Mukha; 12 Definition(s)

Introduction

Mukha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

According to the Matsya Purāṇa, Mukha (face) is 12 aṅgulas.

Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Purana

1a) Mukha (मुख).—The head of the Śiva Gaṇas.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 41. 28.

1b) (Sukhas)—one of the three gaṇas;1 20 branches of them mentioned.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 13.
  • 2) Ib. 100. 18-19.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Mukha (मुख, “opening”) refers to one of the five segments (sandhi) of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic play (nāṭaka), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. These five segments are assigned to the principal plot (ādhikārika). (Description): That part of a play, in which the creation of the Seed (bīja) as the source of many objects and Sentiments takes place, is called in relation to its body the Opening (mukha).

2) Mukha (मुख) refers to one of the two limbs (aṅga) belonging to Avakṛṣṭā type of song (dhruvā) defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32.9-16. Accordingly, “depending on different conditions, the dhruvās are known to be of five classes”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Mukha (मुख).—Aperture of the mouth; the main place of the utterance of a letter.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Mukha (मुख).—Face, top-side of an object or figure with more than three sides, especially the top or shorter/parallel side of a trapezium. Note: Mukha is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

1) Mukha (मुख, “mouth”) refers to that part of the human body from which the Buddha emitted numerous rays when he smiled with his whole body after contemplating the entire universe, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Accordingly, having himself arranged the lion-seat, the Bhagavat sat down cross-legged; holding his body upright and fixing his attention, he entered into the samādhirājasamādhi. Then, having tranquilly come out of this samādhi and having contemplated the entire universe with his divine eye (divyacakṣus), the Bhagavat smiled with his whole body. Wheels with a thousand spokes imprinted on the soles of his feet (pādatala) shoot out six hundred prabhedakoṭi of rays. In the same way, beams of six hundred prabhedakoṭi of rays are emitted from his mouth (mukha).

2) Mukha (मुख, “mouth”) refers to the “two gates of the Buddhist system”, according to chapter XLVII.—Accordingly, “the Buddhist system has two gates (mukha): i) the gate of absolute meaning (parāmārtha); ii) the gate of conventional meaning. Conventionally, the Bodhisattva wants the Buddhas to praise him, but when he is praised by the Buddhas, he does not see in himself any substantial self (ātman) and does not grasp any nature of existence. It is purely a manner of speaking (lokaprajñati), therefore, that the sūtra expresses itself thus”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Mukha in Pali glossary... « previous · [M] · next »

mukha : (nt.) mouth; face; entrance; opening; front. (adj.), foremost.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Mukha, (nt.) (Vedic mukha, fr. Idg. *mu, onomat. , cp. Lat. mu facere, Gr. mukάomai, Mhg. mūgen, Lat. mūgio to moo (of cows), to make the sound “moo”; Ohg. māwen to cry, muckazzen to talk softly; also Gr. mu_qos word, “myth”; Ohg. mūla=Ger. maul; Ags. mule snout, etc. Vedic mūka silent, dumb=Lat. mutus=E. mute) 1. the mouth Sn. 608, 1022 (with ref. to the long tongue, pahūta-jivha, of the Buddha or Mahāpurisa); J. II, 7; DA. I, 287 (uttāna° clear mouthed, i.e. easy to understand, cp. D. I, 116); PvA. 11, 12 (pūti°), 264 (mukhena).—2. the face J. VI, 218 (uṇṇaja m.); PvA. 74, 75, 77; °ṃ karoti to make a face (i.e. grimace) Vism. 343.—adho° face downward Vin. II, 78; opp. upari° (q. v.); assu° with tearful face Dh. 67; PvA. 39; see assu.—dum° (adj.) sad or unfriendly looking J. II, 393; VI, 343; scurrilous J. V, 78; bhadra° brightfaced PvA. 149; ruda° crying Pv. I, 112.—3. entrance, mouth (of a river) Mhvs 8, 12; āya° entrance (lit. opening), i.e. cause or means of income DA. I, 218; ukkā° the opening of a furnace, a goldsmith’s smelting pot A. I, 257; Sn. 686; J. VI, 217; 574. ubhato-mukha having 2 openings M. I, 57. sandhi° opening of the cleft PvA. 4. Hence: — 4. cause, ways, means, reason, by way of J. III, 55 by way of a gift (dānamukhe); IV, 266 (bahūhi mukhehi).—apāya° cause of ruin or loss A. II, 166; IV, 283.—5. front part, front, top, in īsā° of the carriage pole S. I, 224=J. I, 203. Hence: — 6. the top of anything, front, head, best part; adj. topmost, foremost Sn. 568 (aggihutta-mukhā yaññā), 569 (nakkhattānaṃ mukhaṃ cando; cp. Vin. I, 246); VbhA. 332 (=uttamaṃ, mukha-bhūtaṃ vā).—Der. adj. mokkha & pāmokkha (q. v.). Note. A poetical Instr. sg. mukhasā is found at Pv. I, 23 & I. 32, as if the Nom. were mukho (s-stem).—The Abl. mukhā is used as adv. “in front of, before, ” in cpd. sam° & param°, e.g. PvA. 13. See each sep.

