wall, a post, a balance-beam, a measure. Hence, 2 Light or deficient--a measure or a weight: also the material measured or weighed: opp. to rāstī: also fig. Light, unfair, dishonest--speech, a business &c.: also turned aside; declining from the way. kastēṃ ghēṇēṃ To step aside; to get out of the way: also to draw out (of a business).

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kāṣṭā (काष्टा).—m (kaccha S) The tuck of the dhōtara or lugaḍēṃ. v ghāla.

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kāsta (कास्त).—m (kāyastha S) A caste or an individual of it. See under kāyastha. Sig. I. & II.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kaṣṭa (कष्ट).—m Pain. Bodily exertion, labour, &c.

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kasta (कस्त).—n f Detriment, damage, loss. Lack. f Exertion.

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kastā (कस्ता) [-stī, -स्ती].—a Inclined. Light, deficient.

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kāṣṭā (काष्टा).—m kāṣṭī f The tuck of the dhōtara or lugaḍēṃ.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट).—a. [kaṣ-kta]

1) Bad, evil, ill, wrong; रामहस्तमनुप्राप्य कष्टात् कष्टतरं गता (rāmahastamanuprāpya kaṣṭāt kaṣṭataraṃ gatā) R.15.43. 'gone from bad to worse', (reduced to a wretched condition).

2) Painful, grievous; मोहादभूत्कष्टतरः प्रबोधः (mohādabhūtkaṣṭataraḥ prabodhaḥ) R.14.56; कष्टोऽयं खलु भृत्य- भावः (kaṣṭo'yaṃ khalu bhṛtya- bhāvaḥ) Ratnāvalī 1. full of cares; Manusmṛti 7.5; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 9.37; Y.3.29; कण्टा वृत्तिः पराधीना कष्टो वासो निराश्रयः । निर्धनो व्यवसायश्च सर्वकष्टा दरिद्रता (kaṇṭā vṛttiḥ parādhīnā kaṣṭo vāso nirāśrayaḥ | nirdhano vyavasāyaśca sarvakaṣṭā daridratā) || Chān.59

3) Difficult; स्त्रीषु कष्टोऽधिकारः (strīṣu kaṣṭo'dhikāraḥ) V.3.1; Uttararāmacarita 7.

4) Hard to subdue (as an enemy); स हि कष्टतरो रिपुः (sa hi kaṣṭataro ripuḥ) Manusmṛti 7.186; कष्टमाहुररिं बुधाः (kaṣṭamāhurariṃ budhāḥ) 21.

5) Mischievous, hurtful, injurious; कष्टोऽनिलो हरति लम्पट एष नीवीम् (kaṣṭo'nilo harati lampaṭa eṣa nīvīm) Bhāgavata 5.2.14.

6) Boding evil.

7) Sorrowful, miserable.

-ṣṭam 1 Evil, difficulty, misery, suffering, hardship, pain; कष्टं खल्वनपत्यता (kaṣṭaṃ khalvanapatyatā) Ś.6; धिगर्थाः कष्टसंश्रयाः (dhigarthāḥ kaṣṭasaṃśrayāḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.163 v. l.

2) Sin, wickedness.

3) Difficulty, effort; कष्टेन (kaṣṭena) somehow or other.

-ṣṭam ind. Alas ! Ah ! हा धिक् कष्टम् (hā dhik kaṣṭam); हा कष्टं जरयाभिभूतपुरुषः पुत्रैरवज्ञा- यते (hā kaṣṭaṃ jarayābhibhūtapuruṣaḥ putrairavajñā- yate) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 4.78.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट).—mfn.

(-ṣṭaḥ-ṣṭā-ṣṭaṃ) 1. Pained, suffering pain. 2. Impervious, impenetrable. n.

(-ṣṭaṃ) Bodily pain or uneasiness. ind.

