Pramana, Pramāṇa: 48 definitions


Pramana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting

Pramāṇa (one of the six types of measurement (māna)) is the horizontal measurement or breadth such as the distance between the two shoulders, the width of the body at the chest level, the width of the belly or tehe width of the arm or of the thigh.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Painting: A Survey

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to “valid perception, measure and structure” and represents one of the six limbs (ṣaḍaṅga) of the ancient Indian art of “painting” (citra), according to the Vātsyāyana’, Kāmasūtra (2nd century CE). These “six limbs” (e.g., Pramāṇa) were the basis of the Indian art of painting.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Pramāna (प्रमान) refers to the “breadth of the icon” and represents a type of measurement, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The measurements described in Sanskrit authorities are altogether of six kinds: māna (the proper height of the icon), pramāna (the breadth), unmāna (thickness), parimāṇa (the circumference), upamāna (the space between the limbs) and lambamāna (surface of the image).

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to “accurate knowledge” and represents one of the six limbs of Painting (citra), according to the Kāmasūtra and Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—Pramāṇa denotes the accurate knowledge (Cf. “pramākaraṇaṃ pramāṇam”). The term pramāṇa is derived from the root , which means measurement. In the Mānasāra, pramāṇa is included in the six kinds of measurements. So, it can be said that to draw a picture, the knowledge of proper measurement of a portrait remains very important. The Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa also gives emphasis on the proper measurement and structure of a portrait and gives a detailed discussion on the measurement of portrait in the 36th chapter of its third part.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

1) According to the Kātyāyana Śulva Sūtra (I.24), the word pramāṇa refers both to the “authority” of the Śāstra and to “the measure” of a geometrical figure. The “authority” of the Śāstra refers to the science of geometry derived from the Vedas. Pramāṇa as “the measure” of a geometrical figure is understood in a conceptual sense from which the actual measurements of he figure are derived

2) According to the Mānasāra (VI.96-100), Pramāṇa is mentally conceived by the sthapati (‘architectural student’) as the generative and referential measurement for the whole architectural object. This measurement is applied to the ‘measuring cord’ (or, mānasūtra), the length of which then embodies or carries the pramāṇa. The result of this is that when the ‘measuring cord’ is stretched (in the site) to delineate the architectural object, the pramāṇa of the object is “obtained” from it.

2) Pramāṇa (प्रमाण):—One of the “six iconographic measurements”, according to the Mānasāra LV.3-8 (sanskrit literary treatise on vāstu-śāstra, or, ‘architectural science’). The measurement unit is used in the process of procuring/securing the height of the principal image and secondary images. Breadth, circumference, and other dimensions are derived from the height using rules of proportion.

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—In architecture, pramāṇa is of a conceptual, axiomatic, nature; it plays a generative and referential role, and subsists in the breadth. On the other hand, in iconography, the nature and role of pramāṇa as breadth is less conceptual and more actual. In classical epistemological discourse of the six darśanas, schools of systematic thought, pramāṇa is the foremost category, and is understood as “authority, norm of knowledge.” If one includes also the instrumental definition of pramāṇa, as “the essential means of arriving at valid knowledge or pramā,” it may then be understood as both means and end.

In the Mānasāra, the particular way of giving measurements in connection with settlements and buildings is to first list a set of breadth measurements followed by a set of corresponding length emasurements, and then state the rule of proportional relationship between breadth and length.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: PMC: The scientific basis of rasa (taste)

Ayurveda uses four Pramāṇas (or, “fundamental tools”) to acquire and test knowledge, viz.

  1. āptopadeśa (textual evidence),
  2. pratyakṣa (knowledge acquired through one's own senses),
  3. anumāna (inference)
  4. and yukti (rational derivation).

Logically, these tools are also extended to assess and verify the pharmacological properties and actions of the substances.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: A review on Ᾱrogya Rakṣā Kalpadrumaḥ

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to “surveys” and is used to look for evidence in Ayurvedic products.—[...] It is to be recognized that Ayurvedic ingredients and products are multi-component and known to work on multiple organs/targets in the body concurrently. Innovations in clinical research and clinical trials are required to test efficacy of Ayurvedic products. [...] An eminent medical pharmacologist who later researched into Ayurveda and its products, Dr. Ashok D B Vaidya, in a lecture, cites different modes of evidence namely [... viz., different types of large or controlled trials such as randomized controlled double blind trials/meta-analysis and consensual data/pharmacoepidemiology and surveys (pramāṇa), ...].

