Naya, Ñāya: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Naya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Naya (नय).—The son of Gaya, who was the son of Ananta, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Ananta was the son of Pṛthu, whose ancestral lineage can be traced to Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being. Naya had a son named Virāṭa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Naya (नय).—Is politics; according to Prahlāda, it must be a means to realise Hari;1 persons versed in Naya praise bheda upāya.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VII. 6. 26.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 223. 4 and 16.

1b) A son of Uttama Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 39.

1c) A son of Raucya Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 104.

1d) A son of Kriyā.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 35.

1e) A Sādhya god.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 16.

1f) One of Viśvāmitra's sons.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 91. 96.

1g) One of the 20 Amitābha gaṇas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 17.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)

Naya (नय) or Nayatantra refers to one of the twenty-three Vāmatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Naya-tantra belonging to the Vāma class.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'right method', is often used as a name for the Noble Eightfold Path (s. magga), e.g. in the Satipatthāna Sutta (M. 10, D. 22).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1

1) Naya (नय, “standpoint ”).—What is meant by standpoint /viewpoint (naya)? Cognition of one attribute or partially an entity is called standpoint. It is also defined as the intention of the listener or the speaker with which he /she wants to know / tell. How many types of standpoints are there? These are of two main types called substance viewpoint (dravyārthika-naya) and modal viewpoint (paryāyārthika-naya).

2) Naya (नय, “standpoint ”) are seven in number according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.33. To cognize an entity by looking at its attributes as primary and secondary depending on the intentions of the speaker or listener is called naya. Basically how many types of standpoints are there? There are two types of standpoints, namely: substance stand/viewpoint (dravyārthikanaya) and modal stand/viewpoint (paryāyārthikanaya).

There are seven specific types of viewpoints (naya) accepted in Jain texts. These are

  1. the figurative (naigama),
  2. the synthetic (saṃgraha),
  3. the analytic (vyavahāra),
  4. the straight (ṛjusūtra),
  5. the literal (śabda),
  6. the conventional (samabhirūdha),
  7. the specific activity (evambhūta).

They are sequenced in a manner so that each succeeding viewpoint takes a finer or more subtle view of the entity than by the previous viewpoint.

Source: JAINpedia: Jainism

Naya (नय) refers to “exposition of different aspects viewed from different angles” and represents one of the “four doors” explained in the Anuyogadvārasūtra: a technical treatise on analytical methods, a kind of guide to applying knowledge.—Its title can be understood as meaning ‘the doors of exposition’. This stresses that the text focuses on the ways of approaching and understanding concepts. There are four doors [viz., naya].

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Naya.—(EI 3), argumentation. (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, pp. 318 ff, text lines 26-27), a territorial division like a Pargana. Note: naya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

ñāya : (m.) method; system; right manner.

-- or --

naya : (m.) method; plan; manner; inference; right conclusion.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Naya, (adj. -n.) (from nayati, to lead, see neti) “leading”; usually m: way (fig.), method, plan, manner; inference; sense, meaning (in grammar); behaviour, conduct A. II, 193=Nd2 151 (°hetu through inference); Nett 2 (method), 4 (id.), 7, 113; Miln. 316 (nayena=nayahetu); KhA 74; VvA. 112 (sense, context, sentence); PvA. 1 (ways or conduct), 117 (meaning), 126 (id.), 136, 280.—nayaṃ neti to draw a conclusion, apply an inference, judge, behave S. II, 58=Vbh. 329; J. IV, 241 (anayaṃ nayati dummedho: draws a wrong conclusion); PvA. 227 (+anumināti).—With °ādi° N. has the function of continuing or completing the context= “and similarly, ” e.g. °ādinaya-pavatta dealing with this & the following VvA. 2; ... ti ādinā nayena thus & similarly, & so forth J. I, 81; PvA. 30.—Instr. nayena (-°) as adv. in the way of, as, according(ly): āgata° according to what has been shown or said in ... J. I, 59; VvA. 3; PvA. 280; purima° as before J. I, 59; IV, 140; vutta° as said (above) (cp. vutta-niyāmena) PvA. 13, 29, 36, 71, 92 etc.—sunaya a sound judgment J. IV, 241; dunnaya a wrong principle, method or judgment, or as adj. : wrongly inferred, hard to be understood, unintelligible A. III, 178=Nett 21; J. IV, 241. (Page 347)

— or —

Ñāya, (Sk. nyāya=ni+i) 1. method, truth, system, later =logic: °gantha book on logic Dāvs III, 41.—2. fitness, right manner, propriety, right conduct, often applied to the “right path” (ariyamagga=ariyañāya Vin. I, 10) D. III, 120; S. V, 19, 141, 167 sq. , 185; A. II, 95; IV, 426; V, 194; Dh. I, 249; ariya ñ. S. II, 68; V, 387; = the causal law S. V, 388; =kalyāṇa-kusala-dhammatā A. II, 36; used in apposition with dhamma and kusala D. II, 151; M. II, 181, 197; is replaced herein by sacca S. I, 240; =Nibbāna at Vism. 219, 524; ñ. -paṭipanna walking in the right path S. V, 343; A. II, 56; III, 212, 286; V, 183. (Page 288)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

naya (नय).—m S Ethics. 2 Guiding or leading. 3 Polity, government, direction (of a state or body).

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nāya (नाय).—f A plant, Sphæranthus Indicus. Pr. nāya niragūḍa mākā hyā tihīñcā ghēijē phāṅkā āṇi uḍavā- ijē paḍalaṅkā. 2 A particular creeping plant.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

naya (नय).—m Ethics. Leading. Direction (of a state or body).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Naya (नय).—a. [nī bhāve ac]

1) Leading, conducting.