(-ṣṭaṃ) An exclamation of regret or sorrow, ah, alas! E. kaṣ to hurt, participle affix kta.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट).—i. e. kaṣ + ta, I. adj. 1. Bad, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 51, 23; comparat. worse, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 53. 2. Miserable, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 22. 3. Heavy, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 29. 4. Severe, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 78. 5. Dangerous, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 186; 210. 6. Pernicious, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 50. Ii. n. 1. A blameable action, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 2, 32. 2. Misfortune, [Hitopadeśa] 72, 15. 3. Misery, [Pañcatantra] 123, 22. Acc. kaṣṭam, adv. Woe! [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 79, 46.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट).—[adjective] bad, evil, painful, rough, constrained, affected, unnatural. [neuter] evil, grief, pain, difficulty. °—, [ablative], & [instrumental] with difficulty, hardly; [neuter] kaṣṭam the same, as interj. ah! alas! often after dhik or hā dhik.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kaṣṭa (कष्ट):—mfn. (perhaps [past participle] of √kaṣ, [Pāṇini 7-2, 22; Vopadeva 26, 111; Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 6-2, 47]), bad, [Rāmāyaṇa]

2) ill, evil, wrong, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta] etc.

3) painful, [Suśruta]

4) grievous, severe, miserable, [Manu-smṛti xii, 78; Yājñavalkya iii, 29; Bhartṛhari]

5) difficult, troublesome, [Manu-smṛti vii, 186 and 210]

6) worst, [Manu-smṛti vii, 50 and 51]

7) pernicious, noxious, injurious, [Suśruta]

8) dangerous (= kṛcchra), [Pāṇini 7-2, 22; Nalopākhyāna xiii, 16]

9) inaccessible (= gahana), [Pāṇini 7-2, 22]

10) boding evil [commentator or commentary] on [Pāṇini 3-2, 188]

11) m.Name of a man’ See kāṣṭāyana

12) (in rhetoric) offending the ear, [Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti ii, 1, 6]

13) forced, unnatural

14) n. a bad state of things, evil, wrong

15) pain, suffering, misery, wretchedness

16) trouble, difficulty

17) bodily exertion, strain, labour, toil, fatigue, weariness, hardship, uneasiness, inquietude (mental or bodily), [Rāmāyaṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara; Pañcatantra; Śakuntalā; Hitopadeśa]

18) [kaṣṭāt-kaṣṭam] or kaṣṭataram, worse than the worst

19) kaṣṭena or kaṣṭāt, with great difficulty, [Pañcatantra]

20) n. ah! woe! alas! [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Mṛcchakaṭikā]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट):—(ṣṭaṃ) 1. n. Bodily pain. a. Pained; impervioius. n. Ah! alas!

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kaṭṭa, Kaṭṭha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kashta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) [Also spelled kasht]:—(nm) suffering, pain; hardship; distress; ~[kara/kāraka] troublesome, painful, distressing; -[kalpanā] far-fetched imagination; ~[dāyaka/~prada] see [kaṣṭakara; ~sādhya] difficult; troublesome; onerous.

2) Kāśta (काश्त) [Also spelled kasht]:—(nf) cultivation, farming; holding; ~[kāra] a cultivator, farmer, tenant; ~[kārī] cultivation, farming.

context information

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kaṣṭa (ಕಷ್ಟ):—

1) [adjective] causing pain or worry; troublesome; destressing.

2) [adjective] evil; bad; wrong.

3) [adjective] needing much effort or skill; difficult; strenuous.

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Kaṣṭa (ಕಷ್ಟ):—

1) [noun] that which is difficult, strenuous; the quality or condition of being so; difficulty.

2) [noun] the condition of being miserable (as the life of a poor man).

3) [noun] a mean, morally degraded man.

4) [noun] great effort, exertion or tension; strain.

5) [noun] (dial.) the ill-feeling; hatred.

6) [noun] (dial.) the hair growing on the head or on the lower part of a maṇs face.

7) [noun] one of the hells.

8) [noun] a bad, evil word; an abuse.

9) [noun] ಕಷ್ಟ ಮನುಷ್ಯನಿಗೆ ಬರದೆ ಮರಕ್ಕೆ ಬರುತ್ತದೆಯೇ [kashta manushyanige barade marakke baruttadeye]? kaṣta manuṣyanige barade marakke baruttadeyē? it is natural that one has to face hardships at some time or the other during his or her lifetime; facing problems in life is not unnatural.

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Kāṣṭa (ಕಾಷ್ಟ):—[noun] = ಕಾಷ್ಠೆ [kashthe].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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