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Pramāṇa (प्रमाण):—Measurement of the body(anthropometry) will be described by the measure of individual fingers, hands etc in terms of height, breadth& length respectively

2) [pramāṇaṃ] Modes of examining and acquiring knowledge

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Pramana in Nyaya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Nyāya

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to the “means of valid knowledge”. It is one of the sixteen categories of discussion (padārtha) according to the doctrine of the Nyāya-sūtras by Akṣapāda. The sixteen padārthas represent a method of intellectual analysis and categorize everything that is knowable and nameable.

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (nyaya)

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—The school of Nyāya (Logicism) which is its sister school (of Vaiśeṣika), adds to these ( pratyakṣa, perception, and anumāna, inference), śabda, verbal testimony (which encompassas revelation and tradition), and upamāna, analogy or comparison.

Source: WikiPedia: Nyāya

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) is an epistemological term and the Nyāya school accepts four means of obtaining knowledge (pramāṇa), viz.,

  1. Perception (pratyakṣa).
  2. Inference (anumāna).
  3. Comparison (upamāna).
  4. Word (śabda).
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to the “instrument” or “means of valid knowledge” and is the first of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”) in the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Pramāṇa gives true knowledge. The Nyāya system assigns utmost importance to pramāṇa. There are four pramāṇas accepted in Nyāyasūtra. These are: pratyakṣa (perception), anumāna (inference), upamāna, (comparison) and śabda (verbal testimony).

In the Nyāyasūtra of Gautama, pramāṇa is the first category. Valid knowledge is called pramā and the means through which this valid knowledge is arrived at is called pramāṇa. Thus pramāṇa is the means or instrument of valid knowledge.

According to Gautama, there are four means of valid knowledge or pramā (pramāṇa) these are:

  1. pratyakṣa (perception),
  2. anumāna (inference),
  3. upamāna (comparison),
  4. śabda (verbal testimony).

Following Gaṅgeśa, Annaṃbhaṭṭa also defines pramā as the experience of a substantive possessed of a particular attribute which is really possessed by it. Annaṃbhaṭṭa has also clearly said that valid experience (yathārthānubhava) is called pramā in scriptures. He has given the example of pramā as the experience ‘This is a pot’ (ayaṃ ghaṭaḥ).

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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)

Source: Wikipedia: Mīmāṃsā

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—Ancient Mīmāṃsā’s central concern was epistemology (pramāṇa), that is what are the reliable means to knowledge. Unlike the Nyāya or the Vaiśeṣika systems, the Prābhākara sub-school of Mīmāṃsā recognizes five means of valid knowledge (pramāṇa). The Bhāṭṭa sub-school of Mīmāṃsā recognizes one additional sixth, namely anuapalabdhi (non-perception), just like Advaita Vedānta school of Hinduism.

These six epistemically reliable means of gaining knowledge are:

  1. pratyakṣa (perception),
  2. anumāṇa (inference),
  3. upamāṇa (comparison and analogy),
  4. arthāpatti (postulation),
  5. anupalabdi (non-perception),
  6. śabda (relying on word)

An interesting feature of the Mimāṃsā school of philosophy is its unique epistemological theory of the intrinsic validity of all cognition as such. It is held that all knowledge is ipso facto true (Skt. svataḥprāmāṇyavāda). Thus, what is to be proven is not the truth of a cognition, but its falsity.

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (mimamsa)

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—The school of Mīmāṃsā expands the scope of pramāṇa even further, to include arthāpatti, hypothesis or presumption, as well as anupalabdhi, non-apprehension. In line with the Mīmāṃsā view, any pramāṇa, as the predetermined reference measurement of an architectural obejct, is self-valid, and therefore, can be theoretically posited.

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Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.

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Samkhya (school of philosophy)

Source: Wikipedia: Samkhya

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण, “proof”) literally means “proof” and “means of knowledge”. Sāmkhya is an enumerationist philosophy whose epistemology accepts three of six pramāṇas (proofs) as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge.