2) A guide.

3) Suitable, right, proper.

-yaḥ 1 Guiding, leading, managing.

2) (a) Behaviour, course of conduct, conduct, way of life as in दुर्नय (durnaya). सितोन्नतेनैव नयेन हृत्वा कैलासशैलस्य यदग्रशोभाम् (sitonnatenaiva nayena hṛtvā kailāsaśailasya yadagraśobhām) Bu. Ch.1.3. (b) Prudent or righteous conduct, virtue. नयानयौ दण्डनीत्याम् (nayānayau daṇḍanītyām) Kau. A.1.2.

3) Prudence, foresight, circumspection; तत् तासामुपशान्तये सुमतिभिः कार्यो विशेषान्नयः (tat tāsāmupaśāntaye sumatibhiḥ kāryo viśeṣānnayaḥ) Pt.1.371;3.176.

4) Policy, political wisdom, statesmanship, civil administration, state-policy; नयप्रचारं व्यवहारदुष्टताम् (nayapracāraṃ vyavahāraduṣṭatām) Mk.1.7; नयगुणोप- चितामिव भूपतेः सदुपकारफलां श्रियमर्थिनः (nayaguṇopa- citāmiva bhūpateḥ sadupakāraphalāṃ śriyamarthinaḥ) R.9.27; नयशालिभिः (nayaśālibhiḥ) Mu.1.22.

5) Morality, justice, rectitude, equity; चलति नयान्न जिगीषतां हि चेतः (calati nayānna jigīṣatāṃ hi cetaḥ) Ki.1.29;2.3;6.38;16.42.

6) A plan, design, scheme; हितैः साधुसमाचारैः शास्त्रज्ञैर्मतिशालिभिः । कथंचिन्न विकल्पन्ते विद्वद्भिश्चिन्तिता नयाः (hitaiḥ sādhusamācāraiḥ śāstrajñairmatiśālibhiḥ | kathaṃcinna vikalpante vidvadbhiścintitā nayāḥ) || Pt.1.339;377; Mu.6.11;7.9.

7) A maxim, principle.

8) Course, method, manner.

9) A system, doctrine, opinion.

1) A philosophical system; वैशेषिके नये (vaiśeṣike naye) Bhāṣā P.15.

11) Name of Viṣṇu.

12) A kind of game.

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Nāya (नाय).—[nī-kartari ṇa]

1) A leader, guide.

2) Guiding, directing.

3) Policy, prudence; यात यूयं यमश्रायं दिशं नायेन दक्षिणाम् (yāta yūyaṃ yamaśrāyaṃ diśaṃ nāyena dakṣiṇām) Bk.7.36.

4) Means, expedient; नायः कोऽत्र स येन स्यां बताहं विगतज्वरः (nāyaḥ ko'tra sa yena syāṃ batāhaṃ vigatajvaraḥ) Bk.6.82.

Derivable forms: nāyaḥ (नायः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naya (नय).—mfn.

(-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) 1. Fit, right, proper. 2. Leading, conducting, (who or what does so.) m. (yaḥ) 1. Guiding, directing, (literally or figuratively, as in morals, &c.) 2. Polity, civil and military government. 3. The theological part of the Vedas. 4. A sort of dice or men for playing with. 5. A guide, a conductor. E. nay to go, affix ghañ, or ṇī to guide, &c. affix bhāve ac .

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Nāya (नाय).—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Guiding, directing, (morally or physically.) 2. Policy. 3. Obtaining. 4. Means, expedient. E. ṇī to guide, &c. affix ṇa or ghañ; also with ac affix naya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naya (नय).—i. e. nī + a, m. 1. Leading, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 1, 21. 2. Conduct, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 7346; way of life, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 20, 191. 3. Prudent conduct, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 19. 4. Prudence, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 7, 9; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 198, 6 (read tvannaya evātra bhūyān, Thy prudence is here of greater weight). 5. Policy, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 159. 6. Design, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 358. 7. Philosophical system, Bhāṣāp. 16. 8. Prudent conduct personified as son of Dharma by Kriyā, Mārk. P. 50, 26. 9. A proper name, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 489.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naya (नय).—[masculine] leading (of an army), conduct, behaviour, way of life, policy, worldly or political wisdom.

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Nāya (नाय).—[masculine] leader, guide; (wise) conduct, policy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Naya (नय):—m. (√1. ) leading (of an army), [Rāmāyaṇa]

2) conduct, behaviour, ([especially]) prudent c° or b°, good management, polity, civil and military government, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) wisdom, prudence, reason (naya [in the beginning of a compound] or nayeṣu, in a prudent manner, [Mahābhārata]), [Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) plan, design, [Mahābhārata; Pañcatantra; Kathāsaritsāgara]

5) leading thought, maxim, principle, system, method, doctrine, [Rāmāyaṇa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Bhāṣāpariccheda; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

6) a kind of game and a sort of dice or men for playing it, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Name of a son of Dharma and Kriyā, [Purāṇa]

8) of a son of 13th Manu, [Harivaṃśa]

9) guide, conductor, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) mfn. fit, right, proper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Nāya (नाय):—m. (√) a leader, guide, [Ṛg-veda vi, 24, 10; 46, 11] (proper Name [Sāyaṇa]; cf. aśva-, go-)

12) guidance, direction, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) policy, means, expedient, [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya [Scholiast or Commentator]]

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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