—ādhāna (1) the bit of a bridle M. I, 446; (2) setting of the mouth, i.e. mouth-enclosure, rim of the m.; in m. siliṭṭhaṃ a well-connected, well-defined mouth-contour DhsA. 15 (not with trsl. “opens lightly, ” but better with note “is well adjusted, ” see Expos. 19, where write °ādhāna for °ādāna).—āsiya (? cp. āsita1) to be eaten by the mouth DhsA. 330 (mukhena asitabba).—ullokana looking into a person’s face, i.e. cheerful, bright, perhaps also flattering DhA. II, 193 (as °olokana).—ullokika flattering (cp. above) Nd1 249 (puthu Satthārānaṃ m. puthujjana); PvA. 219.—odaka water for rinsing the mouth Nd2 391=Miln. 370; VvA. 65; DhA. II, 19; IV, 28.—ja born in (or from) the mouth, i.e. a tooth J. VI, 219.—tuṇḍa a beak VvA. 227 (cp. BSk. mukhatuṇḍaka Divy 387).—dugga one whose mouth is a difficult road, i.e. one who uses his mouth (speech) badly Sn. 664 (v. l. °dukkha).—dūsi blemishes of the face, a rash on the face DA. I, 223 (m.—dosa ibid.).—dvāra mouth opening PvA. 180.—dhovana-ṭṭhāna place for rinsing the mouth, “lavatory” DhA. II, 184.—puñchana wiping one’s mouth Vin. I, 297.—pūra filling the mouth, a mouthful, i.e. as much as to fill the mouth J. VI, 350.—pūraka mouth-filling Vism. 106.—bheri a musical instrument, “mouth-drum, ” mouthorgan (?) Nd2 219 B; SnA 86.—makkaṭika a grimace (like that of a monkey) of the face J. II, 70, 448 (T. makkaṭiya).—vaṭṭi “opening-circumference, ” i.e. brim, edge, rim DhA. II, 5 (of the Lohakumbhi purgatory, cp. J. III, 43 lohakumbha-mukhavaṭṭi); DhA. III, 58 (of a gong).—vaṇṇa the features PvA. 122, 124.—vikāra contortion of the mouth J. II, 448.—vikūṇa (=vikāra) grimace SnA 30.—saṅkocana distortion or contraction of the mouth, as a sign of displeasure DhA. II, 270; cp. mukha-saṅkoca Vism. 26.—saññata controlling one’s mouth (i.e. speech) Dh. 363, cp. DhA. IV, 93. (Page 534)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

mukha (मुख).—n (S) The mouth. S adage. mukhamastīti vaktavyaṃ Used in reproof of one who speaks because he has a mouth. 2 The face. 3 fig. The entrance into a building; the beginning of a work &c. For other figurative senses see tōṇḍa. 4 A means, measure, expedient. 5 S In comp. The fore, prime, or initial thing or part: also the chief, principal, or leading person. 6 In arithmetic &c. The first term of a series. 7 The opposite side to the base of any quadrilateral figure.

--- OR ---

mukhā (मुखा).—m The expanded or broad end of a hammer. Opp. to pisā.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mukha (मुख).—n The mouth; the face. A means.

--- OR ---

mukhā (मुखा).—m The broad end of a hammer.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mukha (मुख).—[khan ac ḍit dhātoḥ pūrvaṃ muṭ ca cf. Uṇ.5.2]

1) The mouth (fig. also); प्रजासृजा यतः खातं तस्मादाहुर्मुखं बुधाः (prajāsṛjā yataḥ khātaṃ tasmādāhurmukhaṃ budhāḥ); ब्राह्मणोऽस्य मुखमासीत् (brāhmaṇo'sya mukhamāsīt) Ṛv.1.9.12; सभ्रूभङ्गं मुखमिव (sabhrūbhaṅgaṃ mukhamiva) Me.24; त्वं मम मुखं भव (tvaṃ mama mukhaṃ bhava) V.1 'be my mouth or spokesman'.