  1. pratyakṣa or dṛṣṭam (direct sense perception),
  2. anumāna (inference),
  3. śabda or āptavacana (verbal testimony of the sages or śāstras).
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Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wikipedia: Vaisheshika

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) is an epistemological term and the Vaiśeṣika school accepts 2 pramāṇas as valid sources of knowledge:

  1. perception (pratyakṣa)
  2. and inference (anumāna)
Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (vaisesika)

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—The school of Vaiśeṣika (Atomism or Particularism) has two modes of pramāṇa that are admitted: pratyakṣa, perception, and anumāna, inference.

Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: WikiPedia: Advaita Vedanta

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) is an epistemological term and in Advaita Vedānta, the following pramanas are accepted:

  1. Pratyakṣa (perception), the knowledge gained by means of the senses;
  2. Anumāṇa (inference), the knowledge gained by means of inference;
  3. Śabda (verbal testimony), the knowledge gained by verbal testimony;
  4. Upamāṇa (comparison), the knowledge gained by means of analogy
  5. Arthāpatti (postulation), the knowledge gained by superimposing the known knowledge on an appearing knowledge that does not concur with the known knowledge;
  6. Anupalabdi (non-cognition), non-apprehension and skepticism in the face of non-apprehension.
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Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—Authority; authoritative proof; cf. लोकः अवश्यं शब्देषु प्रमाणम् (lokaḥ avaśyaṃ śabdeṣu pramāṇam) M. Bh. on I. 2.64 Vart. 29;

2) Pramāṇa.—Measurement, measure; cf. प्रमाणे द्वयसज्दघ्नत्र्मात्रचः (pramāṇe dvayasajdaghnatrmātracaḥ) P. V. 2.37; प्रमाणत (pramāṇata); अकारो गुणः प्राप्तः (akāro guṇaḥ prāptaḥ) Kas. on P. I. 1.50.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to:—Evidence, authority. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Source: The Annals of the Research Project Center for the Comparative Study of Logic: A Study of Rāmānuja’s Theology

