Kashta, Kaṣṭa: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Kashta means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kaṣṭa can be transliterated into English as Kasta or Kashta, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Kasht.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) refers to the exclamation “how pathetic” and represents an element of a siddhi (success) expressed vocally (vāṅmayī), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 27. The siddhis in a dramatic production (nāṭaka) arise from words, sattva and gestures and relate to the various bhāva (psychological states) and rasa (sentiments). They can be broadly divided into divine (daivikī) and human (mānuṣī) which are made up of sattvas expressed vocally or physically.

Accordingly, “in the pathetic sentiment (karuṇa-rasa) they should utter with tears ‘how pathetic’ (kaṣṭa)”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट, “disturbed”) refers to one of the sixty defects of mantras, according to the 11th century Kulārṇava-tantra: an important scripture of the Kaula school of Śāktism traditionally stated to have consisted of 125.000 Sanskrit verses.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Śrī Devī: “For those who do japa without knowing these defects [e.g., kaṣṭa—disturbed], there is no realization even with millions and billions of japa. [...] Oh My Beloved! there are ten processes for eradicating defects in Mantras as described. [...]”.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) refers to “painful” (i.e., painful austerities), according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as Bhagavat (Viṣṇu) said to Śaṃkara: “O Śambhu! Supreme Void [i.e., paramākāśa]! (You) whose mind is centred on the goddess! The goddess in the form of Kumārī was born on Himavat’s mountain. She gave this Liṅga which is reality and the supreme cause (of all things). And I am the authority there. I, Kumārikā, am a limb of that (Liṅga). Thus, (I) abide as the bliss of my own experience of the Void. O Vyāsa whom do you contemplate having performed painful austerities [i.e., kaṣṭa-uttarāyaṇakṛtvā kaṣṭottarāyaṇam]?”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kaṣṭa (कष्ट).—m (S) Bodily exertion, labor, toil, pains, endeavors. Pr. kaṣṭīṃ phaḷa āṇi tapīṃ rājya. 2 The sensation of fatigue or weariness resulting. 3 Pain or inquietude (whether mental or bodily). Gen. in pl.

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kasta (कस्त).—n f Detriment, damage, loss. v sōsa, khā. 2 fig. Deficiency, lack. v ghē, khā. Ex. hā kasāhī pra- saṅga paḍalā kaddhīṃ kasta ghēta nāhīṃ He never confesses any deficiency or inferiority.

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kasta (कस्त).—f (Corr. from kaṣṭa q. v.) Exertion, toil, pains. v khā.

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kastā (कस्ता) [or स्ती, stī].—a Inclined; deviating from rectitude--a wall, a post, a balance-beam, a measure. Hence, 2 Light or deficient--a measure or a weight: also the material measured or weighed: opp. to rāstī: also fig. Light, unfair, dishonest--speech, a business &c.: also turned aside; declining from the way. kastēṃ ghēṇēṃ To step aside; to get out of the way: also to draw out (of a business).

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kāṣṭā (काष्टा).—m (kaccha S) The tuck of the dhōtara or lugaḍēṃ. v ghāla.

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kāsta (कास्त).—m (kāyastha S) A caste or an individual of it. See under kāyastha. Sig. I. & II.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kaṣṭa (कष्ट).—m Pain. Bodily exertion, labour, &c.

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kasta (कस्त).—n f Detriment, damage, loss. Lack. f Exertion.

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kastā (कस्ता) [-stī, -स्ती].—a Inclined. Light, deficient.

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kāṣṭā (काष्टा).—m kāṣṭī f The tuck of the dhōtara or lugaḍēṃ.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट).—a. [kaṣ-kta]

1) Bad, evil, ill, wrong; रामहस्तमनुप्राप्य कष्टात् कष्टतरं गता (rāmahastamanuprāpya kaṣṭāt kaṣṭataraṃ gatā) R.15.43. 'gone from bad to worse', (reduced to a wretched condition).

2) Painful, grievous; मोहादभूत्कष्टतरः प्रबोधः (mohādabhūtkaṣṭataraḥ prabodhaḥ) R.14.56; कष्टोऽयं खलु भृत्य- भावः (kaṣṭo'yaṃ khalu bhṛtya- bhāvaḥ) Ratn.1. full of cares; Ms.7.5; Māl.9.37; Y.3.29; कण्टा वृत्तिः पराधीना कष्टो वासो निराश्रयः । निर्धनो व्यवसायश्च सर्वकष्टा दरिद्रता (kaṇṭā vṛttiḥ parādhīnā kaṣṭo vāso nirāśrayaḥ | nirdhano vyavasāyaśca sarvakaṣṭā daridratā) || Chān.59

3) Difficult; स्त्रीषु कष्टोऽधिकारः (strīṣu kaṣṭo'dhikāraḥ) V.3.1; U.7.