2) The face, countenance; परिवृत्तार्धमुखी मयाद्य दृष्टा (parivṛttārdhamukhī mayādya dṛṣṭā) V.1.17; नियमक्षाममुखी धृतैकवेणिः (niyamakṣāmamukhī dhṛtaikaveṇiḥ) Ś.7.21; so चन्द्रमुखी, मुखचन्द्रः (candramukhī, mukhacandraḥ) &c; ओष्ठौ च दन्तमूलानि दन्ता जिह्वा च तालु च । गलो गलादि सकलं सप्ताङ्गं मुखमुच्यते (oṣṭhau ca dantamūlāni dantā jihvā ca tālu ca | galo galādi sakalaṃ saptāṅgaṃ mukhamucyate) ||

3) The snout or muzzle (of any animal).

4) The front, van, forepart; head, top; (locane) हरति मे हरिवाहनदिङ्मुखम् (harati me harivāhanadiṅmukham) V.3.6.

5) The tip, point, barb (of an arrow), head; पुरारि- मप्राप्तमुखः शिलीमुखः (purāri- maprāptamukhaḥ śilīmukhaḥ) Ku.5.54; R.3.57.

6) The edge or sharp point (of any instrument).

7) A teat, nipple; मध्ये यथा श्याममुखस्य तस्य मृणालसूत्रान्तरमप्य- लभ्यम् (madhye yathā śyāmamukhasya tasya mṛṇālasūtrāntaramapya- labhyam) Ku.1.4; R.3.8.

8) The beak or bill of a bird.

9) A direction, quarter; as in अन्तर्मुख (antarmukha).

1) Opening, entrance, mouth; नीवाराः शुकगर्भकोटरमुखभ्रष्टास्तरूणामधः (nīvārāḥ śukagarbhakoṭaramukhabhraṣṭāstarūṇāmadhaḥ) Ś.1.14; नदीमुखेनेव समुद्रमाविशत् (nadīmukheneva samudramāviśat) R.3.28; Ku.1.8.

11) An entrance to a house, a door, passage.

12) Beginning, commencement; सखीजनोद्वीक्षणकौमुदीमुखम् (sakhījanodvīkṣaṇakaumudīmukham) R.3.1; दिनमुखानि रविर्हिमनिग्रहैर्विमलयन् मलयं नगमत्यजत् (dinamukhāni ravirhimanigrahairvimalayan malayaṃ nagamatyajat) 9.25;5.76; Ghaṭ.2.

13) Introduction.

14) The chief, the principal or prominent (at the end of comp. in this sense); बन्धोन्मुक्त्यै खलु मखमुखान् कुर्वते कर्मपाशान् (bandhonmuktyai khalu makhamukhān kurvate karmapāśān) Bv.4.21; so इन्द्रमुखा देवाः (indramukhā devāḥ) &c.

15) The surface or upper side.

16) A means.

17) A source, cause, occasion.

18) Utterance; as in मुखसुख (mukhasukha); speaking, speech, tongue; आत्मनो मुखदोषेण बध्यन्ते शुकसारिकाः (ātmano mukhadoṣeṇa badhyante śukasārikāḥ) Pt.4.44.

19) The Vedas, scripture.

2) (In Rhet.) The original cause or source of the action in a drama.

21) The first term in a progression (in alg.).

22) The side opposite to the base of a figure (in geom.).

Derivable forms: mukham (मुखम्).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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1) Sumukha (सुमुख).—A nāga, son of Kaśyapa Prajāpati by his wife Kadrū. Sumukha was the grandso...
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Adhomukha
Adhomukha (अधोमुख).—a. having the face downwards; °खी तिष्ठति (khī tiṣṭhati); °खैः पत्रिभिः (kh...
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Śrīmukha (श्रीमुख) or Śrīmukhāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the ...
Ajamukha
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Ashvamukha
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Mukharaga
Mukharāga (मुखराग).—the colour or complexion of the face; ददृशुर्विस्मितास्तस्य मुखरागं समं जना...
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Antarmukha
Antarmukha (अन्तर्मुख).—a. -khī f.) Antarmukha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms a...
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