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to the three kinds of valid means of knowledge, according to Koki Ishimoto in his paper, A Study of Rāmānuja’s Theology : Three Aspects of viśiṣṭatva of Brahman.—Rāmānuja accepts three kinds of valid means of knowledge (pramāṇa): perception (pratyakṣa), inference (anumāna), and scriptures (śruti). According to him, they have as their objects entities which have their differentiators. If Brahman were devoid of the differentiators, it could not be known at all. Accordingly, it follows that Brahman is qualified by its differentiators.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to the “magnitude of the eclipse”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (the qualifications of) a jyotiṣaka. [...] In solar and lunar eclipses, he must be able to calculate the times of the commencement and end of the eclipses, the places of first and last contact, the magnitude [i.e., pramāṇa] and duration of the eclipse; in total eclipses, he must be able to calculate the time between middle eclipse and the beginning or end of total phase, (this period being technically known as vimarda). He must also know the colour of the eclipsed lunar disc. He must be able to calculate before hand the times of the Moon’s conjunction with the planets as well as of planetary conjunctions”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to “authority”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.13 (“Śiva-Pārvatī dialogue”).—Accordingly, as Pārvatī said to Śiva: “[...] O Yogin, what have I to do with an argument with you? Scholars say that without perception inference has no authority [i.e., pramāṇa] at all. As long as the embodied beings remain the objects of the sense-organs, everything is Prākṛta. Wise men consider it so. O lord of ascetics, a long-winded talk is of no avail. Listen to my emphatic statement. I am Prakṛti and you are Puruṣa. This is the truth. There is no doubt about it. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to the “means of valid knowledge”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī 2.138.—Accordingly, “And [against the thesis of the existence of the external object,] there is not only this [aforementioned] refuting argument (bādhaka) which functions through the means of [valid] knowledge (pramāṇa) [lacking in the case of the external object]; [there is] also [a refuting argument] which functions ‘by itself’ [according to the Vivṛti], that is to say, through the [external object’s] own [nature, or more precisely,] through the awareness arising from the examination of the [contradictory] nature of the object of knowledge (prameya). [...]”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) [=Pramāṇaka?] refers to “measurement”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[The intercourse (saṃga)]:—[...] He should dry brahmamaṇḍūkī together with its roots in the shade. He should mix it with grape-juice, candied sugar and ghee. He should have it three times [a day] for three months in portions measuring a dice (akṣa-pramāṇaka) as food and drink and he should drink milk. His semen will not deteriorate in millions of years if he practises sex [with Māyā]. His [semen] will never ever wane. It is for the rejuvenation of the body, O Priyā. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to the “argument” in Trairāśika (“rule of three”), which represents one of the twenty operations (logistics) of pāṭīgaṇita (“science of calculation which requires the use of writing material—the board”), according to Pṛthudakasvāmī’s commentary on the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta by Brahmagupta, a Sanskrit treatise on ancient Indian mathematics (gaṇita-śāstra) and astronomy from the 7th century.—The Hindu name for the Rule of Three terms is trairāśika (“three terms”, hence “the rule of three terms”).—According to Āryabhaṭa I in the Āryabhaṭīya: “In the Rule of Three, the phala (‘fruit’), being multiplied by the icchā (‘requisition’) is divided by the pramāṇa (‘argument’). The quotient is the fruit corresponding to the icchā. The denominators of one being multiplied with the other give the multiplier (i.e., numerator) and the divisor (i.e., denominator)”.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to “(six) authorities” (of the teaching), according to the Kularatnoddyota verse 1.30-35ab.—Accordingly, “O fair lady, what you are asking about, namely, the most excellent of them all is that special (realisation) that is accomplished by the Command in the Kula tradition. It is the teaching that has come down (to earth and is based on) six authorities (ṣaṣ-pramāṇa-matottīrṇa). It is characterized by the (presence of a true) teacher and god and has come down through the transmission of the tradition by the sequence of teachers and disciples”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Pramana in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to “authority”, according to the 17th century Yogacintāmaṇi by Śivānanda: a large compilation of roughly 3423 verses dealing with the various methods of (Haṭha) Yoga and Aṣṭāṅgayoga.—Accordingly, “Only this Yoga called seedless Samādhi is a means to the goal of the supreme self and without this [Samādhi], there is not even the possibility of liberation. In regard to this, [the following] statements of the Vedas, Dharmaśāstras, Epics, Purāṇas and so on are the authority (pramāṇa)”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Buddhist philosophy

Source: Google Books: A History of Indian Logic (Buddhist Philosophy)

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to the “sources of valid knowledge” (within a debate), according to Upāyakauśalyahṛdaya, an ancient work on the art of debate composed by Bodhisattva Nāgārjuna.—The means, by which the siddhānta (tenets, truths or conclusions) are established, are called pramāṇas (the sources of valid knowledge).

Pramāṇa is of four kinds, viz.

  1. perception (pratyakṣa),
  2. inference (anumāna),
  3. comparison (upamāna) and
  4. scripture (āgama).
Source: Wisdom Experience: Mind (An excerpt from Science and Philosophy)

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to “(the context of a) valid cognition”.—The Indian Buddhist tradition contains an enormous amount of material simply on the question of epistemic reliability, especially in the context of a valid cognition (pramāṇa), which is both reliable and also a motivator of action. The foundational question of epistemic reliability leads to many other nuanced and subtle inquiries that produce the taxonomies in this section of part 1. One intriguing distinction that emerges in these taxonomic analyses is the notion that epistemic reliability can still apply to cognitions that are “mistaken” (bhrānta). Well-formed inferences, for example, are always epistemically reliable, but since they are necessarily conceptual, they are also mistaken. [...]

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to the “span (of one’s life)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “[...] Again, Śāriputra, it is not easy to express the splendor of the virtues of that Tathāgata’s Buddha-field, remaining here with a life-span of a world-age (kalpa-āyus-pramāṇa). Śāriputra, the whole retinue of that Tathāgata reached to thousands of world-sphere, and the congregation of the Bodhisattvas was incalculable’”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण) refers to “means of acquiring knowledge”, according to chapter 2.2 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Note: There are 2 kinds of pramāṇa in this sense: parokṣa, indirect, i.e., it depends on other things; and pratyakṣa, direct.