4) Hard to subdue (as an enemy); स हि कष्टतरो रिपुः (sa hi kaṣṭataro ripuḥ) Ms.7.186; कष्टमाहुररिं बुधाः (kaṣṭamāhurariṃ budhāḥ) 21.

5) Mischievous, hurtful, injurious; कष्टोऽनिलो हरति लम्पट एष नीवीम् (kaṣṭo'nilo harati lampaṭa eṣa nīvīm) Bhāg.5.2.14.

6) Boding evil.

7) Sorrowful, miserable.

-ṣṭam 1 Evil, difficulty, misery, suffering, hardship, pain; कष्टं खल्वनपत्यता (kaṣṭaṃ khalvanapatyatā) Ś.6; धिगर्थाः कष्टसंश्रयाः (dhigarthāḥ kaṣṭasaṃśrayāḥ) Pt.1.163 v. l.

2) Sin, wickedness.

3) Difficulty, effort; कष्टेन (kaṣṭena) somehow or other.

-ṣṭam ind. Alas ! Ah ! हा धिक् कष्टम् (hā dhik kaṣṭam); हा कष्टं जरयाभिभूतपुरुषः पुत्रैरवज्ञा- यते (hā kaṣṭaṃ jarayābhibhūtapuruṣaḥ putrairavajñā- yate) Pt.4.78.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट).—mfn.

(-ṣṭaḥ-ṣṭā-ṣṭaṃ) 1. Pained, suffering pain. 2. Impervious, impenetrable. n.

(-ṣṭaṃ) Bodily pain or uneasiness. ind.

(-ṣṭaṃ) An exclamation of regret or sorrow, ah, alas! E. kaṣ to hurt, participle affix kta.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट).—i. e. kaṣ + ta, I. adj. 1. Bad, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 51, 23; comparat. worse, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 53. 2. Miserable, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 22. 3. Heavy, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 29. 4. Severe, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 78. 5. Dangerous, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 186; 210. 6. Pernicious, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 50. Ii. n. 1. A blameable action, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 2, 32. 2. Misfortune, [Hitopadeśa] 72, 15. 3. Misery, [Pañcatantra] 123, 22. Acc. kaṣṭam, adv. Woe! [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 79, 46.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट).—[adjective] bad, evil, painful, rough, constrained, affected, unnatural. [neuter] evil, grief, pain, difficulty. °—, [ablative], & [instrumental] with difficulty, hardly; [neuter] kaṣṭam the same, as interj. ah! alas! often after dhik or hā dhik.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kaṣṭa (कष्ट):—mfn. (perhaps [past participle] of √kaṣ, [Pāṇini 7-2, 22; Vopadeva 26, 111; Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 6-2, 47]), bad, [Rāmāyaṇa]

2) ill, evil, wrong, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta] etc.

3) painful, [Suśruta]

4) grievous, severe, miserable, [Manu-smṛti xii, 78; Yājñavalkya iii, 29; Bhartṛhari]

5) difficult, troublesome, [Manu-smṛti vii, 186 and 210]

6) worst, [Manu-smṛti vii, 50 and 51]

7) pernicious, noxious, injurious, [Suśruta]

8) dangerous (= kṛcchra), [Pāṇini 7-2, 22; Nalopākhyāna xiii, 16]

9) inaccessible (= gahana), [Pāṇini 7-2, 22]

10) boding evil [commentator or commentary] on [Pāṇini 3-2, 188]

11) m.Name of a man’ See kāṣṭāyana

12) (in rhetoric) offending the ear, [Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti ii, 1, 6]

13) forced, unnatural

14) n. a bad state of things, evil, wrong

15) pain, suffering, misery, wretchedness

16) trouble, difficulty

17) bodily exertion, strain, labour, toil, fatigue, weariness, hardship, uneasiness, inquietude (mental or bodily), [Rāmāyaṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara; Pañcatantra; Śakuntalā; Hitopadeśa]

18) [kaṣṭāt-kaṣṭam] or kaṣṭataram, worse than the worst

19) kaṣṭena or kaṣṭāt, with great difficulty, [Pañcatantra]

20) n. ah! woe! alas! [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Mṛcchakaṭikā]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट):—(ṣṭaṃ) 1. n. Bodily pain. a. Pained; impervioius. n. Ah! alas!

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kaṭṭa, Kaṭṭha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kashta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Kaṣṭa (कष्ट) [Also spelled kasht]:—(nm) suffering, pain; hardship; distress; ~[kara/kāraka] troublesome, painful, distressing; -[kalpanā] far-fetched imagination; ~[dāyaka/~prada] see [kaṣṭakara; ~sādhya] difficult; troublesome; onerous.

2) Kāśta (काश्त) [Also spelled kasht]:—(nf) cultivation, farming; holding; ~[kāra] a cultivator, farmer, tenant; ~[kārī] cultivation, farming.

context information

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