Accordingly: “[...] The faults—love, hate, delusion—do not exist in an Arhat. The speech of the Arhats is authority originating from a faultless source, perfect with its aspects and means of acquiring knowledge (i.e., pramāṇa), unobstructed by priority and posteriority, not to be refuted by other doctrines even though very powerful, the ocean to the rivers of the many divisions—Aṅgas, Upāṅgas, Prakīrṇas, etc., [...]”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण, “approved knowledge”).—What is valid /comprehensive or approved knowledge (pramāṇa)? The knowledge which knows an object completely and exactly e.g. by saying ‘substances’ (dravya) we talk of all six types of substances like living beings etc. is called pramāṇa. The word crisp (viśada) was used by Ac. Māṇikya Nandi to differentiate between approved and non-approved knowledge.

How many types of approved knowledge are there and what are their names? Pramāṇa is of two types’ namely direct or immediate (pratyakṣa) and indirect or acquired (parokṣa).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pramāṇa.—(EI 6; SII 1; SITI), a document; a title deed. (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXVIII, p. 109), authority; witness. (SII 12), cf. mūla-pramāṇa, original order. Note: pramāṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—n (S) Proof, evidence, authority. Four kinds are enumerated,--pratyakṣa, anumāna, upamāna, śabda Perception by an organ of sense; inference; analogy or comparison; testimony; and (in cases of disputed property) four other kinds, viz. bhōga, lēkha, sākṣya, divya The evidence of actual possession; that of a grant or other written document; that of witnesses to the right; and that of an appeal by ordeal. pramāṇa is further any seat or form of Evidence, or any ground or basis of Evidencing or establishing. Ex. (from vivēkasindhu) arthāpatti upamāna itihāsa pariśēṣādi pramāṇa tayāsī hi svatantra kavaṇa pramāṇa tō bōlēla ||. 2 Support, sanction, warrant, grounds for assurance or admission. Ex. āja pā- ūsa lāgēla asēṃ pra0 nāhīṃ; tō āja yēīla udyā yēīla hēṃ sāṅgavata nāhīṃ tyācē yēṇyācēṃ pra0 nāhīṃ. 3 Ordeal- 4 Definiteness or exactness of amount. Ex. śabda kitī āhēta hyācēṃ pra0 kōṇhāsa lāgalēṃ nāhīṃ; tyā laḍhāīmadhyēṃ kiti mēlīṃ tyācēṃ pra0 lāgata nāhīṃ. 5 Measure, magnitude, quantity: also a dose. 6 A measure (whether of weight, length, capacity, or time). 7 The rule or standard by which a thing is determined, adjusted, or proportioned. 8 The name of that term of the Rule of three which expresses the rate. See trairāśika. naikō ṛṣiryasyavacaḥpramāṇaṃ || &c. A part of the Shlok śrutiśca bhinnā smṛtayaśca bhinnā naikō ṛṣiryasyavacaḥpramāṇaṃ || dharmasyatatvaṃ nihitaṃ guhāyāṃ mahājanō yēna gataḥ sapanthā ||1||- (Inspired authorities differ and) it is not one ṛṣi, if the word of the ṛṣi might stand as pramāṇa, then there are, not one, but many.

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pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—a (For prāmāṇika or, elliptically, for the noun pramāṇa; as hēṃ pramāṇaca āhē or hēñca pramāṇa) True, just, right, authoritative, the measure or standard itself.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—n Proof, evidence. Grounds for assurance. Ordeal. Definiteness. The rule or standard.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—1 A measure in general (of length, breadth &c.); न प्रमाणेन नोत्साहात् सत्त्वस्थो भव पाण्डव (na pramāṇena notsāhāt sattvastho bhava pāṇḍava) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.33.63. ('pramāṇaṃ nityamaryādāsaṃghavādipramādiṣu' Viśva.); Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.222. 31; दृष्टो हि वृण्वन् कलभप्रमाणोऽप्याशाः पुरोवातमवाप्य मेघः (dṛṣṭo hi vṛṇvan kalabhapramāṇo'pyāśāḥ purovātamavāpya meghaḥ) R.18. 38.

2) Size, extent, magnitude.

3) Scale, standard; पृथिव्यां स्वामिभक्तानां प्रमाणे परमे स्थितः (pṛthivyāṃ svāmibhaktānāṃ pramāṇe parame sthitaḥ) Mu.2.21.

4) Limit, quantity; वञ्चयित्वा तु राजानं न प्रमाणेऽवतिष्ठसि (vañcayitvā tu rājānaṃ na pramāṇe'vatiṣṭhasi) Rām.2.37. 22.

5) Testimony, evidence, proof.

6) Authority, warrant; one who judges or decides, one whose word is an authority; श्रुत्वा देवः प्रमाणम् (śrutvā devaḥ pramāṇam) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1 'having heard this your Majesty will decide (what to do)'; आर्यमिश्राः प्रमाणम् (āryamiśrāḥ pramāṇam) M.1; Mu.1.1; सतां हि संदेहपदेषु वस्तुषु प्रमाणमन्तः- करणप्रवृत्तयः (satāṃ hi saṃdehapadeṣu vastuṣu pramāṇamantaḥ- karaṇapravṛttayaḥ) Ś.1.22; व्याकरणे पाणिनिः प्रमाणम् (vyākaraṇe pāṇiniḥ pramāṇam); Manusmṛti 2.13; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.24; sometimes in pl.; वेदाः प्रमाणाः (vedāḥ pramāṇāḥ).

7) A true or certain knowledge, accurate conception or notion.

8) A mode of proof, a means of arriving at correct knowledge; (the Naiyāyikas recognize only four kinds; pratyakṣa, anumāna, upamāna and śabda, the Vedāntins and Mīmāṃsakas add two more, anupalabdhi and arthāpatti; while the Sāṅkhyas admit pratyakṣa, anumāna and śabda only; cf. amubhava also.).

9) Principal, capital.

1) Unity.

11) Scripture, sacred authority.

12) Cause, reason.

13) Rule, sanction, precept.

14) The first term in a rule of three.

15) An epithet of Viṣṇu.

16) Freedom from apprehension.

17) The prosodial lengh of a vowel.

18) An eternal matter; L. D. B.

19) (In music) A measure (such as druta, madhya, vilambita); Rām.1.4.8.

2) The measure of a square.

-ṇaḥ, -ṇī A rule, standard, authority.

Derivable forms: pramāṇam (प्रमाणम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—authority, evidence, rarely (as sometimes in Sanskrit) agreeing in gender with the subject, but in Sanskrit fem. °ṇī according to [Boehtlingk and Roth]; in Lalitavistara 318.19 (verse) iyaṃ (sc. mahī) pramāṇā mama, she (the earth) is my witness; above in 318.10 iyaṃ…pramāṇaṃ (prose; but meter could not be concerned).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. Cause, motive. 2. Limit. 3. Proof, testimony, authority. 4. A scripture, a work of sacred authority. 5. Measure, (whether of weight, length or capacity.) 6. Magnitude, extent. 7. Standard, authority. 8. Correct knowledge, accurate perception, (in logic.) 9. Unity. 10. Quantity. 11. A speaker of the truth. 12. Always, eter- nal. 13. A title of Vishnu. 14. Principal, capital. E. pra before, to measure, aff. lyuṭ; that by which all is measured; this word is generally restricted to the singular number, as vedāḥ pramāṇaṃ the Vedas are the authority; it is also confined to the neuter gender, as puttraḥ pramāṇaṃ the boy is a witness; some exceptions occur however, as pramāṇaḥ puruṣaḥ, pramāṇā strī the man witness, the woman witness; and in the following rule, pratyakṣānumānopamānaśabdāḥ pramāṇāni perception, inference, comparison, and sound, are proofs. According to the Naiyayikas anupalabdhi or non-perception and arthāpatti or the inference from circumstances of the Mimansakas being exempted by them; the Sankhys recognize pratthakṣa, anumāna and śabda only.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—i. e. pra-ma + ana, n. 1. Measure, Pañc, i. [distich] 371; a scale, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 12, M. M.; analogy, [Hitopadeśa] 110, 12; quantity, power, [Pañcatantra] 75, 22. 2. Authority. 3. Decision, a decider, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 61, 8; [Pañcatantra] 30, 18; 34, 10. 4. A work of sacred authority. 5. Proof, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 93; evidence. 6. Cause. 7. Principal. 8. A title of Viṣṇu.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण).—[neuter] measure, scale, standard; extent, size, weight, distance, duration, prosodical length; norm, rule of action, authority; proof, argument (ph.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pramāṇa (प्रमाण):—[from pra-mā] n. (ifc. f(ā). ) measure, scale, standard

2) [v.s. ...] measure of any kind (as size, extent, circumference, length, distance, weight, multitude, quantity, duration), [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Kaṭha-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti] etc. ([instrumental case] ‘on an average’ [Jyotiṣa])

3) [v.s. ...] prosodical length (of a vowel), [Pāṇini 1-1, 50 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

4) [v.s. ...] measure in music, [Mahābhārata] ([Nīlakaṇṭha])

5) [v.s. ...] accordance of the movements in dancing with music and song, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

6) [v.s. ...] measure of physical strength, [Śakuntalā] (cf. [compound] below)

7) [v.s. ...] the first term in a rule of three sum, [Colebrooke]

8) [v.s. ...] the measure of a square id est. a side of it, [Śulba-sūtra]

9) [v.s. ...] principal, capital (opp. to interest), [Colebrooke]

10) [v.s. ...] right measure, standard, authority, [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (pramāṇam bhavatī, ‘your ladyship is the authority or must judge’ [Nalopākhyāna]; in this sense also m. and f. sg. and [plural] e.g. vedāḥ pramāṇāḥ, ‘the Vedas are authorities’ [Mahābhārata]; strī pramāṇī yeṣām, ‘they whose authority is a woman’ [Pāṇini [Scholiast or Commentator]])

11) [v.s. ...] a means of acquiring Pramā or certain knowledge (6 in the Vedānta, viz. pratyakṣa, perception by the senses; anumāna, inference; upamāna, analogy or comparison; śabda or āpta-vacana, verbal authority, revelation; an-upalabdhi or abhāva-pratyakṣa, non-perception or negative proof; arthāpatti, inference from circumstances; the Nyāya admits only 4, excluding the last two; the Sāṃkhya only 3, viz. pratyakṣa, anumāna and śabda; other schools increase the number to 9 by adding sambhava, equivalence; aitihya, tradition or fallible testimony; and ceṣṭā, gesture, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 60 etc. etc.])

12) [v.s. ...] any proof or testimony or evidence, [Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

13) [v.s. ...] a correct notion, right perception (= pramā), [Tarkasaṃgraha]

14) [v.s. ...] oneness, unity, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] = nitya, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] m. (cf. n.) Name of a large fig-tree on the bank of the Ganges, [Mahābhārata]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramāṇa (प्रमाण):—[pra-māṇa] (ṇaṃ) 1. n. Witness, evidence, proof.; scripture.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pramāna (प्रमान) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Pamāṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pramana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pramāṇa (ಪ್ರಮಾಣ):—

1) [noun] measurements in length, width, and height or depth; dimensions.

2) [noun] the relation between two similar magnitudes with respect to the number of times the first contains the second; ratio.

3) [noun] proportional relation; rate; ratio.

4) [noun] the point, line or edge where something ends or must end; limit or limits.

5) [noun] correct or right knowledge.

6) [noun] a rule or regulation.

7) [noun] an intention that causes a person to do something or act in a certain way; a motive; a cause.

8) [noun] a proof, evidence that helps a person getting the correct or right knowledge.

9) [noun] a religious authority or code.

10) [noun] an authority who decides or gives decision settling a dispute; a judge; an umprire.

11) [noun] a period of duration set for something.

12) [noun] the state of the mind that is not affected by any outside agents, circumstances, etc.

13) [noun] (Nyāya phil.) a means of acquiring certain knowledge.

14) [noun] nearness; proximity.

15) [noun] a ritualistic or formal declaration, usu. in the name of a god, revered person, that one will speak the truth, keep a promise, remain faithful, etc.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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